• Title, Summary, Keyword: COD reduction

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The Appropriate Treatment and Reuse Ability Assessment of Pigment Wastewater by Physical, Chemical, and Biological Process (물리, 화학 및 생물학적 방법에 의한 안료폐수의 적정처리 및 재이용 가능성 평가)

  • 정종식;옥치상
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of plgment wastewater and the removal rates of appropriate treatment by physical, chemical and biological Process, and the possibility of reuse for effluent. Based on the results, the wastewater qualities of pigment were pH 5.1$\pm$3.4, temperature 43.0$\pm$ 15.$0^{\circ}C$, BOD 1,431.4$\pm$589.6mg/l, COD 2,282.8$\pm$466.5mg/l, turbidity 1,340$\pm$820NTU, color 243.0$\pm$147.0unit, Pb 36.5$\pm$9.5mg/l and $Cr^+6$ 10.3$\pm$ 1.3mg/l, respectively. The removal rates of adsorption by activated carbon and filter process were BOD 40.6% , COD 57.0% , turbidity 89.6%, color 87.2%, Pb 86.0% and $Cr^+6$ 10.6%, respectively. And the removal rates of reduction, neutralization, coagulation and aP floatation process were BOD 18.2%, COD 24.3%, turbidity 74.3%, color 56.7%, Pb 68.6% and $Cr^+6$ 97.8%, respectively. The removal rates of activated sludge process were BOD 95.9%, COD 86.0%, turbidity 27.8%, color 25. 2%. Pb 26.9% and $Cr^+6$ 50.0% , respectively. The total removal rates of treatment by physical, chemical and biological process were BOD 98.0% , COD 95.4%, turbidity 98.1%, color 95.8%, Pb 97.0% and $Cr^+6$ 99.0%, respectively. According to the test results for possibility of reuse with coagulation-adsorption by activated carbon process of effluent, COD was higher than that of raw water and others were similar to that of raw water thus, it Is considered to be reused.

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The Treatment of Slurry-type Swine Waste using UASB Reactor (UASB 공정에 의한 슬러리형 돈사폐수의 처리)

  • Won, Chul-Hee;Kim, Byoung-Ug;Han, Dong-Joon;Rim, Jay-Myoung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.583-588
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    • 2004
  • This research examined the treatment efficiency and methane production rate in treating slurry-type swine waste using UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated at an organics volumetric loading rate (VLR) of $2.6-15.7kgCOD/m^3/day$. A stepwise increase of the VLR resulted in a temporary deterioration in the COD removal rate in UASB reactor but recovered quickly. The COD removal rate were 65-70% for VLR up to $5 kgCOD/m^3/day$. When organics VLR was $10kgCOD/m^3/day$, the COD removal rate decreased sharply and there was loss of 17.537g of the seeding biomass due to sludge washout. This result indicated that the UASB system cannot be adapted to more than $10kgCOD/m^3/day$ of VLR. As the organic load increased from 2.6 to $15.7kgCOD/m^3/d$, the biogas production rate varied from 3.2 to 10.8 L/d and the methane conversion rate of the organic matter varied from 0.30 to $0.23m^3CH_4/kg\;COD_{removed}$. The methane content showed the range of 70.1-81.5% during the experimental period. The volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency was similar at the low VLR (< $5 kgCOD/m^3/day$), but it decreased sharply at the high VLR (> $5 kgCOD/m^3/day$). The VS reduction rate was, moreover, large those of COD. The result shows that hydraulic retention time above 2 days is essential in case of treating wastewater containing 1% of solids.

미세조류의 Methane 발효특성

  • 강창민;최명락
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.597-603
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to examine degradation characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in methane fermentation. We measured COD and VS reduction, gas and methane productivity, VFA (volatile fatty acid), respectively. Then we calculated material balance and hydrolysis rates in soluble and solid material. The substrate concentration was controlled from 14 gCOD$_{cr}$/l to 64 gCOD$_{cr}$/l in batch cultures, and HRT (hydraulic retention time) controlled from 2 days to 30 days in continuous experi- ments. The results were as follows. In batch culture, accumulated gas productivity increased with the increase of the substrate concentration. The SS and VSS was removed all about 30% increase of substrate concentration and the most of the degradable material removed during the first 10 days. The curve of gas and methane production rate straightly increased until substrate concentration is 26 gCOD$_{cr}$/l. In continuous culture experiments, the removal rates at HRT 10days were 20% for total COD and TOC, respectively. At longer HRT, there was no increase in the removal efficiency. At HRT 15 days, the removal rates were 30% for SS and VSS, respectively. Soluble organic materials were rapidly degraded, and so there was no accumulated. Soluble COD concentration was not increase regardless of HRT-increasing. That meaned the hydrolysis was one of the rate-limiting stage of methane fermentation. The first-order rate constants of hydrolysis were 0.23-0.28 day$^{-1}$ for VSS, and 0.07-0.08 day$^{-1}$ for COD.

