• Title/Summary/Keyword: C57BL/6 mice

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$17{\beta}$-estradiol Prevents the Expression of $CEBP{\alpha}$-mediated Adipocyte Marker Genes in Female Ovariectomized C57BL/6 Mice

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2008
  • Adipogenesis is a complex sequence of events that culminates in the differentiation of fibroblast-like preadipocytes into specialized lipid-filled adipocytes and also involves a cascade of expression of many transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}(PPAR{\gamma})$ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs). $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/EBPs transcriptionally transactivate adipocyte specific genes, including fatty acid transport protein (FAT/CD36) and leptin. To determine whether $17{\beta}$-estradiol modulates $C/EBP{\alpha}$ actions on adipogenesis in high fat diet-fed female ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 mice, mice were treated with $17{\beta}$-estradiol for 7 days and the effects of $17{\beta}$-estradiol on adipose tissue mass and expression of adipocyte specific gene as well as $C/EBP{\alpha}$ were measured. Compared to vehicle-treated OVX control mice, OVX mice treated with $17{\beta}$-estradiol for 7 days had lower adipose tissue weights that were similar to weights in high fat diet-fed sham-operated (Sham) mice. OVX mice showed the increased expression of $C/EBP{\alpha}$ mRNA compared with Sham mice. However, $17{\beta}$-estradiol treatment in OVX mice inhibited OVX induced-$C/EBP{\alpha}$ activation, indicating that $17{\beta}$-estradiol may act as an inhibitor of $C/EBP{\alpha}$ action. Moreover, $17{\beta}$-estradiol decreased mRNA levels of adipocyte marker genes, such as lipoprotein lipase, FAT/CD36 and leptin, to levels in Sham mice. These results suggest that down-regulation of adipogenesis by $17{\beta}$-estradiol may be due to reduced adipose $C/EBP{\alpha}$ activities in female OVX C57BL/6 mice.

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Impact of High Fat Diet-induced Obesity on the Plasma Levels of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in C57BL/6 Mice

  • Kim, Minjeong;Bae, SeungJin;Lim, Kyung-Min
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.476-480
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    • 2013
  • Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in developed countries. It negatively affects diverse aspects of human wellbeing. Of these, a relationship between obesity and depression is widely recognized but biomarkers for assessment of obesity-associated mood changes in animal obesity models are rarely known. Here we explored the link between obesity and the plasma levels of monoamine neurotransmitters involved in mood control using a sensitive UPLC/MSMS technique in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model in male C57BL/6 mice to explore the potential utility of plasma tests for obesity-associated mood change. HFD (60% of total calories, 8 weeks) induced significantly higher weight gains in body (+37.8%) and fat tissue (+306%) in male C57BL/6 mice. Bioanalysis of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in plasma at 8 weeks of HFD revealed that serotonin decreased significantly in the obese mice when compared to normal diet-fed mice ($2.7{\pm}0.6$ vs $4.3{\pm}2.0ng/ml$, N=8). Notably, a negative correlation was found between the levels of serotonin and body weight gains. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) with the individual levels of neurotransmitters revealed that plasma levels of dopamine and serotonin could apparently differentiate the obese mice from lean ones. Our study demonstrated that blood plasma levels of neurotransmitters can be employed to evaluate the mood changes associated with obesity and more importantly, provided an important clue for understanding of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders.

Effect of herbal mixture (RAA) on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice (C57BL/6 마우스에서 복합한약재(RAA)의 모발 성장 효능)

