• Title/Summary/Keyword: CMP

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A Survey of the Connected Mathematics Project (시엠피(The Connected Mathematics Project)에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hae-Gyu
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.119-145
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    • 2011
  • We study on the Connected Mathematics Project(CMP), one of the American mathematics education reform projects which have been promoted since the 1990s, so that we can provide some suggestions for the recent research of developing the 2009 Korean Mathematics Curriculum. In this paper, we examine the background of the CMP, the controversies over the textbooks [CMP1 textbooks] developed by CMP[CMP1] implemented from 1991 till 1996, and the curriculum of the CMP[CMP2] revised from CMP1 and carried from 2000 till 2006. Through the literature study, we can see that the CMP2 curriculum has reflected some of those controversies of the CMP1 textbooks by introducing procedures for students' acquiring basic skills, reducing the number of lessons and the contents supposed to be learned in each lesson, putting more stress on algebra and adding data analysis contents more.

Effect of Brush Treatment and Brush Contact Sequence on Cross Contaminated Defects during CMP in-situ Cleaning

  • Kim, Hong Jin
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2015
  • Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the most important processes for enabling sub-14 nm semiconductor manufacturing. Moreover, post-CMP defect control is a key process parameter for the purpose of yield enhancement and device reliability. Due to the complexity of device with sub-14 nm node structure, CMP-induced defects need to be fixed in the CMP in-situ cleaning module instead of during post ex-situ wet cleaning. Therefore, post-CMP in-situ cleaning optimization and cleaning efficiency improvement play a pivotal role in post-CMP defect control. CMP in-situ cleaning module normally consists of megasonic and brush scrubber processes. And there has been an increasing effort for the optimization of cleaning chemistry and brush scrubber cleaning in the CMP cleaning module. Although there have been many studies conducted on improving particle removal efficiency by brush cleaning, these studies do not consider the effects of brush contamination. Depending on the process condition and brush condition, brush cross contamination effects significantly influence post-CMP cleaning defects. This study investigates brush cross contamination effects in the CMP in-situ cleaning module by conducting experiments using 300mm tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) blanket wafers. This study also explores brush pre-treatment in the CMP tool and proposes recipe effects, and critical process parameters for optimized CMP in-situ cleaning process through experimental results.

Cardiomyopathies in children

  • Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2013
  • Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is a heterogeneous disease caused by a functional abnormality of the cardiac muscle. CMP is of 2 major types, dilated and hypertrophic, and is further classified as either primary or secondary. Secondary CMP is caused by extrinsic factors, including infection, ischemia, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Primary CMP is diagnosed when the extrinsic factors of secondary CMP are absent. Furthermore, the World Health Organization, American Heart Association, and European Cardiology Association have different systems for clinically classifying primary CMP. Primary CMP is rare and associated with a family history of the disease, implying that genetic factors might affect its incidence. In addition, the incidence of CMP varies widely according to patient ethnicity. Genetic testing plays an important role in the care of patients with CMP and their families because it confirms diagnosis, determines the appropriate care for the patient, and possibly affects patient prognosis. The diagnosis and genetic identification of CMP in patients' families allow the possibility to identify novel genes that may lead to new treatments. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CMP, with the aim of providing pediatricians with insights that may be helpful in the early identification and management of idiopathic CMP in children.

PCR Cloning of Genes Encoding the Mn-Peroxidase Isozyme Family from Trametes versicolor KN9522 Using Degenerate Primers (구름버섯균 KN9522에서 degenerate primer를 이용한 Mn-Peroxidase 동위효소 유전자들의 PCR 클로닝)

  • Jun, Sang-Cheol;Kim, Kyu-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 2006
  • Degenerate primers corresponding to the sequences of the N-terminal regions of Mn-peroxidase isozymes were used to isolate the genomic fragments encoding the isozymes of Mn-peroxidase, CVMP1, CVMP2, CVMP3 and CVMP5 from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor KN9522. Three isozymes except one gave the expected PCR products (cmp1, cmp2 and cmp5) of about 900 base pairs, respectively. DNA sequence data obtained from each PCR products were used to analyze the BLAST program search on the National Center for Biotechnology Information. cmp1, cmp2 and cmp5 were similar to MPG-I (GenBank accession number Z30668) and PGV-II (GenBank accession number, Z54279) gene T. versicolor PRL572. PCR products of cmp1 and cmp2 showed 77%, 95% base sequence similarities to MPG-I gene and cmp5 showed about 88% similarity to PGV-II gene from T. versicolor PRL572. From this experiment, we could isolate genomic DNA fragments with degenerate primers designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequences of Mn-peroxidase isozyme family.

