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An Approach for Enhancing Current Korean e-Grocery Business Focusing on Delivery Service Alternatives (한국의 e-Grocery 배송서비스 대안에 관한 연구)

  • Koo, Jong-Soon;Lee, Jung-Sun;Jeon, Dong-Hwa
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.169-201
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    • 2011
  • There was a new wave in grocery business with development of information and technology, thus a movement from traditional stores to online stores, In order to expand the scale of traditional supermarket and to satisfy the customers' needs, they provide offline and online services simultaneously. This paper is based on the previous studies which had been researched in developed countries from late 1990s to early 2000s and the purpose of this study is to introduce the idea and operation system of e-Grocery business. Moreover, we suggest the alternatives on delivery service methods in order to satisfy the customers' needs through analyzing the current condition of e-Grocers in Korea. According to the result of this study, Korean e-Grocers offer only attended home delivery services. In our opinion, Korean supermarkets have to take hybrid model which Tesco.com is using. There are some alternatives to increase the profits of Korean e-Grocers and to provide better services to their customers as follows: As an alternatives for delivery services, picking service is the easiest and cheapest way to apply for supermarkets. This is very useful for working women and also it is possible to order by smartphone recently. They can order the goods to the closest local supermarkets from working place, and then they pick them up on the way home from working off. In order to improve the quality of delivery services, to use the reception box will be the way to provide better services to the customers. The reception box is a way to protect the quality of goods such as fresh-cut product, which require the freshness through the temperature adjustment, and also to keep the safety of ordered goods through locking system Through this system, supermarkets are able to use attended or unattended services under the customers' satisfaction. However, using the reception box is expensive, so shared reception box will be an alternative. As an alternative for development of e-Grocery business, the advertisement for e-Grocery business has to be supported in order to attract potential customers in e-Grocery business. Furthermore, the main concerns of e-Grocery business such as the sanitation and safety of goods, and convenience must be guaranteed in order to keep the loyal customers and to attract new customers.

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Analysis of right border flanking sequence in transgenic chinese cabbage harboring integrated T-DNA (Agrobacterium을 이용하여 형질전환시킨 배추에서 T-DNA Right Border 인접염기서열 분석)

  • Ahn, Hong-Il;Shin, Kong-Sik;Woo, Hee-Jong;Lee, Ki-Jong;Kim, Hyo-Sung;Park, Yong-Hwan;Suh, Seok-Cheol;Cho, Hyun-Suk;Kweon, Soon-Jong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2011
  • We developed 14 transgenic lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) harboring the T-DNA border sequences and CryIAc1 transgene of the binary vector 416 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA transfer. Six lines had single copy cryIAc1 gene and four of them contained no vector backbone DNA. Of the left border (LB) flanking sequences six nucleotides were deleted in transgenic lines 416-2 and 416-3, eleven nucleotides in line 416-9, and 65 nucleotides including the whole LB sequences in line 416-17, respectively. And we defined 499 bp of genomic DNA (gDNA) of transformed Chinese cabbage, and blast results showed 96% homology with Brassica oleracea sequences. PCR with specific primer for the right border (RB) franking sequence revealed 834 bp of PCR product sequence, and it was consisted of 3' end of cryIAc1, nosterminal region and 52 bp of Chinese cabbage genomic DNA near RB. RB sequences were not found and the 58 nucleotides including 21 bp of nos-terminator 3' end were deleted. Also, there were deletion of 10 bp of the known genomic sequences and insertion of 65 bp undefined genomic sequences of Chinese cabbage in the integration site. These results demonstrate that the integration of T-DNA can be accompanied by unusual deletions and insertions both in transgenic and genomic sequences.

A Comparison of Postharvest Physiology and Storability of Paprika Fresh-Cut Made from Disordered and Normal Fruits (착색단고추 생리장해과와 정상과의 수확 후 생리 및 신선편이의 저장성 비교)