  • Kim, Yoo-Jin;Lee, Ye Ji;Kim, Mi Ryeo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2019
  • Objective : Recently, hair has become one of the important aspects of beauty. So, there are many studies about prevention and treatment of alopecia. Finasteride and minoxidil have been known to drug for alopecia treatment. However, these agents have side effects such as irritation, pruritus, and erythema when they were used for a long time. So, we assessed hair growth effect on herbal mixture (RAA) include in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, Achyranthis Radix, and Acanthopanacis Cortex. Methods : 6 weeks aged C57BL/6 mice were divided three treatment groups. : CON group (vehicle solution), MNXD group (positive control, 3% minoxidil), RAA group (15% RAA solution). And we applied 200 ㎕ of three groups to shaved dorsal skin every day. Hair growth effects of treatment were determined through phototrichogram by folliscope and hair follicle morphometry by H&E staining. And we assessed hair growth-related gene (VEGF, IGF-1, TGF-β1) expressions by western blot and 5-α reductase II analysis of dermal (skin) or internal organ (prostate gland). Results : Hair density and hair follicle size in MNXD or RAA group was enhanced compared to those of CON group, respectively. Also, the protein expression levels in dermal of VEGF, IGF-1 increased but TGF-β1 decreased in RAA and MNXD group, compared to CON group, respectively. 5-α reductase II levels of tissues in MNXD or RAA group significantly decreased compared to those of CON group, respectively. Conclusion : These results suggest that RAA has the promoting effect on hair growth.

Neuroprotective Effects of Modified Yuldahanso-tang (MYH) in a Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model (MPTP로 유도된 Parkinson's disease 동물 모델에서 열다한소탕 가감방 (MYH)의 신경 세포 보호 효과)

  • Go, Ga-Yeon;Kim, Yoon-Ha;Ahn, Taek-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.270-287
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    • 2015
  • Objectives To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of modified Yuldahanso-tang (MYH) in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. Methods 1) Four groups (each of 8 rats per group) were used in this study. 2) The neuroprotective effect of MYH was examined in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. C57BL/6 mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg/day), intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 5 days. 3) The brains of 2 mice per group were removed and frozen at $-20^{\circ}C$, and the striatum-substantia nigra part was seperated. The protein volume was measured by Bradford method following Bio-Rad protein analyzing kit. Using mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA Assay Kit. 4) The brains of 2 mice per group were separated and removed. TH-immunohistochemical was examined in the MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of MYH on ST and SNpc. 5) Two mice out of each group were anesthetized and skulls were opened from occipital to frontal direction to take out the brains. The brains added TTC solution for 20 minutes for staining. 6) The water tank used for morris water maze test was filled with $28^{\circ}C$ water, and a round platform of 10cm in diameter was installed for mice to step on. The study was carried out once a day within 30 seconds, keep exercising to step on the platform in the pool. 7) The brains of two mice out of each group were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and paraphillin substance was infiltrated. They were fragmented by microtome, and observed under an optical microscope after Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. 8) A round acrylic cylinder with its upper side open was filled with clean water and depressive mouse models were forced to swim for 15 minutes. After 24 hours the animals were put in the same equipment for 5 minutes and were forced to swim. 9) The convenient, simple, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for simultaneous determination of Neurotransmitters in MPTP-MYH group. Results 1) MYH possess Dopamine cell protective effect on MPTP-induced injury in striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta. 2) MYH inhibits the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreacitive (TH-IR) cells in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta on MPTP-induced injury in C57BL/6 mice. 3) MYH possesses improvement effect on MPTP-induced memory deterioration in C57BL/6 mice through the reduction of prolongated Sort of lost time by MPTP injection using the Morris water maze test. 4) MYH possesses hippocampal neuron protective effect on MPTP-induced injury in C57BL/6 mice. 5) MYH possesses improvement effect on MPTP-induced motor behaviour deficits and depression in C57BL/6 mice through the reduction of prolongated losing motion by MPTP injection using the Forced swimming test. 6) MYH increases serotonin product amount on MPTP-induced injury in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions This experiment suggests that the neuroprotective effect of MYH is mediated by the increase in Dopamin, TH-ir cell, Hippocampus and Serotonin. Furthermore, MYH essential oil may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent regarding Parkinson's disease.

