• Title, Summary, Keyword: COD removal

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Enhanced and Balanced Microalgal Wastewater Treatment (COD, N, and P) by Interval Inoculation of Activated Sludge

  • Lee, Sang-Ah;Lee, Nakyeong;Oh, Hee-Mock;Ahn, Chi-Yong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1434-1443
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    • 2019
  • Although chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important issue for wastewater treatment, COD reduction with microalgae has been less studied compared to nitrogen or phosphorus removal. COD removal is not efficient in conventional wastewater treatment using microalgae, because the algae release organic compounds, thereby finally increasing the COD level. This study focused on enhancing COD removal and meeting the effluent standard for discharge by optimizing sludge inoculation timing, which was an important factor in forming a desirable algae/bacteria consortium for more efficient COD removal and higher biomass productivity. Activated sludge has been added to reduce COD in many studies, but its inoculation was done at the start of cultivation. However, when the sludge was added after 3 days of cultivation, at which point the COD concentration started to increase again, the algal growth and biomass productivity were higher than those of the initial sludge inoculation and control (without sludge). Algal and bacterial cell numbers measured by qPCR were also higher with sludge inoculation at 3 days later. In a semi-continuous cultivation system, a hydraulic retention time of 5 days with sludge inoculation resulted in the highest biomass productivity and N/P removal. This study achieved a further improved COD removal than the conventional microalgal wastewater treatment, by introducing bacteria in activated sludge at optimized timing.

Electrochemical Oxidation of Textile Wastewater by Ru$O_{2}$/Ti Anode (Ru$O_{2}$/Ti 전극에 의한 염색폐수의 전기화학적 산화처리)

  • 김탁현;박철환;배우근;신응배;김상용
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.366-372
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    • 2001
  • The characteristics of electrochemical oxidation of textile wastewater by RuO$_2$/Ti electrode were studied. Operation parameters such as current density, electrolyte concentration, organics concentration in solution, types of electrolyte, and material of anode were selected and their effects on COD removal, color removal, and current efficiency(EOI) were investigated. COD removal showed a first-order reaction kineties. COD and color removal of textile wastewater were proportional to current density and electrolyte concentration, respectively, but disproportional to organics concentration. Especially, COD removal color removal, and current efficiency were highly improved by appling electrolytes containing Cl$^{[-10]}$ ions such as NaCl and KCl. In addition, RuO$_2$/Ti anode was relatively more effective than Pt/Ti anode for COD removal, color removal, and current efficiency.

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Removing High Concentration Organic Matters by Using Electrolysis (전기분해에 의한 고농도 유기물질 제거 특성)

  • Gil, Dae-Soo;Lee, Byung-Hun;Lee, Jea-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.251-264
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    • 2000
  • Organic removal from synthetic wastewater by electrochemical methods was investigated with various operating parameters, such as current density, retention time, electrode gap and $Cl^-/COD_{Cr}$ ratio. In electrolysis, dioxide iridium coated titanium ($IrO_2/Ti$) and stainless steel plate were used for anode and cathode respectively. The $COD_{Cr}$ removal efficiencies between plate type anode and net type anode were about same effect, but electrolytic power using net type anode is low than plate type anode. The $Cl^-/COD_{Cr}$ ratio was about $1.3kgCl^-/kgCOD_{Cr}$ when organic removal obtained 70 %, $Cl^-/COD_{Cr}$ ratio needs $2.2kgCl^-/kgCOD_{Cr}$ so as to organic completely remove. The removal efficiency of organics increased with current density, retention time and $Cl^-/COD_{Cr}$ ratio, but decreased with increasing electrode gap. The relationship of operating conditions and $COD_{Cr}$ removal efficiencies are as follows. $$COD_{Cr}(%)=80.0360(Current\;density)^{0.4451}{\times}(HRT)^{0.8102}{\times}(Gap)^{-0.4915}{\times}(Cl^-/COD_{Cr})^{0.5805}$$ There existed a competition between the removals for $COD_{Cr}$ and ammonium during electrolysis, the removal of ammonium was shown to be dominant and $COD_{Cr}$ removal was low. But $COD_{Cr}$ removal was raised as addition of alkalinity.

