• Title, Summary, Keyword: CD36

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Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Regulates the FAT/CD36 Expression in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells (C2C12 골격근 세포에서 FAT/CD36 발현 조절에 있어 Insulin-like growth factor-I이 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye Jin;Yoon, Hae Min;Kim, Tae Young;Lee, Won Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.758-763
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    • 2016
  • Fatty acid transporters are key mediators of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. Several protein groups have been implicated in cellular long-chain fatty acid uptake or oxidation, including fatty acid transporter proteins (FATPs), the plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm), and the fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36). FAT/CD36 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and known to be regulated by various factors such as exercise and hormones. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a well-known regulator of skeletal muscle cells. However, it has not been studied whether there is any interaction between IGF-I and FAT/CD36 in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, the effects of IGF-I treatment on FAT/CD36 induction were examined. Differentiated C2C12 cells were treated with 20 ng/ml of IGF-I at different time points. Treatment of C2C12 cells with IGF-I resulted in increased FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein expression. After 24 and 48 hr of IGF-I treatment, FAT/CD36 mRNA increased 89% and 24% respectively. The increase of both proteins returned to the control level after 72 hr of IGF-I treatment, suggesting that the FAT/CD36 gene is regulated pretranslationally by IGF-I in skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that IGF-I can regulate the expression of FAT/CD36 in skeletal muscle cells. In conclusion, IGF-I induces a rapid transcriptional modification of the FAT/CD36 gene in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and has modulating effects on fatty acid uptake proteins as well as oxidative proteins.

Cilostazol Attenuates 4-hydroxynonenal-enhanced CD36 Expression on Murine Macrophages via Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase-derived Reactive Oxygen Species Production

  • Yun, Mi-Ran;Park, Hye-Mi;Seo, Kyo-Won;Kim, Chae-Eun;Yoon, Jung-Wook;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2009
  • Although anti-atherogenic effects of cilostazol have been suggested, its effects on the expression of SR in macrophages are unclear. This study investigated the role of cilostazol on CD36 expression of murine macrophages enhanced by HNE, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. The stimulation of macrophages with HNE led to an increased expression of CD36, which was significantly attenuated by NAC, an antioxidant. Moreover, the increased production of ROS by HNE was completely abolished by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, DPI and apocynin, as well as by the 5-LO inhibitor, MK886, but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. This suggested that NADPH-oxidase and 5-LO were major sources of ROS induced by HNE. In addition, HNE-enhanced expression of CD36 was reduced by these inhibitors, which indicated a role for NADPH oxidase and 5-LO on CD36 expression. In our present study, cilostazol was a significant inhibitor of ROS production, as well as CD36 expression induced by HNE. An increase in NADPH oxidase activity by HNE was significantly attenuated by cilostazol, however cilostazol had no effect on HNE-enhanced 5-LO activity. Together, these results suggest that cilostazol attenuates HNE-enhanced CD36 expression on murine macrophages thorough inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation.