  • Yoo, Tae-Jong;Jung, Hyun-Jin;Choi, In-Lee;Kim, Il-Seop;Kang, Ho-Min
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2010
  • The study was conducted to compare the postharvest physiology and storability of fresh cut paprika fruits classified by normal, blossom end rot(BER), and misshapen (or knots) fruit. Some disordered paprika fruits that were produced frequently during high temperature season in highland, were sorted out to non-marketable products. These fruits are mostly wasted, but some of them may be used for fresh cut. The respiration rate of fresh cut paprika fruits was lower and ethylene production rate was higher in normal fruits than in disordered fruits, but there was no significant difference. The fresh-cut paprika fruits were stored in MAP conditions at $4^{\circ}C$, $9^{\circ}C$ and room temperature in 25 ${\mu}m$ and 50 ${\mu}m$ thickness ceramic film packaging. The fresh weight of fresh cut paprika fruits decreased below to 1.1% regardless of fruit types, but the fresh weight loss increased in thinner packaging materials and lower storage temperatures. There were not significant different carbon dioxide and oxygen contents in MAP of all fruit types, while $4^{\circ}C$ storage temperature treatment and 25 ${\mu}m$ thickness ceramic film treatment had lower carbon dioxide and higher oxygen contents. Moreover, the carbon dioxide and oxygen contents were changed rapidly at 9 days in $4^{\circ}C$ storage and at 6 days in $9^{\circ}C$ storage when the visual quality of fresh cut decreased dramatically. The ethylene concentration of packages was below 7 ${\mu}l{\cdot}l^{-1}$ in all treatments during storage, while the treatments of thinner packaging material and lower storage temperature showed lower ethylene concentration. The fresh cut of disordered fruits showed less visual quality than normal fruit treatment in both $4^{\circ}C$ and $9^{\circ}C$ storage temperatures, but there was no significant difference. The value of $4^{\circ}C$ treatment that measured 12 days in storage was higher than $9^{\circ}C$ treatment that measured 9 days in storage. The results suggest that the disordered fruits may be used to fresh cut product without any concerns that they will decreased the value of commodities more quickly than the fresh cut made of marketable paprika fruits. As the fresh cut paprika fruits stored in MAP condition, the more effective storage temperature is $4^{\circ}C$ that may have induced chilling injury a whole fruit of the paprika.

Monitoring of Food Additives as an Artificial Sweetener on Favorite Foods of Children (어린이 기호식품의 인공감미료 함량 모니터링)

  • Han, Youn-Jeong;Kim, Jun-Hyun;Park, Seung-Young;Oh, Jae-Ho;Jang, Young-Mi;Kim, Mee-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2010
  • In this study, monitoring of food additives as an artificial sweetener on favorite foods of children, which are deal at retail store and stationery store around eliminatory school, was performed. We analyzed aspartame, potassium acesulfame, sodium saccharin, and cyclamate from candys, biscuits, chocolates and others. Total 604 items as targeted food were collected from the other country; 285 items of candys, 131 items of biscuits, 74 items of chocolates., 114 items of others. Targeted foods were classified by manufacture nation; 308 samples from domestic products, 211 from China, 26 from Indonesia, and 59 items from other nations. Artificial sweeteners were detected from 75 cases of food stuff which were 38 native product, 25 China, 9 Indonesia, and 3 others. The percentage of detected artificial sweeteners was aspartame 7.8% (47 cases), potassium acesulfame 3.0% (18 cases), sodium saccharin 1.8% (11 cases), and cyclamate 2.6% (16 cases). The detected concentration were followed [average(minimum-maximum) mg/kg]; aspartame 817 (21-4,988), potassium acesulfame 192 (24-1,136), sodium saccharin 91 (5-326), and cyclamate 926 (8-4,680). Aspartame was detected mainly on Korea foods, and cyclamate and sodium saccharin were detected from Indonesia food, artificial sweeteners were detected Chinese food, broadly. As a result, 17 cases were violated against regulatory standard of cyclamate, and sodium saccharin. Considering average body weight (36.9 kg) and daily intake of biscuits (15.6 g) for elementary student, ratio of estimated daily intake and acceptable daily intake was 0.86% for aspartame, 0.54% for potassium acesulfame, 0.77% for sodium saccharin, and 3.56% for cyclamate.

Deduction and Verification of Optimal Factors for Stent Structure and Mechanical Reaction Using Finite Element Analysis (스텐트의 구조 및 기계적인 반응에 대한 최적인자 도출과 유한요소해석법을 통한 검증)

  • Jeon, Dong-Min;Jung, Won-Gyun;Kim, Han-Ki;Kim, Sang-Ho;Shin, Il-Gyun;Jang, Hong-Seok;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2010
  • Recently, along with technology development of endoscopic equipment, a stent has been developed for the convenience of operation, shortening of recovery times, and reduction of patient's pain. To this end, optimal factors are simulated for the stent structure and mechanical reaction and verified using finite element analysis. In order to compare to present commercialized product such as Zilver (Cook, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) and S.M.A.R.T (Cordis, Bridgewater Towsnhip, New Jersey, USA), mechanical impact factors were determined through Taguchi factor analysis, and flexibility and expandability of all the products including ours were tested using finite element analysis. Also, important factors were sought that fulfill the optimal condition using central composition method of response surface analysis, and optimal design were carried out based on the important factors. From the centra composition method of Response surface analysis, it is found that importat factors for flexibility is stent thickness (T) and unit area (W) and those for expandability is stent thickness (T). In results, important factors for optimum condition are 0.17 mm for stent thickness (T) and $0.09\;mm^2$ for unit area (W). Determined and verified by finite element analysis in out research institute, a stent was manufactured and tested with the results of better flexibility and expandability in optimal condition compared to other products. Recently, As Finite element analysis stent mechanical property assessment for research much proceed. But time and reduce expenses research rarely stent of optimum coditions. In this research, Important factor as mechanical impact factor stent Taguchi factor analysis arrangement to find flexibility with expansibility as Finite element analysis. Also, Using to Center composition method of Response surface method appropriate optimized condition searching for important factor, these considering had design optimized. Production stent time and reduce expenses was able to do the more coincide with optimum conditions. These kind of things as application plan industry of stent development period of time and reduce expenses etc. be of help to many economic development.