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Characteristics of COD Removal in the Electrolytic Treatment of Dyeing-Wastewater (전기분해에 의한 염색폐수의 COD 제거 특성)

  • 강광남;윤용수
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 1998
  • The characteristics of color and COD removal for dyeing-wastewater using electrochemical reaction were investigated. >From the result, the removal efficiency of color and COD were increased with increase of temperature, decrease of electrode distance, increase of electrolyte concentration and increase of potential and these were obtained above 99%, above 75% within 30 min, individually. Cause of higher COD removal efficiency, it is more suitable that dyeing-wastewater is treated by electrolytic treatment prior to biological treatment. It is concluded that the electrolytic treatment of dyeing-wastewater can be used as the effective and economical method in practical treatment.

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Substrate Removal Condition in Activated Sludge Process of Wastewater from Acetaldehyde Manufacturing Plant (Acetaldehyde폐수의 활성오이법에 의한 기질제거조건)

  • 금영일;금두조
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 1993
  • This study is conducted to investigate treatability by activated sludge process for wastewater from acetaldehyde manufacturing plant. The optimum hydraulic retention time in aeration tank for removal of high strength substrate were measured. The removal efficiency were checked out by hydraulic retention time : 35hr., 40hr. and 45hr., respectively. $COD_{Cr}$, like substances were removed in all hydraulic retention time zone directed for efficiency, but non-biodegradable substances were remained. $COD_{Cr}$ biomass loading was 0.81kg $COD_{Cr}/kgMLVSS$ . day at 35hr. of retention time, 0.34 kg$COD_{Cr}$/kg MLVSS . day at 40hr., and O.l9kg$COD_Cr$/kgMLVSS . day at 45hr. And the mean $COD_{Cr}$, removal efficiency was 65.5%, 81.6% and 83.0%, respectively. And also $COD_{Cr}$, volume loading was 1.01kg$COD_{Cr}/m^3$ day, 0.87kg$COD_{Cr}/m^3$ - day, and 0.79kg$COD_{Cr}/m^3{\cdot }$day, respectively. The basic design parameter obtained is as fallows. The value of Specific substrate removal rate coefficient (k), Yield coefficient(Y) and Decay coefficient($k_d$) was $0.0013day^{-1}$, $0.505kgMLVSS/kgCOD_{Cr}$ and $0.040day^{-1}$, respectively.

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COD Removal of Rhodamine B from Aqueous Solution by Electrochemical Treatment

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.655-659
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    • 2012
  • This study elucidates the COD removal of dye (Rhodamine B) through electrochemical reaction. Effects of current density (7.2 to 43.3 $mA/cm^2$), electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl, $Na_2SO_4$, HCl), electrolyte concentration (0.5 to 2.0 g/L), air flow rate (0 to 4 L/min) and pH (3 to 11) on the COD removal of Rhodamine B were investigated. The observed results showed that the increase of pH decrease the COD removal efficiency. Whereas, the increase of current density;NaCl concentration and air flow rate caused the increase of the COD removal of Rhodamine B.

Study on the optimum operation system of Sequencing Batch Reactor (연속 회분식 반응조의 최적 운전시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Eom, Tae Kyu;Ko, Eun Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 1999
  • SBR process used to evaluate the removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus on the basis of a report of research on a precedence at various operation cycle and condition change. Effluent concentration of COD were 50mg/l, 50mg/l, 90mg/l respectively, The removal rates of COD were nearly over 95% at Run 1, 2 and 4. But at Run 3, Effluent concentration of COD was 255.0mg/l, The removal rate of COD was 87% at Run 3. As Oxic/Anoxic rate was fixed and operating cycle of Oxic/Anoxic was changed, the removal rates of T-N were 74.7%, 46.9%, 28.5%, 63.3% respectively at Run 1~4. The case of Run 1 was best result. The removal rates of T-P was appeared in proportion to T-N removal rates and rest of $NO_2-N$. The removal rates of T-P were 51.2%, 35.5%, 41.5%, 51.9% respectively. The removal rates of COD, T-N, T-P were influenced on the change of SBR operation cycle. As organic loading rate was $1.43kgCOD/m^3day$ and C/N ratio was 3.0, operation cycle of Run 1 was best condition of T-N removal rates and T-P removal.

