• Title, Summary, Keyword: COD/IL

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Spatio-temporal Distribution of Organic Matters in Surface Sediments and Its Origin in Deukryang Bay, Korea (득량만 표층퇴적물 중 유기물의 시.공간적 분포 및 기원)

  • 윤양호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.735-744
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    • 2003
  • The field observations on a seasonal characteristic of organic matter and its origin in the surface sediment were carried out at 35 stations in Deukryang bay, southern coast of Korean Peninsula from May 1995 to February 1996. The analytical parameters were mud temperature, ignition loss(IL), chemical oxygen demand(COD), pheopigment, sulfide and water content. The origin and seasonal dynamics of organic matter in Deukryang Bay were analyzed by COD/IL, COD/sulfide ratio and principal component analysis(PCA). As a results of the mud temperature fluctuated between 2.1$^{\circ}C$ with the lowest mean 4.6$^{\circ}C$ in winter and 27.6$^{\circ}C$ with the highest mean 25.5$^{\circ}C$ in summer. The range of ignition loss(IL) was from 3.1% in autumn to 21.5% in winter. Chemical oxygen demand(COD) showed the highest mean value of 8.45 mg/g dry in spring within the range of 2.90∼18.21 mg/g dry, while it showed the lowest value of 4.33 mg/g dry in autumn within the range of 0.67∼10.37 mg/g dry. Pheopigments showed the highest mean value of 9.04 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry in autumn within the range of 1.36∼20.44 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry, while it did the lowest mean value of 2.20 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry in summer within the range of 0.33∼11.36 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g dry. The range of total sulfide (H$_2$S) was from no detect(ND) to 3.30 mg/g dry in spring. And water content showed the annual mean value of 43.6% within the range of 23.6∼54.9%. The source of organic matter by COD/IL and COD/sulfide ratio in Deukryang Bay had been producted by primary producer in sea water areas except the areas effected by small stream, domestic and animal wastes. And the analytical results of PCA was able to be divided into three different regions. The former was characterized by the shallow depth and authigenic organic matter from phytoplankton in northwest area and northeastern inner bay, the secondary was done by deeper depth and allochthonous one from lands in southeast area and eastern entrance of bay, and the latter was done by authigenic one from the farm of seaweeds such as, sea cabbage, sea mustard etc in western entrance of bay. But a study on the relationship between sulfide and COD concentration in the northeastern inner bay which was characterized by the water stagnation will to take much more studying including major constituents of organic matter in the future.

Numerical Simulation of water quality by ${\Delta}COD$ method for Inner Productivity Estimation of Yeong-Il Bay (간이변환 수질예측모델에 의한 영일만 내부생산성 평가)

  • Yoon, Han-Sam;Ryu, Cheong-Ro;Lee, In-Cheol;Kim, Heon-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Committee for Ocean Resources and Engineering Conference
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the yearly variation of pollutant loads outflowing from six watershed of Yeong-il Bay and compared the relationship of pollutant load and water quality, and estimated the Inner productivity of Yeong-Il Bay by using ${\Delta}COD$ method which analysis nonlinear process of water quality. As the estimated results for the pollutant loads of Yeong-Il Bay, total COD load outflowing from Hyeong-san river in flood season(summer) of 2001 year was 2275.0 kg/hr and in dry(low water) season(winter) 852.8 kg/hr, respectively. Load quantity in flood season was about 2.67 times than that in dry season. And as the calculated results of the net-flux of water for seven divisions, it showed that the net-flux of water increased for the divisions of the north coast and inner sea of Yeong-Il Bay but decreased for the south coast. On the contrary, for the cases which water quantity increase from land, the net-flux of water in estuary front of Hyeong-san river decreased but outflowing quantity of that though division of the south coast of Homi-got increased. Finally, this study compared the Inner productions for flood and dry season of Yeong-il Bay by using ${\Delta}COD$ method.

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A Study on the Seasonal Variation of Water Quality and Sediment Environment in Gwangyang Bay, Korea ($2004\sim2005$년 광양만의 해양수질 및 저질의 계절적 변동에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hyeon-Seo;Cho, Chon-Rae;Kang, Jo-Hae;Lee, Kyu-Hyong
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to characterize the seasonal variation of water quality and sediment environment from May, 2004 to February, 2006 in 21 stations of Gwangyang bay. Gawngyang bay is located in the middle of south coast of Korea and semi-dosed with Yeosu peninsula, Gwangyang-city and Namhea-do. Water quality at the west coast of Myo-do were highly deteriorated than other stations. At summer season(July 2005), the concentration of the most analytical items were highly detected than other seasons and the lowest concentration was at the winter season(January 2005, February 2006). Especially, DIP and TP were highly detected around the coast of Yeosu industrial complex. N/P ratio were higher than 16 of Redfield ratio in the spring(May 2005) and winter(February 2006) at the surface layer. While at other seasons and most stations were lower than 16 of Redfield ratio. In the survey of sediment environment, ignition loss(IL), chemical oxygen demand(COD) and acid volatile sulfide(AVS) were in the range of $2.51\sim22.10%,\;2.65\sim48.41mg/g-dry\;and\;0.01\sim8.95mg/g-dry$, respectively. COD in surface sediment was highest at summer season AVS was highest at autumn. In sediment, the corelationship coefficients between COD and IL, COD and AVS were 0.65 and 0.44, respectively.

