• Title, Summary, Keyword: COD/sulfide

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Study on Bottom Mud of Shellfish Farms in Jinhae Bay (진해만 패류양식장의 저질에 관한 연구)

  • CHO Chang-Hwan;YANG Han-Serb;PARK Kyung-Yang;YOUM Mal-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1982
  • Phaeophytin, COD, ignition loss and sulfide contents in the superficial bottom muds in Jinhae Bay, one of the most productive bays in the southern coastal waters of Korea, were measured in the summer season 1981 to investigate the eutrophication level and the origin of pollutants, Phaeophytin contents were $7.6-48.2{\mu}g/g$, COD 9.7-38.5 mg/g, ignition loss $8.1-14.2\%$ and sulfide 0.05-1.07 mg/g. Horizontal distributions in quantities of aforementioned four parameters were almost sane patterns; that is, the further from the mouth of the bay, the more quantities were found. The worst area was the western part of Gajo-do, where density of shellfish farms was the highest in the whole bay. COD and sulfide contents in the western part of Gajo-do were much more than maximum level of the eutrophicated zone, say 30 mg/g in COD and 0.2 mg/g in sulfide. Such great quantities of organic matters and sulfide in the innermost part of the bay would be mainly due to excrements from shellfishes and fouling organisms, but not owing to the influence of pollutants discharged from Masan, Jinhae harbour and its vicinity.

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Spatio-temporal Distribution of Organic Matters in Surface Sediments and Its Origin in Deukryang Bay, Korea (득량만 표층퇴적물 중 유기물의 시.공간적 분포 및 기원)

  • 윤양호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.735-744
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    • 2003
  • The field observations on a seasonal characteristic of organic matter and its origin in the surface sediment were carried out at 35 stations in Deukryang bay, southern coast of Korean Peninsula from May 1995 to February 1996. The analytical parameters were mud temperature, ignition loss(IL), chemical oxygen demand(COD), pheopigment, sulfide and water content. The origin and seasonal dynamics of organic matter in Deukryang Bay were analyzed by COD/IL, COD/sulfide ratio and principal component analysis(PCA). As a results of the mud temperature fluctuated between 2.1$^{\circ}C$ with the lowest mean 4.6$^{\circ}C$ in winter and 27.6$^{\circ}C$ with the highest mean 25.5$^{\circ}C$ in summer. The range of ignition loss(IL) was from 3.1% in autumn to 21.5% in winter. Chemical oxygen demand(COD) showed the highest mean value of 8.45 mg/g dry in spring within the range of 2.90∼18.21 mg/g dry, while it showed the lowest value of 4.33 mg/g dry in autumn within the range of 0.67∼10.37 mg/g dry. Pheopigments showed the highest mean value of 9.04 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry in autumn within the range of 1.36∼20.44 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry, while it did the lowest mean value of 2.20 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry in summer within the range of 0.33∼11.36 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry. The range of total sulfide (H$_2$S) was from no detect(ND) to 3.30 mg/g dry in spring. And water content showed the annual mean value of 43.6% within the range of 23.6∼54.9%. The source of organic matter by COD/IL and COD/sulfide ratio in Deukryang Bay had been producted by primary producer in sea water areas except the areas effected by small stream, domestic and animal wastes. And the analytical results of PCA was able to be divided into three different regions. The former was characterized by the shallow depth and authigenic organic matter from phytoplankton in northwest area and northeastern inner bay, the secondary was done by deeper depth and allochthonous one from lands in southeast area and eastern entrance of bay, and the latter was done by authigenic one from the farm of seaweeds such as, sea cabbage, sea mustard etc in western entrance of bay. But a study on the relationship between sulfide and COD concentration in the northeastern inner bay which was characterized by the water stagnation will to take much more studying including major constituents of organic matter in the future.