Effects of Astragali Radix Herbal-acupuncture at $ST_{36}$ (Jok-samni) on Collagen-induced Arthritis in Mice (황기약침이 Collagen으로 유발된 생쥐의 Arthritis에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Bong-Gyun;Cho, Myung-Rae;Kim, Jae-Hong;Ryu, Chung-Ryeol
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.25-55
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of Astragali Radix Herbal-Acupuncture Solution(AR-HAS) at $ST_{36}$(jok-samni, $Z\acute{u}s\bar{a}n$ Li) on collagen- II -induced arthritis(CIA) in mice. Methods : DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen(CII) on days 0 and 21 to induce arthritis. The mice were divided into 5 groups : normal group(no CIA), control group(CIA+no treatment), needle prick group(CIA+single prick with an injection needle), saline group(CIA+saline injection) and ARHA group(CIA+ R-HA treatment). The needle prick, saline injection, and AR-HA groups were injected on the right $ST_{36}$(jok-samni) of mice for 9 weeks, 3 times a week, beginning 4 weeks after the booster immunization. Results : 1. The incidence of arthritis, AI(arthritis index), and joint edema decreased in the AR-HA group. 2. Weight gain, hypertrophy of the spleen, adhesion of the tissues, and transformation of the joint were restrained in the AR-HA group. 3. The concentrations of $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IFN-{\gamma}$ in CIA mouse serum and $IFN-{\gamma}$, IL-10 in the CIA mouse spleen cell culture decreased significantly at $ST_{36}$ in the AR-HA group. 4. Total cell counts increased significantly, and the ratio of $CD3e^+$ to $CD45R^+$, $CD4^+$ to $CD8^+$, and $CD4^+$ to $CD25^+$ cells decreased significantly at $ST_{36}$ in the CIA mouse spleen cell culture of the AR-HA group. 5. Total cell counts decreased significantly, and $CD4^+/CD25^+$ and $CD45R^+/CD69^+$ decreased significantly at $ST_{36}$ in the CIA mouse lymph nodes of the AR-HA group. 6. $CD3e^+/CD69^+$ and $CD11b^+/Gr-1^+$ cells decreased significantly at $ST_{36}$ in the CIA mouse joints of the AR-HA group. 7. The histological examination showed that cartilage destruction and synoviocyte proliferation decreased in the CIA mouse joints of the AR-HA group, and collagen fiber was expressed similar to that seen in the normal group. Conclusions : Our experiments show that at $ST_{36}$, an anti-inflammatory mechanism of AR-HA controls synovial cell proliferation and protects against cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.

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A Study on Anti-aning of Electroacupuncture at Joksamni($ST_{36}$) in Rats (족삼리(足三里) 전침(電鍼)이 흰쥐의 노화(老化)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Jun-Seong;Yim, Yun-Kyoung;Kim, Young-Il
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.145-161
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture at Joksanmi($ST_{36}$) on Rat's aging by experimental methods. Methods : The author performed several experimental procedures to observe the effects of the EC-HAS at the arthritis. First, I measured the cell survival rate of the mice lung fibroblasts. Second, the incidence rate of arthritis and arthritis index of CIA were analyzed. Third, the levels of IL-6, $INF-{\gamma}$ , $INF-{\alpha}$ , $IL-1{\beta}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II were measured in serum and the level of $INF-{\gamma}$, $INF-{\gamma}$/IL-4 ratio in the CIA mouse spleen cell culture. Fourth, histological analysis of the mice joint was performed. Fifth, the expression ratio of $CD3e^+$ cells to $CD19^+$ cells, $CD4^+$ cells to $CD8^+$ cells, $CD11a^+CD19^+$ cells, $CD4^+CD25^+$ cells, $CD3^+CD69^+$ cells, and $CD11b^+Gr-1^+$ cells were checked. Results: 1. The hematocrit was meaningfully (p<0.01, p<0.05) decreased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the control and sham group. 2. The glucose, ALP were meaningfully (p<0.05, p<0.05) decreased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the control group. 3. In the activation of hepatic antioxidase, the catalase was meaningfully (p<0.01) increased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the control group. 4. In the liver, the NO formation was meaningfully (p<0.001) decreased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the nomal, control and sham group. 5. In the activation of splenetic antioxidase, the GSH was meaningfully (p<0.01) increased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the sham group, and the catalase was meaningfully (p<0.001) increased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the control group. 6. In the spleen, the MDA formation was meaningfully (p<0.01, p<0.05) decreased in $ST_{36}$ group in comparison with the control and sham group. 7. In the spleen cell culture, the levels of IL-6 was meaningfully (p<0.05) decreased in comparison with the sham group, $INF-{\gamma}$( was meaningfully (p<0.05) increased in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, it is considered that electroacupuncture at Joksamni($ST_{36}$) is effective in increasing the activities of antioxidative enzyme and inhibiting lipid peroxides, and has an immunomodulatory reaction. In conclusion, it han an significant anti-aging effect and need more experimental study.