Technology Innovation Activity and Default Risk (기술혁신활동이 부도위험에 미치는 영향 : 한국 유가증권시장 및 코스닥시장 상장기업을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jin-Su
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.55-80
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    • 2009
  • Technology innovation activity plays a pivotal role in constructing the entrance barrier for other firms and making process improvement and new product. and these activities give a profit increase and growth to firms. Thus, technology innovation activity can reduce the default risk of firms. However, technology innovation activity can also increase the firm's default risk because technology innovation activity requires too much investment of the firm's resources and has the uncertainty on success. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of technology innovation activity on the default risk of firms. This study's sample consists of manufacturing firms listed on the Korea Securities Market and The Kosdaq Market from January 1,2000 to December 31, 2008. This study makes use of R&D intensity as an proxy variable of technology innovation activity. The default probability which proxies the default risk of firms is measured by the Merton's(l974) debt pricing model. The main empirical results are as follows. First, from the empirical results, it is found that technology innovation activity has a negative and significant effect on the default risk of firms independent of the Korea Securities Market and Kosdaq Market. In other words, technology innovation activity reduces the default risk of firms. Second, technology innovation activity reduces the default risk of firms independent of firm size, firm age, and credit score. Third, the results of robust analysis also show that technology innovation activity is the important factor which decreases the default risk of firms. These results imply that a manager must show continuous interest and investment in technology innovation activity of one's firm. And a policymaker also need design an economic policy to promote the technology innovation activity of firms.

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A Study on the Improvement of Laws Related to the Safety Management of Children's Play Facilities (어린이놀이시설 안전관리법규의 개선방향)

  • Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.47-61
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to understand the laws related to the safety management of children's play facilities(LRSMCPF) including the "Safety Supervision Law of Children's Play Facilities(SSLCPF)" and the "Quality Management and Industrial Products Safety Management Law(QMIPSAL)", in order to analyze the problems by 4 phases-development of products, landscape design, landscape construction and maintenance considering landscape project procedure-and to propose a revision of the laws. The results are as follows: 1. The various LRSMCPF, SSLCPF and QMIPSAL, as basic laws for the safety management of children's play facilities, were insufficient regarding the features of children's play facilities and play spaces, which are both comparatively varied and complex. 2. In development of products, the one-year duration of safety certification based on QMIPSAL was too short and the procedure for safety certification were redundant in both products and plants inspection, and export and import product inspection. 3. The field inspection of construction sites based on SSLCPF was repeated with quality control and a consultation of rules based on "Construction Technology Management Law". 4. There are not enough safety inspection organizations regarding children's play facilities to meet the demand of safety certification, safety inspection, and safety education in the near future. 5. For children's play safety, the establishment of a general safety management system for children's play connected with the phases is needed to ensure safe play equipment, to construct safe playgrounds, and to manage play facilities. The criteria, regulations, and procedure regarding safety certification and safety inspection of play facilities must be revised efficiently and standardized to a global level as well. To improve the system and contents of safety certification and inspection, authorization of safety inspection organizations based on landscape architecture is needed. Further study will be required to concretely analyze in detail the laws, enforcement decrees and rules, and ordinances that consider the practical experience of professional landscape architects, inspectors, and lawyers.

