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Research on the Factors that Affect Consumption Behaviors of Ethnic Food Restaurants (외국음식전문점 이용행동에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Hyung-Shik;Kim, Young-Shim
    • CRM연구
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2009
  • In an attempt to explore the consumption behaviors of customers regarding ethnic food restaurants the present study examined the effects of consumer characteristics, accessibility of ethnic food restaurants, product characteristics, and social factors on the customer behavior towards ethnic food restaurants, and further investigated the causal relationship between the customer behavior and his or her intent to reuse. A questionnaire survey was conducted approximately for a month with domestic consumers who had tried foreign cuisines. A total of 230 questionnaires were distributed and 215 questionnaires were collected, of which 210 were used in the final analysis excluding five due to inadequate responses. The finding of the study were as follows. First, of the consumers' lifestyles category the gourmet oriented did not yield significant effect on subjective norm or other consumption behavior, whereas the trend oriented had noticeable influence on both factors. Second, while consumers' diversity-seeking characteristic did not affect subjective norm, it affected consumption behavior of ethic food restaurants. The results seem to indicate that the diversity-seeking characteristic is more to one's individual attributes, rather than being influenced by others. Third, ethnic food restaurant's consumption accessibilities strongly influenced the subjective norm, suggesting that in using the ethnic food restaurants, the more convenient the accessibility is, the higher the possibility of use from influenced reference group. However, when consumers previously had not been exposed to ethnic cuisines, convenient accessibility was not able to overcome the barriers of consumer reluctance, nor directly shape positive behaviors. Fourth, while national uniqueness of ethnic food did not affect subjective norm, the uniqueness did have positive impact on consumption behavior of foreign ethnic food restaurants. Fifth, consumer's subjective norm positively influenced both consumption behavior of ethnic food restaurants and their intent for future use. Lastly, consumption behavior toward foreign ethnic food restaurants positively influenced consumer's intent for future use, indicating that it would be most imperative and effective to first help reinforce positive attitude in oder to encourage a more use of ethnic food restaurants.

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Changes in Various Quality Characteristics of Short-ripened Salami During Storage at Chilled or Room Temperatures (단기숙성 살라미의 냉장 및 실온저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Lee, Keun-Taik;Lee, Youn-Kyu;Son, Se-Kwang;Choi, Suk-Ho;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the microbial contamination levels of raw meats used for short-ripened salami and changes in the microbial and physico-chemical properties of the product during storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$ for up to 120 days. The microbial counts of raw meats ranged between 2 and 4 Log CFU/g. Frozen-thawed sow meat showed higher total aerobe and Enterobacteriaceae counts than fresh chilled pork and pork back fat. Staphylococcus aureus was found in all raw materials except fresh chilled pork samples, and Clostridium perfringens was detected in a sample stored for 21 days at $25^{\circ}C$. The counts of total aerobes, lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. decreased more rapidly at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$ when the storage time was extended. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., yeast, and mold were restricted to levels below 2 Log CFU/g during storage. The contents of salt, water, crude protein, crude fat, and ash of salami samples were 3.4, 33.4, 30.8, 32.7, and 4.3%, respectively, which were not affected by storage time or temperature. The pH value of the salami was initially 4.79 and increased to 5.02 and 5.26 after 120 days of storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively, whereas the water activity values decreased from an initial value of 0.91 to 0.90 and 0.88 after 120 days at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. The TBA and VBN values increased slowly during storage. The redness value of the salami samples stored at $25^{\circ}C$ decreased more significantly than the samples stored at $10^{\circ}C$. With increased storage time, the values for the rheological characteristics of the salami in terms of hardness, brittleness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, and adhesiveness tended to decrease more remarkably at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$. Based on sensory evaluation scores, it appears that short-ripened salami is no longer acceptable after 90 days at $10^{\circ}C$ and 30 days at $25^{\circ}C$.

