• Title, Summary, Keyword: CAPSS emission inventory

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Uncertainty Assessment for CAPSS Emission Inventory by DARS (DARS에 의한 CAPSS 배출자료의 불확도 평가)

  • Kim, Jeong;Jang, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2014
  • The uncertainty assessment is important to improve the reliability of emission inventory data. The DARS (Data Attribute Rating System) have recommended as the uncertainty assessment technic of emission inventory by U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EIIP (Emission Inventory Improvement Program). The DARS score is based on the perceived quality of the emission factor and activity data. Scores are assigned to four attributes; measurement/method, source specificity, spatial congruity and temporal congruity. The resulting emission factor and activity rate scores are combined to arrive at an overall confidence rating for the inventory. So DARS is believed to be a useful tool and may provide more information about inventories than the usual qualitative grading procedures (e.g. A through E). In this study, the uncertainty assessment for 2009 CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) emission inventory is conducted by DARS. According to the result of this uncertainty assessment, the uncertainty for fugitive dust emission data is higher than other sources, the uncertainty of emission factor for surface coating is the highest value, and the uncertainty of activity data for motor cycle is the highest value. Also it is analysed that the improvement of uncertainty for activity data is as much important as the improvement for emission factor to upgrade the reliability of CAPSS emission inventory.

A Study on Development of Reliability Assessment of GHG-CAPSS (GHG-CAPSS 신뢰도 평가 방법 개발을 위한 연구)

  • Kim, Hye Rim;Kim, Seung Do;Hong, Yu Deok;Lee, Su Bin;Jung, Ju Young
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.203-219
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    • 2011
  • Greenhouse gas(GHG) inventories were reported recently in various fields. It, however, has been rarely to mention about the accuracy and reliability of the GHG inventory results. Some reliable assessment methods were introduced to judge the accuracy of the GHG inventory results. It is, hence, critical to develop an evaluation methodology. This project was designed 1) to develop evaluation methodology for reliability of inventory results by GHG-CAPSS, 2) to check the feasibility of the developed evaluation methodology as a result of applying this methodology to two emission sources: liquid fossil fuel and landfill, and 3) to construct the technical roadmap for future role of GHG-CAPSS. Qualitative and quantitative assessment methodologies were developed to check the reliability and accuracy of the inventory results. Qualitative assessment methodology was designed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of estimation methods of GHG emissions from emission and sink sources, activity data, emission factor, and quality management schemes of inventory results. On the other hand, quantitative assessment methodology was based on the uncertainty assessment of emission results. According to the results of applying the above evaluation methodologies to two emission sources, those seem to be working properly. However, it is necessary to develop source-specific rating systems because emission and sink sources exhibit source-specific characteristics of GHG emissions and sinks.

Korean National Emissions Inventory System and 2007 Air Pollutant Emissions

  • Lee, Dae-Gyun;Lee, Yong-Mi;Jang, Kee-Won;Yoo, Chul;Kang, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Ju-Hyoung;Jung, Sung-Woon;Park, Jung-Min;Lee, Sang-Bo;Han, Jong-Soo;Hong, Ji-Hyung;Lee, Suk-Jo
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.278-291
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    • 2011
  • Korea has experienced dramatic development and has become highly industrialized and urbanized during the past 40 years, which has resulted in rapid economic growth. Due to the industrialization and urbanization, however, air pollutant emission sources have increased substantially. Rapid increases in emission sources have caused Korea to suffer from serious air pollution. An air pollutant emissions inventory is one set of essential data to help policymakers understand the current status of air pollution levels, to establish air pollution control policies and to analyze the impacts of implementation of policies, as well as for air quality studies. To accurately and realistically estimate administrative district level air pollutant emissions of Korea, we developed a Korean Emissions Inventory System named the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS). In CAPSS, emissions sources are classified into four levels. Emission factors for each classification category are collected from various domestic and international research reports, and the CAPSS utilizes various national, regional and local level statistical data, compiled by approximately 150 Korean organizations. In this paper, we introduced for the first time, a Korean national emissions inventory system and release Korea's official 2007 air pollutant emissions for five regulated air pollutants.