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On the Recycling Substances and a Clean Technology Development for the Treatment of Mixed Acid Waste Water with Ozone (오존을 이용한 혼산폐수처리에 관한 청정기술개발 및 재이용 물질 회수에 관한 연구)

  • 김재우
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2000
  • In the tungsten industry, molybdenum wire which used as the center supporter for coil shape tungsten wire was removed. Nitric acid dissolution method which used prevalently up to the present, takes nitric acid as major component and use noxious material such as sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid remove molybdenum wire which used as center supporter by dissolve selectively within the range of no damage on tungsten wire. Mixed acid waste water occurred to the process were difficult to be decomposed by the conventional methords. This mixed acid waste water was treated by ozone, and It was obtained using possible by-product through the treatment waste water. For the three reactors with the same volume ; Blank reactor, Disturbance plate reactor, Packed-bed reactor ; the results were as follows : For the blank reactor COD removal efficiency in the pH = 4 (HRT : 6hr) was 28.5%, COD removal efficiency in the pH = 7 (HRT : 6hr) was 28.6%, and COD removal efficiency in the pH = 10 (HRT : 6hr) was 27.8%. For the disturbance plate reactor COD removal efficiency in the pH = 4 (HRT : 6Min.) was 86.5%, COD removal efficiency in the pH =7 (HRT : 6Min.) was 84.4%, and COD removal efficiency in the pH = 10 (HRT : 60Min.) was 86.8%. For the packed-bed reactor COD removal efficiency in the pH = 4 (HRT : 40Min.) was 76.0%, COD removal efficiency in the pH = 7 (HRT : 40Min.) was 81.3%, and COD removal efficiency in the pH = 10 (HRT : 40Min.) was 84.6%. After O3 treatment using possible by-product(Na2SO4) was 150g/ℓ.

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A Study on Aerobic Fluidized-Bed Biofilm Reactor for Treating Industrial Wastewaters(III) -Mathematical model for organic removal- (산업폐수처리를 위한 호기성 생물막 유동층 반응기의 연구(III) -유기물 제거에 관한 수학적 모델-)

  • 안갑환;박상준;송승구
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 1993
  • A mathematical model for organic removal efficiency was investigated in a fluidized bed biofilm reactor by changing the feed flow rate, the residence time and the recycle flow rate. In batch experiment, organic removal could be assumed as first order and an intrinsic first order rate constant(k1) was found $6.4{\times}^{-6}cm^3/mg{\cdot}sec$ at influent COD range of 3040 - 6620 mg/L. In continuous experiment, at the condition of the influent COD, 3040 mg/L, the superficial upflow velocity, 0.47 cm/sec, the biofilm thickness 336 ${\mu}m$ and the biofilm dry density 0.091 g/mL, the calculated COD removal efficiency from the mathematical model gave 60% which was very close to the observed value of 66 %. As the feed flow rate was increased, the COD removal efficiency was sharply decreased and at constant feed flow rate, the COD removal efficiency was decreased also as the residence time being decreased.

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Treatment of Distillery Wastewater Using a Thermophilic High-Rate Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor in Industrial Scale

  • Nam, Ki-Du;Chung, In;Young, James C.;Park, Wan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.737-743
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    • 1999
  • A conventional thermophilic anaerobic digester was converted into a thermophilic high-rate hybrid anaerobic reactor (THAR) for treating distillery wastewater. The THAR has been operating successfully since May 1995 at a loading rate of 5.45 to $11.52{\;}kg/\textrm{m}^3/d$ (maximum of 15.02). The THAR has demonstrated a soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD) removal efficiency of 85 to 91% and a total COD (tCOD) removal efficiency of as much as 72 to 84%. Product gas had a methane content of 59 to 68%. The tCOD removal rates were 4.31 to 5.43, 6.26 to 6.89, and 9.03 to $9.78kg{\;}tCOD/\textrm{m}^3/d$ for tapioca, com, and naked-barley wastewater, respectively. The sCOD removal rates ranged from 3.75 to 4.79,3.28 to 4.89, and 5.57 to 6.21kg $sCOD/\textrm{m}^3/d$ for tapioca, com, and naked-barley wastewater, respectively. There were unknown substances in a naked-barley distillery wastewater that were identified as being toxic for microorganisms. However, the THAR treated naked-barley wastewater continuously for 26 days, operating at an average tCOD loading of $11.08{\;}kg/\textrm{m}^3/d$without any signs of deterioration in either COD removal efficiency or gas production rate. During this period, the average removal efficiencies of tCOD and sCOD were 84% and 91%, respectively, and the gas production rate averaged 6.61 to $7.57{\;}\textrm{m}^3/\textrm{m}^3$ reactor/d which produced 0.57 to $0.69{\;}\textrm{m}^3{\;}biogas/kg{\;}tCOD_{rem}$. From tapioca and com wastewater, the reactor showed an average gas production rate of 3.18 to 3.46 and 4.91 to $5.22{\;}\textrm{m}^3/\textrm{m}^3$ reactor/d which produced 0.53 to 0.69 and 0.62 to $0.71{\;}\textrm{m}^3/kg{\;}tCOD_{rem}$, respectively.

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