Development of CMP process for reducing scratches during ILD CMP (ILD CMP중 Scratch 감소를 위한 CMP 공정기술 개발)

  • Kim, In-Gon;Kim, In-Kwon;Prasad, Y. Nagendra;Choi, Jea-Gon;Park, Jin-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • 2009.06a
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    • pp.59-59
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    • 2009
  • 현재 CMP분야는 광역 평탄화 반도체 소자의 집적화 및 소형화가 진행됨에 따라서 CMP 공정의 중요성은 날로 성장하고 있다. 하지만 이러한 CMP공정은 불가피하게도 scratch, pit, CMP residue와 같은 defect들을 발생시키고 있으며, 점점 선폭이 작아짐에 따라, 이러한 defect들이 반도체 수율에 미치는 영향은 심각해지고 있다. Defect들 중에 특히 scratch는 반도체에 치명적인 circuit failure를 일으키게 된다. 또한 반도체 내구성과 신뢰성을 감소시키게 되고, 누전전류를 증가시키는 등 바람직하지 못한 현상들이 생기게 된다. 본 연구에서는 scratch 와 같은 deflect들을 효율적으로 검출, 분석하고, scratch를 감소시키는데 그 목적이 있다. 본 실험을 위해 8" TEOS wafer와 commercial oxide slurry 및 friction polisher (Poli-500, G&P tech., Korea)를 사용하여 CMP 공정을 진행하였으며, CMP 공정조건은 각각 80rpm/80rpm/1psi(Platen speed/Head speed/Pressure)에서 1분 동안 연마를 한 후 scratch 발생 경향을 살펴보았다. CMP 후 wafer위에 오염되어 있는 slurry residue들을 제거하기 위해 SC-1, HF 세정을 이용하여 최적화된 post-CMP 공정기술을 제안하였다. Scratch 검출 및 분석을 위해 wafer surface analyzer (Surfscan 6200, Tencor, USA)와 optical microscope (LV100D, Nicon, Japan)를 사용하였다. CMP 공정 변수들에 따른 scratch 발생정도를 비교하였으며, scratch 발생 요인들에 따른 scratch 형태 및 발생정도를 살펴보았다. 최적화된 post-CMP 세정 조건은 메가소닉과 함께 SC-1 세정을 실시하여 slurry residue들을 제거한 후, HF 세정을 실시하여 잔여 오염물들을 제거하고 검출이 용이하도록 scratch를 확장시킬 수 있도록 제안하였으며, 100%의 particle removal efficiency (PRE)를 얻을 수 있었다. 실제 CMP 공정후 post-CMP 세정 단계별 scratch 개수를 측정한 결과, SC-1 세정 후 약 220개의 scratch가 검출되었으며, 검출되지 않았던 scratch가 HF 세정 후 확장되어 드러남에 따라 약 500개의 scratch 가 검출되었다.

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Effects of Trench Depth on the STI-CMP Process Defects (트랜치 깊이가 STI-CMP 공정 결함에 미치는 영향)

  • 김기욱;서용진;김상용
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2002
  • The more productive and stable fabrication can be obtained by applying chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process to shallow trench isolation (STI) structure in 0.18 $\mu\textrm{m}$ semiconductor device. However, STI-CMP process became more complex, and some kinds of defect such as nitride residue, tern oxide defect were seriously increased. Defects like nitride residue and silicon damage after STI-CMP process were discussed to accomplish its optimum process condition. In this paper, we studied how to reduce torn oxide defects and nitride residue after STI-CMP process. To understand its optimum process condition, We studied overall STI-related processes including trench depth, STI-fill thickness and post-CMP thickness. As an experimental result showed that as the STI-fill thickness becomes thinner, and trench depth gets deeper, more tern oxide were found in the CMP process. Also, we could conclude that low trench depth whereas high CMP thickness can cause nitride residue, and high trench depth and over-polishing can cause silicon damage.