Development of CAPSS2SMOKE Program for Standardized Input Data of SMOKE Model (배출 모델 표준입력자료 작성을 위한 CAPSS2SMOKE 프로그램 개발)

  • Lee, Yong-Mi;Lee, Dae-Gyun;Lee, Mi-Hyang;Hong, Sung-Chul;Yoo, Chul;Jang, Kee-Won;Hong, Ji-Hyung;Lee, Suk-Jo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.838-848
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    • 2013
  • The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is capable of providing high quality atmospheric chemistry profiles through the utilization of high-resolution meteorology and emissions data. However, it cannot simulate air quality accurately if input data are not appropriate and reliable. One of the most important inputs required by CMAQ is the air pollutants emissions, which determines air pollutants concentrations during the simulation. For the CMAQ simulation of Korean peninsula, we, in general, use the Korean National Emission Inventory data which are estimated by Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS). However, since they are not provided by model-ready emission data, we should convert CAPSS emissions into model-ready data. The SMOKE is the emission model we used in this study to generate CMAQ-ready emissions. Because processing the emissions data is very monotonous and tedious work, we have developed CAPSS2SMOKE program to convert CAPSS emissions into SMOKE-ready data with ease and effective. CAPSS2SMOKE program consists of many codes and routines such as source classification code, $PM_{10}$ to $PM_{2.5}$ ratio code, map projection conversion routine, spatial allocation routine, and so on. To verify the CAPSS2SMOKE program, we have run SMOKE using the CAPSS 2009 emissions and found that the SMOKE results inherits CAPSS emissions quite well.

A Recently Improved Approach to Develop Effective Emission Inventory for Air Quality Planning in US (미국의 대기질 관리계획 수립 시 활용성 강화를 위한 배출량 목록 산정에 대한 최근 접근 방안)

  • Kim, Byeong-Uk;Kim, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Soontae
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.342-355
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    • 2018
  • Emission inventory (EI) is often recognized as a foundational pillar for air quality planning. In this manuscript, we reviewed national emission inventory (NEI) development processes in United States(US) and made recommendations for South Korean emission inventory development for the future. First, we examined history of emission inventory development in US while focusing on what has been success and failure. We noticed that, in general, emission reductions led to air pollution abatement although efficacy of same degree of reduction may not result in similar air quality improvement. Second, we described conventional approaches of developing NEI and differences between NEI and EI for State Implementation Plan which is required for air quality management in US. Last, we analyzed how US Environmental Protection Agency and counterpart agencies in states came up with a new plan for the next major regulatory modeling project. Based on our analysis, we conclude that early and steady participation of local governments will lead to effective and efficient emission inventory development and, in turn, will result in successful air quality planning that is necessary for actual air quality improvement.

Estimation of Fugitive Dust Emission by Administrative Districts (전국 시도별 비산먼지 배출량 산정 (2001년도))

  • Kim H.G;Jung Y.W;Hong J. H
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.263-276
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    • 2004
  • According to the annual emission estimates of U.S.A., fugitive dust, the particulate matter entrained in the ambient air which is caused from man-made or natural activities such as movement of soil, vehicles, equipments and windblown dust, contributes 90% of PM$_{10}$ emission. In spite of an importance of fugitive dust emission in PM$_{10}$ estimation, it is excluded in the national emission inventory of Korea so far. In this paper, an emission inventory of fugitive dust for each region and in major cities throughout the country, which is the first time in Korea these values have been compiled, is presented. Sources of fugitive dust emission have been classified into paved/unpaved roads, construction operations, agricultural operations, and natural sources. The emission factors of the existing fugitive dust emission were reassessed in a way that significantly improved the reliability of the estimated result. The Korea's first national emission inventory of fugitive dust by administrative districts proposed in this paper would provide scientific reference data for establishing an reduction strategy of PM$_{10}$ and preparing effective control measures, and would contribute to academic achievement in the atmospheric environments field and the establishment of CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System).stem).