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Estimation of Total Allowable Pollutant Loads Using Eco-hydrodynamic Modeling for Water Quality Management on the Southern Coast of Korea (생태계 모델에 의한 총허용 오염부하량 산정을 통한 연안해역의 수질관리)

  • Lee, Dae-In;Kim, Jong-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2007
  • For effective management of water quality on the southern coast of korea, a three-dimensional eco-hydrodynamic model is used to predict water quality in summer and to estimate the reduction rate in pollutant loads that would be required to restore water quality. Under the current environmental conditions, in particular, pollutant loadings to the study area were very high, chemical oxygen demand (COD) exceeded seawater quality criteria to comply with current legislation, and water quality was in a eutrophic condition. Therefore, we estimated reduction rates of current pollutant loads by modeling. The model reproduced reasonably the flow field and water quality of the study area. If the terrestrial COD, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loads were reduced by 90%, the water quality criteria of Region A were still not satisfied. However, when the nutrient loads from polluted sediment and land were each reduced by 70% simultaneously, COD and $Chl-{\alpha}$ were restored. When we reduced the input COD and nutrient loads from the Nakdong River by 80%, $Chl-{\alpha}$ and COD of Region B decreased below $10\;{\mu}g\;1^{-1}$ and $2\;mg\;1^{-1}$, respectively. The water quality criteria of Region C were satisfied when we reduced the terrestrial COD and nutrient loads by 70%. Total allowable loadings of COD and inorganic nutrients in each region were determined by multiplying the reduction rates by current pollutant loads. Estimated high reduction rates, although difficult to achieve at the present time under the prevailing environmental conditions, suggest that water pollution is very severe in this study area, and pollutant loads must be reduced within total allowable loads by continuous and long-term management. To achieve the reduction in pollutant loads, sustainable countermeasures are necessary, including the expansion of sewage and wastewater facilities, polluted sediment control and limited land use.

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Analysis of Methane from Screened Soil of Closed Landfill and Application of Landfarming for the Reduction of the Methane (사용종료 매립지 선별토양의 메탄 발생 분석 및 토양경작기술 적용 효과 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung;Yang, Jae-Kyu;Chang, Yoon-Young
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2010
  • In this study, methane production by reuse of screened soil of landfill was estimated and the effect of application of landfarming for the reduction of methane was investigated. The study soil sampled from S closed landfill contains VS 9.8~12.8% and its BOD/COD is 0.31~0.33 which is more than three times over 0.1, the BOD/COD stabilization criteria of Ministry of Environment. The effective remediation technology for the reduction of organics of soil, landfarming was applied to the screened soil for 60 days. VS and TPH removal showed 5.2~8.3% and 67~74% respectively, and the reduction of VS until 30 day charged 70% of the total reduction. BMP test showed 27.77~30.46 mL $CH_4$/g VS and total methane production from total screened soil for remediation is expected about 260.4 $CH_4$ ton. Expected amount of methane production of the screened soil by landfarming application is 12.9 $CH_4$ ton, which shows 95% gas reduction effect and landfarming is effective for the reduction of methane production from screened soil of landfill.

Treatment of reactive dyes wastewater by electrochemical method (전기화학적인 방법에 의한 반응성 염료폐수의 처리)

  • Yu, Jae-Jeong;Jeon, Seong-Hwan;Park, Jeong-Min;Jeong, Jae-Ho;Park, Sang-Jeong;Min, Kyung-Sok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2002
  • Reactive dyes waste water, a toxic and refractory pollutant, was treated by an electrochemical method using $Ti/IrO_2$ as anode and Stainless Steel 316 as cathode. In this technique, sodium chloride as an electrolyte was added. A number of experiments were run in a batch system. Artificial samples (reactive blue 19, red 195, yellow 145) were used. Operation parameters, such as supporting electrolyte concentration, current density, pH and sample concentration have been investigated for their influences on COD and color removal efficiencies during electrolysis. After 5 and 90 minites of eletrolysis, color was reduced by 51.5% and 98.9% respectively. Under the condition of current density $10A/dm^2$, NaCl concentration 12mg/l and pH 3, 62.9% of $COD_{Cr}$ was removed after electrolysis for 90 minites. The optimum condition of color removal and COD reduction in this work was found to be the following : pH 3, sodium chloride concentration 20g/l, current density $10A/dm^2$. As a result, we confirmed to be effective to color removal and reduction of refractory organic material.