A feasibility of coagulation as post-treatment of the anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating domestic wastewater (도시하수 처리 혐기성 유동상 반응조의 후속공정으로서 화학응집의 가능성 평가)

  • Yang, Seung Yong;Bae, Jae Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.623-634
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    • 2014
  • This study examined a feasibility of coagulation as post-treatment to remove sulfide and phosphorus for the effluent of anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating domestic wastewater. Removal efficiencies of sulfide, phosphorus and COD by coagulation were not affected by pH in the range of 5.9 to 7.2. Alkalinity requirement could be estimated by the amount of $Fe^{3+}$ to form $Fe(OH)_{3(S)}$ and to remove sulfide and phosphorus. At coagulant aid dosage of 2 mg/L, anionic polymer showed best results regarding size and settleability of flocs. Sulfide removal for the AFBR effluent at the $Fe^{3+}/S^{2-}$ ratio of 0.64, close to the theoretical value of 0.67 found with a synthetic wastewater, was only 75.2%. One of the reasons for this high $Fe^{3+}/S^{2-}$ ratio requirement is that the AFBR effluent contains sulfide, phosphorus, hydroxide and bicarbonate which can react with $Fe^{3+}$ competitively. Concentrations of sulfide and phosphorous reduced to below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, at the $Fe^{3+}/S^{2-}$ ratio of 2.0. Average effluent COD of 80 mg/L, mostly soluble COD, was obtained at the dosage 50 mg $Fe^{3+}/L$ ($Fe^{3+}/S^{2-}$ ratio of 2.0) with corresponding COD removal of 55%. For better removal of COD, soluble COD removal at the AFBR should be enhanced. Coagulation with $Fe^{3+}$ removed sulfide, phosphorus and COD simultaneously in the AFBR effluent, and thus could be an alternative process for the conventional wastewater treatment processes where relatively high quality effluent is not required.

Effect of High Concentration of Sulfate on Anaerobic Digestion of Propionic Acid Using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (상향류 혐기성 블랭킷 반응조를 이용한 프로피온산의 혐기성 처리시 고농도 황산염의 영향)

  • Lee, Chae-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2008
  • Two UASB reactors were operated to investigate the effect of high concentration of sulfate on anaerobic digestion of propionate using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. An organic loading rate of $1.2kg\;COD/m^3{\cdot}d$ and a hydraulic retention time of 1.6 d were maintained during this study. In the absence of sulfate, the UASB reactor achieved about 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand whereas in the presence of $2,000\;SO_4^{2-}mg/L$, the COD removal rate decreased to 83% due probably to the inhibition of dissolved sulfide inhibition. Interactions between the methane producing bacteria (MPB) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were measured to investigate the competition between MPB and SRB. The MPB consumed average 58% of the available electron donors at $COD/SO_4^{2-}$ ratio of 1. Propionate was consumed mainly by SRB, converting sulfate into sulfide and suppressing the methane production. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using acetate and propionate increased as microorganism acclimated to the substrate.

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Estimation of Ultimate Methane and Hydrogen Sulfide Yields for C&D Waste and MSW Using BMP Test (건설폐기물, 생활폐기물의 용출특성 분석과 BMP test를 통한 최종메탄(CH4) 및 황화수소(H2S) 수율 산정)

  • Jung, Sukyoung;Jeong, Seongyeob;Chang, Soonwoong
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 2014
  • The main object of this study was to offer information about incoming waste in landfill and to evaluate biochemical methane and hydrogen sulfide potentials of landfill wastes. We examined brick, soil, mixed waste (C&D waste and MSW) samples for the study. The leaching experiments showed that BOD, COD and sulfate were determined in the range of 0~18,816 mg/kg, 85~21,100 mg/kg and 160~1,205 mg/kg, respectively in 6hr extraction test. An accumulated extraction tests for 140day were determined BOD 226~197,219 mg/kg, COD 436~242,588 mg/kg and Sulfate 1,090~25,140 mg/kg. Also, BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests were carried out to examine methane and hydrogen sulfide yields for the 3 different wastes. As a result, methane yield was determined to 262.68 mL $CH_4/g$ VS of MSW and 0~17.75 mL $CH_4/g$ VS in brick, soil and C&D waste. Higher hydrogen sulfide yield was observed to 0.079mL $H_2S/g$ VS in C&D waste. This result indicate that brick and soil could be sources of sulfate, and higher production of hydrogen sulfide could be odor problem and inhibitor of methane production.