Anti-metastatic Effect of Garlic Hexane Extract on Lung Metastasis Induced by Melanoma B16F10 Cells in Mice (Melanoma B16F10 cell에 의해서 유도된 mouse모델에서 마늘 헥산 추출물의 암전이에 억제 효과)

  • Ko, Min Jung;Rajasekar, Seetharaman;Wang, Ziyu;Li, Mei;Kwak, Jung Ho;Park, Young Hoon;Son, Beung Gu;Kang, Jum Soon;Choi, Young Whan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2016
  • Metastatic cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related death since they rarely respond to available treatments. There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of cancer. Recent studies of our laboratory have revealed that a garlic-extracts is effective in suppressing metastasis. For experimental metastasis, C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with melanoma B16F10 cells in the tail vein, and were orally administered various concentrations (0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) of garlic hexane extract (GHE) for 21 days. The incidence and the area of the melanoma cell colony occupied by the poorly differentiated carcinoma were significantly lower in dose-dependent in 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW GHE - treated mice compared with control mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that GHE administration prevents lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice.

Effect of stabilized rice bran-added high sucrose diet on glucose control in C57BL/6 mice (안정화미강을 첨가한 고서당식이 섭취가 C57BL/6 mice의 혈당조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Shin, Mal-Shick;Heo, Young-Ran
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Rice bran is a byproduct of the hulling of rice and contains a variety of bioactive components. Various studies have reported on the antioxidative, anticancer, immune-enhancing, and hypocholesterolemic effects of rice bran. However, few studies about the physiological activity of stabilized rice bran supplement on dietary intake of sugars is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stabilized rice bran supplement on blood glucose in C57BL/6 mice fed a high sucrose diet. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into three groups respectively, and were fed a normal diet (ND group), a high sucrose diet (HSD group) or a high sucrose diet containing 20% stabilized rice bran (HSD-SRB group) for 12 weeks. Results: In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), after seven weeks of feeding on the experimental diets, a significantly lower result was observed for HSD-SRB than for HSD at 30 and 60 minutes after oral administration in glucose solution (2 g/kg body weight). The incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of HSD-SRB was significantly lower than that of HSD. After 12 weeks, fasting blood glucose level of HSD-SRB was significantly lower than that of HSD. No significant difference in the serum insulin level was observed between HSD and HSD-SRB. However, HOMA-IR was significantly decreased in HSD-SRB compared to HSD. In addition, HOMA ${\beta}$-cell was significantly increased in HSD-SRB compared to HSD. Triglyceride in liver of HSD-SRB was significantly lower than that of HSD. Conclusion: Feeding diets containing 20% rice bran improved insulin resistance and insulin secretion by decreasing triglyceride in liver. Thus, rice bran has a positive effect on glycemic control. In addition, the results are expected to be utilized as a basis for human study and development of food products with added rice bran.

The Effect of EH-HA(Ephedrae Herba Herbal Acupuncture) at ST36 on OVA-induced Asthma in Mice (마황(麻黃) 약침(藥鍼)의 천식억제(喘息抑制) 및 면역조절효과(免疫調節效果)에 대(對)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Song, Hyong-Gun;Lee, Hyeon
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2006
  • Background : Recently, so many people are suffered from the allergic or auto-immune disease, and the representative disease is just Allergic Asthma. It is because human immune function has been decreased. Many treatments were done to treat this disease, and many methods were studied to increase immune function and to suppress the asthma. But, the effect of asthma-suppression and improvement of immune response of EH-HA(Ephedrae Herba Herbal Acupuncture) has not been studied in detail. To study the effects of EH-HA, we injected EH-HA at Joksamni(ST36) of C57BL/6 mice. Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of asthma-suppression and improvement of immune response of EH-HA(Ephedrae Herba Herbal Acupuncture). EH-HA was done at Joksamni(ST36) of the mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma. Methods : C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA(ovalbumin) for 12 weeks. Two experimental groups were treated with different concentrations(1%, 0.1%) of EH-HA at Joksamni(ST36) for the later 8 weeks(3times/week). Results : 1. The lung weight of the group treated with EH-HA decreased significantly compared with that of control group. 2. The total cells in lung, total leukocytes and eosinophils in BALF of the group treated with EH-HA decreased significantly compared with those of control group. 3. Eosinophils in BALF of the group treated with EH-HA in photomicrographs decreased significantly compared with those of control group. 4. The concentrations of IL-13, IgE, IL-4 in serum and IL-4 in BALF of the group treated with EH-HA decreased significantly compared with those of control group. 5. The numbers of $Gr-1^+/CD11b^+\;cells,\;CD3e^-/CCR3^+\;cells,\;CD4^+\;cells,\;CD8^+\;cells,\;CD3e^+/CD69^+\;cells\;and\;IgE^+/B220^+\;cells$ in lung of the group treated with EH-HA decreased significantly compared with those of control group. 6. In RT-PCR, the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in the group treated with EH-HA decreased compared with those of control group. Conclusion : These results suggested that EH-HA at Joksamni(ST36) in C57BL/6mice may be effective to OVA-induced asthma of C57BL/6 mice.