Research on the Factors that Affect Consumption Behaviors of Ethnic Food Restaurants (외국음식전문점 이용행동에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Hyung-Shik;Kim, Young-Shim
    • CRM연구
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2009
  • In an attempt to explore the consumption behaviors of customers regarding ethnic food restaurants the present study examined the effects of consumer characteristics, accessibility of ethnic food restaurants, product characteristics, and social factors on the customer behavior towards ethnic food restaurants, and further investigated the causal relationship between the customer behavior and his or her intent to reuse. A questionnaire survey was conducted approximately for a month with domestic consumers who had tried foreign cuisines. A total of 230 questionnaires were distributed and 215 questionnaires were collected, of which 210 were used in the final analysis excluding five due to inadequate responses. The finding of the study were as follows. First, of the consumers' lifestyles category the gourmet oriented did not yield significant effect on subjective norm or other consumption behavior, whereas the trend oriented had noticeable influence on both factors. Second, while consumers' diversity-seeking characteristic did not affect subjective norm, it affected consumption behavior of ethic food restaurants. The results seem to indicate that the diversity-seeking characteristic is more to one's individual attributes, rather than being influenced by others. Third, ethnic food restaurant's consumption accessibilities strongly influenced the subjective norm, suggesting that in using the ethnic food restaurants, the more convenient the accessibility is, the higher the possibility of use from influenced reference group. However, when consumers previously had not been exposed to ethnic cuisines, convenient accessibility was not able to overcome the barriers of consumer reluctance, nor directly shape positive behaviors. Fourth, while national uniqueness of ethnic food did not affect subjective norm, the uniqueness did have positive impact on consumption behavior of foreign ethnic food restaurants. Fifth, consumer's subjective norm positively influenced both consumption behavior of ethnic food restaurants and their intent for future use. Lastly, consumption behavior toward foreign ethnic food restaurants positively influenced consumer's intent for future use, indicating that it would be most imperative and effective to first help reinforce positive attitude in oder to encourage a more use of ethnic food restaurants.

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Changes in Various Quality Characteristics of Short-ripened Salami During Storage at Chilled or Room Temperatures (단기숙성 살라미의 냉장 및 실온저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Lee, Keun-Taik;Lee, Youn-Kyu;Son, Se-Kwang;Choi, Suk-Ho;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the microbial contamination levels of raw meats used for short-ripened salami and changes in the microbial and physico-chemical properties of the product during storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$ for up to 120 days. The microbial counts of raw meats ranged between 2 and 4 Log CFU/g. Frozen-thawed sow meat showed higher total aerobe and Enterobacteriaceae counts than fresh chilled pork and pork back fat. Staphylococcus aureus was found in all raw materials except fresh chilled pork samples, and Clostridium perfringens was detected in a sample stored for 21 days at $25^{\circ}C$. The counts of total aerobes, lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. decreased more rapidly at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$ when the storage time was extended. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., yeast, and mold were restricted to levels below 2 Log CFU/g during storage. The contents of salt, water, crude protein, crude fat, and ash of salami samples were 3.4, 33.4, 30.8, 32.7, and 4.3%, respectively, which were not affected by storage time or temperature. The pH value of the salami was initially 4.79 and increased to 5.02 and 5.26 after 120 days of storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively, whereas the water activity values decreased from an initial value of 0.91 to 0.90 and 0.88 after 120 days at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. The TBA and VBN values increased slowly during storage. The redness value of the salami samples stored at $25^{\circ}C$ decreased more significantly than the samples stored at $10^{\circ}C$. With increased storage time, the values for the rheological characteristics of the salami in terms of hardness, brittleness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, and adhesiveness tended to decrease more remarkably at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$. Based on sensory evaluation scores, it appears that short-ripened salami is no longer acceptable after 90 days at $10^{\circ}C$ and 30 days at $25^{\circ}C$.

Apoptotic Effect of Co-Treatment with Chios Gum Mastic and Eugenol on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line (사람혀편평세포암종세포에서 Chios gum mastic과 eugenol의 병용처리가 미치는 세포자멸사 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Hyeon-Jin;Yea, Byeong-Ho;Kim, In-Ryoung;Park, Bong-Soo;Jeong, Sung-Hee;Ahn, Yong-Woo;Ko, Myung-Yun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 2011
  • Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) is a natural phenolic constituent extensively used in dentistry as a component of zinc oxide eugenol cement and is applied to the mouth environment. Chios gum mastic (CGM) is a resinous exudate obtained from the stem and the main leaves of Pistacia lenticulus tree native to Mediterranean areas. This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic apoptotic effect of co-treatment with a natural product, CGM and natural phenolic compound, eugenol on SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. To investigate whether the co-treatment with eugenol and CGM compared to each single treatment efficiently reduces the viability of SCC25 cells, MTT assay was conducted. Induction and augmentation of apoptosis were confirmed by Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining and DNA hypoploidy. Westen blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining were performed to study the alterations of the expression level and the translocation of apoptosis-related proteins in co-treatment. In this study, co-treatment of with eugenol and CGM on SCC25 cells showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation such as nuclear condensations, DNA fragmentation, the increase and decrease of Bax and Bcl-2, decrease of DNA content, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) onto nuclei, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-6 caspase-7, caspase-9, PARP, Lamin A/C and DFF45 (ICAD) whereas each single treated SCC25 cells did not show or very slightly these patterns. Although the single treatment of 40 ${\mu}g$/ml CGM and 0.5 mM eugenol for 24 h did not induce apoptosis, the co-treatment of these reagents prominently induced apoptosis. Therefore our data provide the possibility that combination therapy with CGM and eugenol could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.