Characteristics of the Sedimentary Environment in Yoja Bay in the Summer of 1998 (1998년 하계 여자만의 저질환경 특성)

  • 허회권;김도현;안승환;박경원
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2000
  • As a part of basic investigation to Fishery Purge Project for the Special Administrative in Chollanamdo Province, the sedimentary environmental characteristics of Yoja Bay at 15 stations were studied. The analysis was carried out in July, 1998, through studies of Loss On Ignition (LOI) by depth, Total Sulfide (T-5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations and Grain-size distribution. The LOI value was found to be 6.20-12.20% (mean of 8.89%), with the neighboring Sunhakri and Haksanri areas showing slightly higher values. These values were similar to the LOI values observed in the Hansan-Koje Bay and Jinju Bay areas on the southern coast of Korea. T-S and COD concentrations were found to be, respectively, 0.060-0.104 mg/gㆍd (mean of 0.052 mg/gㆍd) and 5.53-29.71 mg/gㆍd(mean of 13.24 mg/gㆍd), not exceeding eutrophication limits. T-S concentration was especially high at stations close to the central areas of the bay and inland areas, which caused by organic matter input from the nearby agricultural areas. COD concentration was very high at stations nearby the bay entrance and Doonbyungdo, but the mean value was lower than that of Hansan-Koje Bay. This leads us to believe that the level of pollution in Yoja Bay is not significant. The prevailing sediment composition was mud, consisting of 61.38% silt and 34.87% clay. [Sediments in Yoja Bay, Loss On Ignition, Total Sulfide, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Grain-Size Distribution].

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Effect of Environmental Factors on the Growth, Glycogen and Hemoglobin Content of Cultured Arkshell, Scapharca broughtonii (서식환경에 따른 피조개 Scapharca broughtonii의 성장과 글리코겐 및 헤모글로빈량의 변화)

  • PARK Mi Seon;LIM Hyun Jeong;KIM Pyoung Joong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.176-185
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    • 1998
  • For the sustainable production of cultured arkshell Scapharca broughtonii and pre-estimation of the harvest of it, we investigated the relationship between the habitat environmental factors and the physiological conditions of the arkshell in the two experiment sites near the Chinhae Bay, Korea. For the analysis of habitat environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphate), DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), suspended solids and chlorophyll a of bottom water and T-S (total sulfide) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) of surface sediment were measured, To determine physiolosical condition of cultured arkshell, shell length, fatness, glycogen, hemoglobin content and gametogenesis were examined. Water temperature were higher in Woongchon than in Songdo in 1992, and were Higher in Songdo in 1993. Salinity were higher in Songdo than in Woongchon except from January to May in 1992. COD, suspended solids and chlorophyll a content were higher in Songdo than in Woongchon, while the contents of sediment sulfide, DO, DIP and DIN were higher in Woongchon. Based on the environmental assessment, significant factors affecting the growth and physiological condition of arkshell were quantity of food and total sulfide content in the bottom sediment.

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Removal of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage Using Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (황산염환원균을 이용한 폐광폐수의 중금속 제거)