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Treatment of Distillery Wastewater Using a Thermophilic High-Rate Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor in Industrial Scale

  • Nam, Ki-Du;Chung, In;Young, James C.;Park, Wan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.737-743
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    • 1999
  • A conventional thermophilic anaerobic digester was converted into a thermophilic high-rate hybrid anaerobic reactor (THAR) for treating distillery wastewater. The THAR has been operating successfully since May 1995 at a loading rate of 5.45 to $11.52{\;}kg/\textrm{m}^3/d$ (maximum of 15.02). The THAR has demonstrated a soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD) removal efficiency of 85 to 91% and a total COD (tCOD) removal efficiency of as much as 72 to 84%. Product gas had a methane content of 59 to 68%. The tCOD removal rates were 4.31 to 5.43, 6.26 to 6.89, and 9.03 to $9.78kg{\;}tCOD/\textrm{m}^3/d$ for tapioca, com, and naked-barley wastewater, respectively. The sCOD removal rates ranged from 3.75 to 4.79,3.28 to 4.89, and 5.57 to 6.21kg $sCOD/\textrm{m}^3/d$ for tapioca, com, and naked-barley wastewater, respectively. There were unknown substances in a naked-barley distillery wastewater that were identified as being toxic for microorganisms. However, the THAR treated naked-barley wastewater continuously for 26 days, operating at an average tCOD loading of $11.08{\;}kg/\textrm{m}^3/d$without any signs of deterioration in either COD removal efficiency or gas production rate. During this period, the average removal efficiencies of tCOD and sCOD were 84% and 91%, respectively, and the gas production rate averaged 6.61 to $7.57{\;}\textrm{m}^3/\textrm{m}^3$ reactor/d which produced 0.57 to $0.69{\;}\textrm{m}^3{\;}biogas/kg{\;}tCOD_{rem}$. From tapioca and com wastewater, the reactor showed an average gas production rate of 3.18 to 3.46 and 4.91 to $5.22{\;}\textrm{m}^3/\textrm{m}^3$ reactor/d which produced 0.53 to 0.69 and 0.62 to $0.71{\;}\textrm{m}^3/kg{\;}tCOD_{rem}$, respectively.

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Chemical Coagulation Treatment Using Alum and PACl in Complex Wastewater (Alum과 PACl을 이용한 응집처리)

  • Sung, Il-Wha
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2009
  • In order to treat the complex wastewater containing organic compound and solids, pre-treatment system associated with molecular separation process were investigated. The reductions of COD and turbidity were obtained after coagulation processes using Alum (Aluminium sulfate, $Al_2(SO_4)_2{\cdot}18H_{2}O$) and PACl (poly aluminium chloride as 17% $Al_{2}O_{3}$). The results of study were as follows: using variable dosage of Alum, COD removal was highest at 4,000 mg/l, and the reduction of COD and turbidity was 42% and 92%, respectively. The optimum coagulation would be effective at pH 7.3 than pH 9.0 by the addition of alum at a concentration of 6,000 mg/l and PACl was add at 4.25% in raw complex wastewater with 2,000 mg/l alum at pH 7.3, the reduction of COD was reduced by 32%. But coagulation aid experiments indicated that PACl would be more effective in sludge separation ability than COD removal efficiency.

AN IMPULSIVE STAGE-STRUCTURED OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM AND OPTIMAL HARVEST STRATEGY OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MICROCEPHALUS, IN THE SOUTH KOREA

  • Cho, Giphil;Jeong, Yong Dam;Kim, Sangil;Jung, Il Hyo
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.683-691
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    • 2018
  • We consider an optimal control problem for an impulsive stage-structured model involving ordinary differential equations with impulsive values of initial conditions in the next year. The main goal is to maximize a profit of the catch of Pacific cod in the South Korea through optimal harvest strategy as a control of adult cod. We established necessary conditions for the optimal harvest control using idea of Pontryagin's maximum principle. The optimal harvest strategy is to numerically solve the equation by using an iterative method with the Runge-Kutta method. Finally, we compare a monthly average of fishing mortality of Pacific cod from 2013 to 2017 with monthly fishing mortality for result obtained optimal harvest strategy.