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Crystal Structures of Zeolite X Exchanged by Two Different Cations. Structures of Cd32Cs28-X and Cd28Rb36-X (X=Si100Al92O384)

  • Jeong, Gyoung-Hwa;Kim, Yang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1121-1126
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    • 2002
  • Two anhydrous crystal structures of fully dehydrated Cd2+ - and Cs+ -exchanged zeolite X, Cd32Cs28Si100Al92O384 (Cd32Cs28-X: a = 24.828(11) $\AA)$ and fully dehydrated Cd,sup>2+ - and Rb+ -exchanged zeolite X, Cd28Rb36Si100Al92O384 (Cd28Rb36-X: a = 24.794(2) $\AA$), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Fd3 at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ The structures were refined to the final error indices, R1 = 0.058 and R2 = 0.065 with 637 reflections for Cd32Cs28-X and R1 = 0.086 and R2 = 0.113 with 521 reflections for Cd28Rb36-X for which I > $3\sigma(I)$. In the structure of Cd,sub>32Cs28-X, 16 Cd2+ ions fill the octahedral sites I at the centers of the double six rings (Cd-O = $2.358(8)\AA$ and O-Cd-O = $90.8(3)^{\circ}$ ). The remaining 16 Cd2+ ions occupy site II (Cd-O = $2.194(8)\AA$ and O-Cd-O = $119.7(4)^{\circ})$ and six Cs+ ions occupy site II opposite to the single six-rings in the supercage; each is $2.322\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens (Cs-O = 3.193(13) and O-Cs-O = $73.0(2)^{\circ}).$ Aboutten Cs+ ions are found at site II', $1.974\AA$ into the sodalite cavity from their three oxygen plane (Cs-O = $2.947(8)\AA$ and O-Cs-O = $80.2(3)^{\circ}).$ The remaining 12 Cs+ ions are distributed over site III' (Cs-O = 3.143(9) and O-Cs-O= $59.1(2)^{\circ})$. In the structure of Cd28Rb36-X, 16 Cd2+ ions fill the octahedral sites I at the center of the double-sixrings (Cd-O = 2.349(15) and O-Cd-O = $91.3(5)^{\circ}$ ). Another 12 Cd2+ ions occupy two different II sites (Cd-O = $2.171(18)/2.269(17)\AA$ and O-Cd-O = $119.7(7)/113.2(7)^{\circ}).$ Fifteen Rb+ ions occupy site II (Rb-O = $2.707(17)\AA$ and O-Rb-O = $87.8(5)^{\circ}).$ The remaining 21 Rb+ ions are distributed over site III' (Rb-O = $3.001(16)\AA$ and O-Rb-O = $60.7(4)^{\circ})$. It appears that the smaller and more highly charged Cd2+ ions prefer sites I and Ⅱ in that order, and the larger Rb+ and Cs+ ions, which are less able to balance the anionic charge of the zeolite framework, occupy sites II and II' with the remainder going to the least suitable site in the structure, site III'.The maximum Cs+ and Rb+ ion exchanges were 30% and 39%, respectively. Because these cations are too largeto enter the small cavities and their charge distributions may be unfavorable, cation-sieve effects might appear.

Effects of Herbal-acupuncture with Coicis Semen Solution at Joksamni (ST36) on Collagen-induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mouse (족삼리(足三里) 의이인약침(薏苡仁藥鍼)이 Collagen으로 유발(誘發)된 생쥐의 관절염(關節炎)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Seong-No;Lee, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.111-129
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    • 2007
  • Objectives & Methods : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Coicis Semen Herbal-acupuncture solution (CS-HAS) at the Joksamni (ST36) on the collagen-induced arthritis in the DBA/1J mouse. The author performed several experiments to analyze the effects of CS-HAS on arthritis; change of the weight; the spleen size and adhesion rate; serum cytokine levels; serum antibody levels; changes of immunocyte counts; the histological changes of joint. Results : In the Coicis Semen Herbal-acupuncture (CS-HA), arthritis index, the incidence of arthritis, and the degree of joint edema were decreased. In CS-HA, there was no weight loss. The size of the spleen, adhesion rate, and the edema and transformation of joint were lowered. In CS-HA, the levels of IL-1${\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, IFN-${\gamma}$, IgG, IgM, and anti-collagen II in serum and the levels of IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-4, IL-10 in spleen were significantly decreased. In CS-HA, the expression ratios of $CD45^+$ to $CD3e^+$ and $CD8^+$ to $CD4^+$ were decreased. Also, the overall $CD4^+/CD8^+$ cell ratio was lowered in spleen. Ratios of the $CD4^+/CD25^+$, $CD45^+/CD69^+$ cells were decreased in lymph nodes. In addition, ratios of the $CD3^+/CD69^+$, $CD11b^+/Gr-1^+$ cells were also decreased in synovium. In the histological study, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation, and collagen fiber destruction were decreased with CS-HA treated group. Conclusions : From the results mentioned above, it is suggested that CS-HA at the ST36 has several significant effects on the collagen-induced arthritis.