  • Paik, Byeong Cheon;Kim, Kwang Bok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 1999
  • SRB(Sulfate Reducing Bacteria) converts sulfate into sulfide using an organic carbon source as the electron donor. The sulfide formed precipitates the various metals present in the AMD (Acid Mine Drainage). This study is the fundamental research on heavy metal removal from AMD using SRB. Two completely mixed anaerobic reactors were operated for cultivation of SRB at the temperature of $30^{\circ}C$ and anaerobic batch reactors were used to evaluate the effects of carbon source, COD/sulfate($SO_4^=$) ratio and alkalinity on sulfate reduction rate and heavy metal removal efficiency. AMD used in this study was characterized by low pH 3.0 and 1000mg/l of sulfate and dissolved high concentration of heavy metals such as iron, cadmium, copper, zinc and lead. It was found that glucose was an organic carbon source better than acetate as the electron donor of SRB for sulfate reduction in AMD. Amount of sulfate reduction maximized at the COD(glucose)/sulfate ratio of 0.5 in the influent and then removal efficiencies of heavy metals were 97.5% of Cu, 100% of Pb, 100% of Cr, 49% of Mn, 98% of Zn, 100% Cd and 92.4% of Fe. Although sulfate reduction results in an increase in the alkalinity of the reactor, alkalinity of 1000mg/1 (as $CaCo_3$) should be should be added continuously to the anaerobic reactor in order to remove heavy metals from AMD.

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Eutrophication of Shellfish Farms in Deukryang and Gamagyang Bays (득량만과 가막양 패류양식장의 부영양화)

  • CHO Chang-Hwan;PARK Kyung-Yang;YANG Han-Serb;HONG Jae-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 1982
  • Some environmental parameters on the shell-fish farms in Deukryang and Gamagyang Bays during summer in 1981 were determined to find an eutrophication level for the conservation of the farm. Chlorophyll-a content in the seawater in the Deukryang Bay in September was $1.0{\sim}5.0{\mu}g/l$ with an average of $2.5{\mu}g/l$ In the superficial bottom muds, contents of COD were 5-10 mg/g, ignition loss $5-9\%$, phaeophytin pigment $2{\sim}5{\mu}g/g$, and sulfide 0.1-0.3 mg/g dry mud in both bays. High contents of both organic matters and sulfide were found in the innermost area of the Deukryang Bay and in the north western part of the Gamagyang Bay. All quantities including chlorphyll-a in the water are little less than or similar to those of Hansan-Geoje Bay, one of the most productive shellfish farms in the southern coastal waters in Korea . Eutrophication on both water and bottom mud was under way like other shellfish farms but pollution indices on the bottom mud calculated from the data of CODs and phaeophytin pigments shelved 6-11, which is much lower than those of Jinhae Bay and of the Hansan-Geoje Bay. This means that the bottom muds are in an early stage of eutrophication, unlike the Jinhae and Hansan-Geoje Bays though the water, similar to the other bays, shows a middle stage of eutrophication.

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Eutrophication of Bottom Mud in Shellfish Farms, the Goseong-Jaran Bay (고성${\cdot}$자란만 패류양식장 저이의 부영양화)

  • CHO Chang-Hwan;PARK Kyung-Yang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.260-264
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    • 1983
  • Organic matters as COD, ignition loss, phaeophytin pigment, and sulfide in the superficial bottom mud in the shellfish farms during summer in 1981 were determined to find an eutrophication level for the conservation of the farms. Both the Goseong Bay and the Jaran Bay, which are productive shellfish farms, are located along the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. The Goseong Bay is 8m deep with a narrow mouth and approximately $17.5km^2$ in area, and the Jaran Bay 10m deep with $27.3km^2$. The bottoms are silty. Major shellfishes cultured are the oyster by the off-bottom method and the arkshell in the bottom. COD contents were $12.5{\sim}19.5\;mg/g$ dry mud, ignition loss $6.70{\sim}11.83\%$, phaeophytin pigment $6.8{\sim}11.0{\mu}g/g$ dry mud, and sulfide $0.18{\sim}0.64{\mu}g/g$ dry mud. There were no significant differences in the determined quantities between two bays. All quantities except the sulfide which is a little over than an eutrophication level, 0.3 mg/g dry mud, shows that the bottom muds are in an early stage of eutrophication. In addition, there was no particular increase in quantities of aforementioned four paramenters in comparision with those of 1976. It means that the eutrophication in the Goseong-Jaran Bay makes slow progress.

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