PM2.5 Simulations for the Seoul Metropolitan Area: ( I ) Contributions of Precursor Emissions in the 2013 CAPSS Emissions Inventory (수도권 초미세먼지 농도모사: ( I ) 2013 CAPSS 배출량 목록의 전구물질별 기여도 추정)

  • Kim, Soontae;Bae, Changhan;Kim, Byeong-Uk;Kim, Hyun Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.139-158
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    • 2017
  • CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model) simulations were carried out to estimate the potential range of contributions on surface $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations over the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) with the gaseous precursors and Primary Particulate Matters(PPM) available from a recent national emissions inventory. In detail, on top of a base simulation utilizing the 2013 Clean Air Policy Supporting System (CAPSS) emission inventory, a set of Brute Force Method (BFM) simulations after reducing anthropogenic $NO_x$, $SO_2$, $NH_3$, VOCs, and PPM emissions released from area, mobile, and point sources in SMA by 50% were performed in turn. Modeling results show that zero-out contributions(ZOC) of $NH_3$ and PPM emissions from SMA are as high as $4{\sim}5{\mu}g/m^3$ over the region during the modeling period. On the contrary, ZOC of local $NO_x$ and $SO_2$ emissions to SMA $PM_{2.5}$ are less than $1{\mu}g/m^3$. Moreover, model analyses indicate that a wintertime $NO_x$ reduction at least up to 50% increases SMA $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations, probably due to increased HNO3 formation and conversion to aerosols under more abundant ozone and radical conditions after the $NO_x$ reduction. However, a nation-wide $NO_x$ reduction decreased SMA $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations even during winter, which implies that nation-wide reductions would be more effective to curtail SMA $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations than localized efforts.

A Study on Estimation of Air Pollutants Emission from Agricultural Waste Burning (농업잔재물 노천소각에 의한 대기오염물질 배출량 산출에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong Young;Choi, Min-Ae;Han, Yong-Hee;Park, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we estimate air pollutants emission from agricultural waste burning. We investigated activities related to agricultural waste burning such as crop burning rates, location, and time by region. The average crop burning rates per square meter farmland of fruits, pulses, barleys, cereals, vegetables, and special crops were $273.1g/m^2$, $105.7g/m^2$, $7.4g/m^2$, $121.0g/m^2$, $290.7g/m^2$, and $392.9g/m^2$, respectively. We estimated air pollutants emissions with pre-developed emission factors. The estimated air pollutant emission of agricultural biomass burning were CO 148,028 ton/year, $NO_x$ 5,220 ton/year, $SO_x$ 11 ton/year, VOC 59,767 ton/year, TSP 21,548 ton/year, $PM_{10}$ 8,909 ton/year, $PM_{2.5}$ 7,405 ton/year, and $NH_3$ 5 ton/year. When these results compared with the entire emissions of national inventory (CAPSS), CO, VOC, $PM_{10}$ account for about 17.8%, 6.2%, 6.7% of the total, respectively.

Ozone Simulations over the Seoul Metropolitan Area for a 2007 June Episode, Part I: Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions Speciated for the SAPRC99 Chemical Mechanism (2007년 6월 수도권 오존모사 I - 광화학측정자료를 이용한 SAPRC99 화학종별 휘발성유기물질 배출량 입력자료 평가)

  • Kim, Soon-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.580-602
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    • 2011
  • Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the 2007 CAPSS (Clean Air Protection Supporting System) emissions inventory are chemically speciated for the SAPRC99 (Statewide Air Pollution Research Center 99) mechanism, following the Source Classification Code (SCC) matching method to borrow the U.S.EPA's chemical speciation profiles. CMAQ simulations with High-order Direct Decoupled Method (HDDM) are in turn applied to evaluate uncertainty in the method by comparing the simulated model VOC species to the observations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) for a 2007 June episode. Simulations under-predicted ALK1 to ALK4 in SAPRC99 by a factor of 2 to 5 and over-predicted ALK5 by a factor of 7.5 while ARO1, ARO2, OLE1, and ethylene (ETH) are comparable to the observations, showing relative difference by 10 to 30%. OLE2 emissions are roughly 4 times overestimated. Emission rates for individual VOC model species are revised referring to the ratio of simulated to observed concentrations. Impact of the VOC emission changes on the overall ozone prediction was insignificant for the days of which 1-hr maximum ozone are lower than 100 ppb. However, simulations showed ozone difference by 5 to 10 ppb when high ozone above 120 ppb was observed in the vicinity of Seoul. This result suggests that evaluations on individual model VOC emissions be necessary to lead ozone control plans to the right direction. Moreover, the simulated ratios of ARO1 and ARO2 to $NO_x$ are roughly 50% lower than the observed ones, which imply that adjustment in $NO_x$ and VOC emission rates may be required to mimic the real VOC/$NO_x$ condition over the area.