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Influence on the Anti-cancer and Immune response improvement of Herbal-acupuncture with Evodiae Fructus infusion solution into Zusanli(ST36) (족삼리(足三里)에 시술(施術)한 오수유약침(吳茱萸藥鍼)이 항암(抗癌) 및 면역기능(免疫機能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park Gi-Hong;Lee Byung-Ryul;Yim Yun-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.115-128
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    • 2003
  • Objectives and methods : Study the anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement effects of Herbal-acupuncture with Evodiae Fructus infusion solution, we injected Evodiae Fructus infusion solution into Zusanli(St36) of C57BL/6 mouse which is corresponding to human Zusanli(St36). We observed its effect on the number of $CD25^+/CD4^+,\;CD8^+/CD3e^+,\;CD69^+/B220^+,\;NK1.1^+/CD3e^+$ cells in mouse PBMCs, the number of the pulmonary colony , MST and ILS of C57BL/6 mice implanted intravenously with B16-F10 melanoma. Results and Conclusions : The spleen cells proliferation of the sample groups treated with EDR-HAS extract has increased significantly compared with that of the control group. The percentage of the $CD25^+/CD4^+,\;CD8^+/CD3e^+,\;CD69^+/B220^+,\;NK1.1^+/CD3e^+$ cells in C57BL/6 mouse PBMCs of the sample groups treated with EDR herbal-acupuncture has increased compared with that of the control group. The lung colony number of the sample groups treated with EDR herbal-acupuncture has decreased significantly compared with that of the control group. MST and ILS of the sample groups treated with EDR herbal-acupuncture have increased significantly compared with those of the control group.

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A Study on the Effects of Herbal-acupuncture with Notopterygii Radix solution at ST36 on CIA in Mice (족삼리(足三里) 강활약침(羌活藥鍼)이 생쥐의 Collagen-induced arthritis에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyeun-Sun;Yim, Yun-Kyoung;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2005
  • Objective & Methods : This study is performed to observe the effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Notopterygii Radix Herbal-Acupuncture Solution(NR-HAS) at Joksamni(ST36) on Collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Result : 1. The highest survival rate of mice lung fibroblasts were measured in the 1% NR-HAS, and the expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$ in synovial cells were significantly decreased in the 1% and 10% NR-HAS. 2. The incidence of arthritis and the spleen weight were significantly decreased by Notopterygii Radix Herbal-acupuncture(NR-HA) at ST36. 3. The levels of IL-6, $INF-{\gamma},\;TNF-{\alpha}$, IgG, IgM, anti-collagen II in serum of CIA mice were significantly decreased by NR-HA at ST36. 4. In histology, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation were decreased by NR-HA at ST36, and the collagen fiber expressions in the NR-HA I II groups were similar with that of the normal group. 5. In lymph node, the expression ratios of $CD3e^+\;to\;CD19^+$ cell and $CD4^+\;to\;CD8^+$ cell in the NR-HA I II groups were similarly maintained as those in the normal group. 6. In lymph node, $CD69^+/CD3e^+$ cells and $CD11a^+/CD19^+$ cells were decreased by NR-HA at ST36. 7. In the articular joint, $CD11b^+/Gr-1^+$ cells were decreased by NR-HA at ST36. 8. NR-HA at ST36 did not make a considerable difference in DBA/1J mice without CIA 9. Throughout the overall experimental result, NR-HA I group showed more predominant effect than the NR-HA II group. Conclusion : These results suggest that NR-HA at ST36 has an effect to control synovial cell proliferation and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as prophylaxis is important to treat rheumatoid arthritis in clinic.