Analyses of TOC efficiency and correlation between DO, BOD, COD and influence factors using long-term observation data in the main stream of Nakdong River (낙동강 본류에서 장기관측 자료를 이용한 DO, BOD, COD와 그 영향인자의 상관관계 및 TOC 분해율)

  • Kang, Dong-hwan;So, Yoon Hwan;Park, Kyeong-deok;Kim, Il-kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.415-415
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    • 2019
  • 본 연구에서는 낙동강 본류에서 10년(2008~2017) 동안 관측된 자료의 월별 평균 자료를 이용하여, DO, BOD, COD의 시공간 변동 및 그 영향인자들과의 상관관계를 분석하였다. 관측소별 수질은 상류에서 하류로 갈수록 나빠졌으며, BOD와 COD는 ST5에서 가장 높았다. 10개 관측소별 수질성분의 상관성을 분석한 결과, DO와 수온의 상관계수는 -0.90 이상이고, BOD와 Chl-a의 상관계수는 0.48~0.85, COD와 TOC의 상관계수는 ST5와 ST10 관측소를 제외하고 0.65 이상이었다. 모든 관측소 자료를 이용한 회귀분석 결과, 수온과 DO는 감소하는 선형함수로서 결정계수는 0.90, chl-a와 BOD는 증가하는 파워함수로서 결정계수는 0.83, TOC와 COD는 증가하는 로그함수로서 결정계수는 0.58 정도이었다. 10개 관측소별 TOC 분해율을 산정한 결과, BOD에 의한 분해율의 평균은 15.5~36.3%, COD에 의한 분해율의 평균은 57.4~89.6%의 범위로 나타났다.

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무기담채를 이용한 폐수처리

  • Cha, Wol-Seok;Gwon, Gyu-Hyeok;Choe, Hyeong-Il;Jeong, Gyeong-Hun;Lee, Dong-Byeong;Jeong, Gil-Rok
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.343-347
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    • 2003
  • Power of loess ball on nitrogen and phosphorous removal in wastewater treatment were investigated. flow line A ( anaerobic${\rightarrow}$oxic${\rightarrow}$anoxic(organic source methanol)${\rightarrow}$p-absorption) showed the results of T-P 0.5, T-N 1.0, and COD 10ppm bellow, and flow line B ( oxic${\rightarrow}$anoxic, organic source: methanol${\rightarrow}$p-absorption) showed the results of T-P 0.3, T-N 5.0, and COD 15 ppm bellow. flow line C ( anaerobic${\rightarrow}$oxic${\rightarrow}$anoxic, organic source: wastewater ${\rightarrow}$ p-absorption) showed the results of T-P 0.6, T-N 10, and COD 15 ppm bellow, and flow line D ( oxic${\rightarrow}$anoxic, organic source: methanol${\rightarrow}$p-absorption) showed the results of T-P 1, T-N 8m, and COD 20 ppm bellow. So the results of these experiments showed the probability of loess ball in wastewater treatment.

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Monthly Variation Analysis of BOD, COD and TOC using Long-term Observation Data in the Downstream of the Nam River (남강 하류부에서 장기관측 자료를 이용한 유기물과 생물학적/화학적 산소요구량의 월 변동 분석)

  • Kang, Dong-hwan;So, Yoon Hwan;Park, Kyeong-Doek;Kim, Il-kyu;Kim, Byung-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.571-579
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    • 2019
  • In this study, monthly average values of BOD, COD, and TOC observed for 10 years (2008-2017) in the Nam River were estimated, and monthly variations of BOD, COD, and TOC were analyzed. Monthly average COD was always higher than monthly average BOD; monthly average TOC was high from June to September when rainfall was high. Monthly correlation coefficients between BOD and COD ranged from 0.57 to 0.94, those between BOD and TOC from 0.45 to 0.93, and those between COD and TOC from 0.75 to 0.93. The correlation coefficients were high from November to February when rainfall was low. Regression analyses for monthly average water quality data of the Nam River classified into dry season (October to April) and wet season (May to September) were conducted. Correlation coefficients were higher in the dry season than those in the wet season, and the determination coefficients of linear regression functions for BOD and COD with TOC were also higher in the dry season than those in the wet season. From this study, it can be concluded that it is appropriate to use monthly data to analyze the correlations among BOD, COD, and TOC in the stream. To analyze the relationship between TOC flowing into the stream and BOD/COD, it was found that seasonal characteristics should be considered.

Spent caustic treatment using hydrophobic room temperatures ionic liquids

  • Sabri, Muhammad Ashraf;Ibrahim, Taleb Hassan;Khamis, Mustafa Ibrahim;Nancarrow, Paul;Hassan, Muhammad Faheem
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.65
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 2018
  • Two hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid (IL), tetrahexylammonium dihexyl-sulfosuccinate (IL1) and trioctylmethylammonium salicylate (IL2), have been employed for the treatment of spent caustic (SC) wastewater by liquid-liquid extraction at room temperature and pressure. The concentrations of phenols, thiols and benzaldehyde were reduced to below their detection limits and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were reduced from $64166{\pm}3880mg/l$ to $63.0{\pm}9.0mg/l$. This represents an outstanding reduction in pollutant and COD levels to well below the discharge limits for industrial effluents as set by U.S.A. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, thus eliminating the need for any further treatment before discharge.