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Characteristics of Caseinomacropeptid(CMP) Purified from Whole Casein by Using Immobilized Chymosin (고정화 Chymosin을 이용하여 Whole Casein으로부터 분리한 Caseinomacropeptide(CMP)의 특성)

  • 장해동;김의수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1117-1124
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    • 1998
  • Chymosin was purified from commercial rennet with DEAE Sepharose CL 6B and immobilized on CeliteTM using glutaraldehyde. Whole casein from fresh raw milk was hydrolyzed by immobilized chymosin and total CMP was isolated by trichloroacetic acid(TCA) and ultrafiltration, and characterized. The amount of chymosin purified from 15g commercial rennet by DEAE Sepharose CL 6B was 0.16g and 18mg of chymosin was immobilized on 1g of CeliteTM by 5% glutaraldehyde. Immobilized chy mosin hydrolyzed most of casein on whole casein within 2 hours to leave para casein and casei nomacropeptide(CMP). The total CMP isolated from 10g of whole casein hydrolyzate by TCA and ultrafiltration was 0.4g and 0.1g, respectively. Results of electrophoresis, amount of sialic acid, com position of amino acid and ratio of A280 to A214 showed that total CMP by TCA was purer and had more CMP without carbohydrate than one by ultrafiltration. CMP isolated from total CMP by 12% TCA precipitation was 50% of total CMP and most of caseinoglycopeptide(CGP) was removed from total CMP, indicating less amount of sialic acid in CMP than in total CMP.

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Structural Analysis of the Cu-binding Site in the [Cu·dCMP·dCMP-H]1- Complex

  • Jung, Sang-Mi;Kim, Ho-Tae
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.67-70
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    • 2013
  • The Cu-binding site in the $[Cu{\cdot}dCMP{\cdot}dCMP-H]^{1-}$ complex was investigated. The tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of the [$[Cu{\cdot}dCMP{\cdot}dCMP-H]^{1-}$ parent ion showed $[dCMP{\cdot}Cu{\cdot}H_2PO_4+CONH]^{1-}$ fragment ions. Therefore, we propose that the Cu cation is simultaneously coordinated to the phosphate site and cytosine moiety in the stable geometry of the $[Cu{\cdot}dCMP{\cdot}dCMP-H]^{1-}$ complex. Three geometries for the complex were considered in an attempt to optimize the structure of the $[Cu{\cdot}dCMP{\cdot}dCMP-H]^{1-}$ complex. The ab initio calculations were performed at the $B3LYP/6-311G^{**}$ level.

Characteristics of CMP-PLA Heatsink Materials with Carbon Nanotube Contents (탄소나노튜브 양에 따른 CMP-PLA 방열 소재의 특성)

  • Kim, Young-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.924-927
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we proposed CMP-PLAs to replace the Al heat sinks as heat sink materials, and investigated heat dissipation characteristics of the LED lighting devices using them. The crystallinity of the proposed CMP-PLA heat sinks decreased with increasing carbon nanotube contents in CMP-PLA. However, the thermal conductivity was improved with the increase of the carbon nanotube contents. The heat dissipation characteristics of the LED lighting devices using CMP-PLA heat sinks was improved with increasing carbon nanotube contents in CMP-PLA. For the LED lighting devices using CMP-PLA heat sinks with 40% carbon nanotube contents, the initial temperature measured at the heat sink plate was $27^{\circ}C$, which increased as time, and it was saturated around $56^{\circ}C$ after an hour. The LED lighting devices using CMP-PLA heat sinks are expected to be functional materials that can reduce their weight and improve their electric properties, compared to those using existing Al heat sinks.

Tribology Research Trends in Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Process (화학기계적 연마(CMP) 공정에서의 트라이볼로지 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Hyunseop
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2018
  • Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a hybrid processing method in which the surface of a wafer is planarized by chemical and mechanical material removal. Since mechanical material removal in CMP is caused by the rolling or sliding of abrasive particles, interfacial friction during processing greatly influences the CMP results. In this paper, the trend of tribology research on CMP process is discussed. First, various friction force monitoring methods are introduced, and three elements in the CMP tribo-system are defined based on the material removal mechanism of the CMP process. Tribological studies on the CMP process include studies of interfacial friction due to changes in consumables such as slurry and polishing pad, modeling of material removal rate using contact mechanics, and stick-slip friction and scratches. The real area of contact (RCA) between the polishing pad and wafer also has a significant influence on the polishing result in the CMP process, and many researchers have studied RCA control and prediction. Despite the fact that the CMP process is a hybrid process using chemical reactions and mechanical material removal, tribological studies to date have yet to clarify the effects of chemical reactions on interfacial friction. In addition, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the interface friction phenomenon and physical surface defects in CMP, and the cause of their occurrence.