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A Study on the Effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Mori Ramulus Solution at Joksamni(ST36) on Collagen-induced Arthritis (족삼리(足三里) 상지약침(桑枝藥鍼)이 Collagen-induced arthritis에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Yeong-Don;Yim, Yun-Kyoung;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Mori Ramulus herbal-acupuncture solution(MR-HAS) on arthritis of mice induced by Collagen II at Joksamni(ST36). Methods : The author performed several experimental items. First, it is the cell survival rate of mice lung fibroblasts. Second, it is the incidence rate of arthritis and arthritis index of CIA. Third, it is the levels of IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IFN-{\gamma}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum and the level of $IFN-{\gamma}$, $IFN-{\gamma}/IL-4$ ratio in CIA mouse spleen cell culture. Fourth, it is histological analysis of the mice joint. Fifth, it is expression ratio of CD3e+ to CD19+ cell, CD4+ to CD8+ cell, CD69+/CD3e+ cells, CD11a+/CD19+ cells and CD11b+/Gr-l+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells. Results : 1. In the MR-HA, the incidence of arthritis and the arthritis index were significantly decreased. 2. In MR-HA, the levels of IL-6, $IFN-{\gamma}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum of CIA mice and the level of $IFN-{\gamma}$, IL-4, $IFN-{\gamma}$, IL-4 ratio in CIA mouse spleen cell culture were significantly decreased. 3. In histology, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation were decreased in the MR-HA, and the collagen fiber expressions in the MR-HA were similar with that of the Normal group. 4. In the MR-HA, the expression ratio of CD3e+ to CD19+ cell and CD4+ to CD8+ cell were similarly maintained as Normal group in lymph nodes, and CD69+/CD3e+ cells and CD11a+/CD19+ cells were decreased in lymph nodes, and CD11b+/Gr-1+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were decreased in synovium. Conclusion : These results suggest that MR-HA at ST36 has an effect to control synovial cell proliferation and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as prophylaxis is important to treat rheumatoid arthritis in clinic.

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A Study on the Effect of Herbal-acupuncture with Eucomiae Cortex Solution at Joksamni$(ST_{36})$ on Collagen-induced Arthritis (족삼리(足三里) 두충약침(杜沖藥鍼)이 Collagen-induced Arthritis에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Jae-Hui;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Eucomiae Cortex herbal-acupuncture solution(EC-HAS) at Joksamni(ST36) on arthritis of mice induced by Collagen II. Methods : The author performed several experimental items. First, it is the cell survival rate of mice lung fibroblasts. Second, it is the incidence rate of arthritis and arthritis index of CIA. Third, it is the levels of IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IFN-{\gamma}$, $IL-{\beta}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum and the level of IFN-y,$IFN-{\gamma}$/IL -4 ratio in CIA mouse spleen cell culture. Fourth, it is histological analysis of the mice joint. Fifth, it is expression ratio of $CD3e^+$ to $CD19^+$+ cell, $CD4^+$ to $CD8^+$ cell, $CD69^+/CD3e^+$/cells, $CD11a^+/CD19^+$/cells, $CD11b^+/Gr-1^+$ cells and $CD4^+/CD25^+$ cells. Results & Conclusion : 1. In the EC-HA, the incidence of arthritis and arthritis index were significantly decreased. 2. In EC-HA, the levels of IL-6, $IFN-{\gamma}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, IgG, IgM and anti-collagen II in serum of CIA mice and the level of $IFN-{\gamma}$, IL-4, $IFN-{\gamma}$/lL-4 ratio in CIA mouse spleen cell culture were significantly decreased. 3. In the histological study, the cartilage destruction and synovial cell proliferation were decreased in the EC-HA, and the collagen fiber expressions in the EC-HA were similar with that of the Normal group. 4. In the EC-HA, the expression ratio of $CD3e^+$ to $CD19^+$ cell and $CD4^+$ to $CD8^+$ cell were similarly maintained as Normal group in lymph nodes, and $CD69^+/CD3e^+$ cells and $CD11a^+/CD19^+$ cells were decreased in lymph nodes, and $CD11b^+/Gr-1^+$ cells and $CD4^+/CD25^+$ cells were decreased in synovium. These results suggest that EC-HA at ST36 has an effect to control synovial cell proliferation and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and to be put to practical use in the future rheumatoid arthritis clinic.

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