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The effect of anti-cancer and Immune response improvement of ELP(Eclipta prostrata) Herbal-Acupuncture into Chok-samni(St36) (족삼리(足三里)에 시술(施術)한 한연초(旱蓮草) 약침(藥鍼)의 면역증진(免疫增進)과 항암작용(抗癌作用)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Jung, Young-don;Lee, Hyun;Lee, Byung-ryul;Yim, Yun-kyoung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.141-153
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    • 2003
  • To study the effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement of herbal-acupuncture with Eclipta prostrata diffuse herba infusion solution(ELP-HAS), we injected ELP-HAS into Chok-samni(St36) of C57BL/6 mice implanted intravenously with B16-F10 melanoma. We have reached the following conclusion through the effect on the number of $CD25^+/CD4^+$, $CD8^+/CD3e^+$, $CD69^+/B220^+$, $NK1.1+/CD3e^+$ cells in mouse PBMCs, the effect on the pulmonary colony number, and the effect on MST(Median Survival Time) and ILS(Increase of Life Span) of C57BL/6 mice implanted intravenously with B16-F10 melanoma The results were obtained as follows: 1. In the experiment groups treated with ELP(Eclipta prostrata) Herbal-Acupuncture, the spleen cell proliferation in Balb/c mouse was significantly increased compared with control group. 2. In the experiment groups treated with ELP(Eclipta prostrata) Herbal-Acupuncture, the percentage of $CD25^+/CD4^+$, $CD8^+/CD3e^+$, $CD69^+/B220^+$, $NK1.1^+/CD3e^+$ cells in C57Bl/6 mouse PBMCs was increased compared with control group. 3. In the experiment groups treated with ELP(Eclipta prostrata) Herbal-Acupuncture, the pulmonary colony number of C57BL/6 mice implanted intravenously with B16-F10 melanoma was decreased significantly compared with control group. 4. In the experiment groups treated with ELP(Eclipta prostrata)Herbal-Acupuncture, MST(Median Survival Time) and ILS(Increase of Life Span) of C57BL/6 mice implanted intravenously with B16-F10 melanoma were increased significantly compared with control group.

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Anti-obesity effects of Chrysanthemum indicum L. in C57BL/6 mice induced by high fat diet (고지방식이로 유도된 C57BL/6 mice에서 감국이 미치는 비만억제 효과)

  • Choi, Jae Young;Lee, Ja-bok;Kim, Myeong-ok
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2021
  • In order to determine the possibility that Chrysanthemum indicum L. cultured with Lactococcus lactis (CILL) is a material for obesity suppression food, the body weight, body fat mass, and T cells were determined in C57BL/6 mice induced by a high fat diet. The CILL (25.15±2.44 g) demonstrated weight loss from week 4 onward and maintained a low weight gain from week 1 to week 8 (1.00±0.53 g). The 8-week body weight (30.38±4.17 g) indicated loss of 13.15% when compared to the HFD (60% high fat diet, 34.99±2.09 g). Fat mass decreased to 10.3022±2.8813 g, and the absolute liver weight decreased relative to that in the HFD. CD4+ T cells were 4.84±1.33%, CD8+ T cells 7.02±2.26%, and CD4+CD8+ T cells 1.46±0.81%, which were all higher than those in the HFD. As a result, CILL can be used as a material for preventing obesity as an effective measure toward reducing weight when consumed orally.