Study on water quality management of lake Pyeungtaek for the reduction of pollutant loadings in upstream watersheds (상류 유역의 오염부하량 삭감에 따른 평택호 수질관리 보존 대책 연구)

  • Hwang, Byung-Gi
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1465-1472
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    • 2011
  • Water quality surveys has been performed to establish water quality improvement strategy for the lake Pyeungtaek, and WASP model was used to simulate to identify the effect of water quality improvement according to the reduction of pollutant loadings for the upstream watersheds. Assuming that present loadings was continued up to the future, the water quality of the lake was found to be getting worse resulting from the increase of pollutants due to the planned future development. In this study, we made various scenarios to predict the future water quality, scenario 6 made a large contribution to improve the lake water quality compared to others. Even the scenario 6, COD concentration of year 2016 in the lake was examined to be under the 4th rate of water quality level for the lake (COD less than 8 mg/L), similar to year 2021. Even though additional reduction of loadings for the scenario 6 was made, the water quality in lake was a little improvement, and was though to be inappropriate action in the economic point of view.

Inference of Sequencing Batch Reactor Process using Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP profile을 이용한 연속 회분식 반응기(Sequencing Batch Reactor)에서 무산소공정 추론)

  • Sim, Mun Yong;Bu, Gyeong Min;Im, Jeong Hun;U, Hye Jin;Kim, Chang Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2004
  • The SBR(Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is ideally suited to treat high loading wastewater due to its high dilution rate. SBR operates by a cycle of periods consisting of filling, reacting, settling, decanting and idling. The react phases such as aeration or non-aeration, organic oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and other bio-logical reactions can be achieved in a reactor. Although the whole reactions can be achieved in a SBR with time distributing, it is hard to manage the SBR as a normal condition without recognizing a present state. The present state can be observed with nutrient sensors such as ${NH_{4}}^{+}-N$, ${NO_{2}}^{-}-N$, ${NO_{3}}^{-}-N} and ${PO_{4}}^{ 3-}-P.$ However, there is still a disadvantage to use the nutrient sensors because of their high expense and inconvenience to manage. Therefore, it is very useful to use common on-line sensors such as DO, ORP and pH, which are less expensive and more convient. Moreover, the present states and unexpected changes of SBR might be predicted by using of them. This study was conducted to get basic materials for making an inference of SBR process from ORP(oxidation reduction potential) of synthetic wastewater. The profiles of ORP, DO, and pH were under normal nitrification and denitrification were obtained to compare abnormal condition. And also, nitrite and nitrate accumulation were investigated during reaction of SBR. The bending point on ORP profile was not entirely in the low COD/NOx ratio condition. In this case, NOx was not entirely removed, and minimum ORP value was presented over -300mV. Under suitable COD/NOx ratio which complete denitrification was achieved, ORP bending point was observed and minimum ORP value was under -300m V. Under high COD/NOx ratio, ORP bending point was not detected at the first subcycle because of the fast denitrification and minimum ORP value was under -300mV at the time.

Reduction Efficiency of the Stormwater Wetland from Animal Feeding-Lot (강우유출수 처리목적 인공습지의 강우시 오염물질 저감특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kisoo;Niu, Siping;Kim, Youngchul
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2013
  • Stormwater wetland targeted to treat the rainfall runoff from cow feeding-lot basin has been monitored from May 2010 to November 2011. Reduction efficiency estimated based on 20 rainfall event monitoring was 88%, 54%, 70%, 31%, and 64% for TSS, BOD, $COD_{Cr}$, TN, and TP, respectively. Theoretically, as rainfall depth increases, hydraulic exchange ratio has to be increased. When the exchange ratio approaches to 1 (usually design goal), TSS reduction efficiency was estimated about 55%. Uncertainty in reduction efficiency of the stormwater wetland is normally very high due to the continuous rainfall activity, its magnitude and intensity, antecedent dry days, and other natural variables which can not be controlled by experiment conductors. In this study, predominant affecting variables was found to be hydraulics caused by consecutive rainfall events having different intensity and algal growth during dry days.

COD Reduction and Process Optimization of Waste Water from the Paper-mill (제지폐수의 COD 저감 및 처리공정 최적화에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Dong Ho;Lee, Yong Taek
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.693-697
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    • 2005
  • We researched in the optimization of unit process and the stabilization of discharged water quality through the treatment of the occurrence of wastewater classified by place of production which has high COD load and non degradable COD load in paper industry. As the result, using polymer, inorganic flocculants and alum at the same time is effective to advance the COD value through the colloid material removal with SS in the first treatment process. Moreover, it is determined to keep optimum of $FeCl_2/H_2O_2$ in the concentration of 1000 ppm in the ratio of 1/1. Because It is confirmed that to input excess chemicals using Fenton oxidation method gives adverse effect to water quality.