Apoptotic Effect of Co-Treatment with Chios Gum Mastic and Eugenol on SCC25 Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line (사람혀편평세포암종세포에서 Chios gum mastic과 eugenol의 병용처리가 미치는 세포자멸사 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Hyeon-Jin;Yea, Byeong-Ho;Kim, In-Ryoung;Park, Bong-Soo;Jeong, Sung-Hee;Ahn, Yong-Woo;Ko, Myung-Yun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 2011
  • Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) is a natural phenolic constituent extensively used in dentistry as a component of zinc oxide eugenol cement and is applied to the mouth environment. Chios gum mastic (CGM) is a resinous exudate obtained from the stem and the main leaves of Pistacia lenticulus tree native to Mediterranean areas. This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic apoptotic effect of co-treatment with a natural product, CGM and natural phenolic compound, eugenol on SCC25 human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. To investigate whether the co-treatment with eugenol and CGM compared to each single treatment efficiently reduces the viability of SCC25 cells, MTT assay was conducted. Induction and augmentation of apoptosis were confirmed by Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining and DNA hypoploidy. Westen blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining were performed to study the alterations of the expression level and the translocation of apoptosis-related proteins in co-treatment. In this study, co-treatment of with eugenol and CGM on SCC25 cells showed several lines of apoptotic manifestation such as nuclear condensations, DNA fragmentation, the increase and decrease of Bax and Bcl-2, decrease of DNA content, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, translocation of AIF and DFF40 (CAD) onto nuclei, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-6 caspase-7, caspase-9, PARP, Lamin A/C and DFF45 (ICAD) whereas each single treated SCC25 cells did not show or very slightly these patterns. Although the single treatment of 40 ${\mu}g$/ml CGM and 0.5 mM eugenol for 24 h did not induce apoptosis, the co-treatment of these reagents prominently induced apoptosis. Therefore our data provide the possibility that combination therapy with CGM and eugenol could be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Emission characteristics of odor from salted food materials using Spam (염처리 음식물의 냄새성분 배출특성에 대한 연구: 스팸을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Min-Hee;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Jo, Sang-Hee
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.447-459
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the emission characteristics of volatile and odorant species released from salted meat product (Spam) was investigated as a function of time. Gas samples released from Spam samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and sulfur compounds (RSC) at five different times for the elapsed (E) days of 0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 (E-0 to E-9) by GC/MS and GC/PFPD system, respectively. Results indicated that reduced sulfur, aldehyde, and ketone groups were the dominant odorants. Especially, hydrogen sulfide was the predominant in concentration and odor activity value (OAV) during the fresh stage. Its concentration was 1465 ${\mu}g/m^3$ (60.0% of the total mass) in E-0 and 455 ${\mu}g/m^3$ (28.0%) in E-1, while its OAV was 19.4 (78.3%: E-0) and 6.02 (41.7%: E-1). On the other hand, the concentration of acetone showed the maximum values in the decaying stage (E-3: 451 (43.2%), E-6: 369 (64.2%), and E-9: 1150 ${\mu}g/m^3$ (70.2%)). Furthermore, the concentration of 2,3-butanedione was also detected considerably from decaying sample (E-3: 17.6 (1.68%), E-6: 16.1 (2.80%), and E-9: 179 ${\mu}g/m^3$ (10.9%)). However, OAV of acetone was insignificant (<0.01%) in the decaying stage, while that of 2,3-butanedione was relatively high in the range of 1.14-11.6 (14.5-76.2% of ${\Sigma}OAV$). It thus confirmed that the major odorant groups generated from Spam samples changed with the progress of decay such as sulfur (fresh stage), aldehyde (intermediate stage), and ketone compounds (decaying stage).

Transfer Factor of Heavy Metals from Agricultural Soil to Agricultural Products (농작물 재배지 토양 내 비소, 납 및 카드뮴의 농산물로의 전이계수 산출)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Ji-Ho;Kunhikrishnan, Anitha;Kang, Dae-Won;Kim, Min-Ji;Yoo, Ji-Hyock;Kim, Doo Ho;Lee, Young-Ja;Kim, Won Il
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.300-307
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: The Transfer Factor (TF) of heavy metals from soil to plant is important, because TF is an indicator of heavy metal in soils and a factor that quantifies bioavailability of heavy metals to agricultural products. This study was conducted to investigate the transfer ability of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) from soil to agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated heavy metals (As, Cd and Pb) concentrations in 9 agricultural products (rice, barely, corn, pulse, lettuce, pumpkin, apple, pear, tangerin) and soil. TF of agricultural products was evaluated based on total and HCl-extractable soil concentration of As, Cd, and Pb. Regression analysis was used to predict the relationship of total and HCl-extractable concentration with agricultural product contents of As, Cd, and Pb. The result showed that TF was investigated average 0.006~0.309 (As), 0.002~6.185 (Cd), 0.003~0.602 (Pb). The mean TF value was the highest as rice 0.309 in As, lettuce 6.185, pear 0.717, rice 0.308 in Cd, lettuce 0.602, pumpkin 0.536 in Pb which were dependent on the vegetable species and cereal is showed higher than fruit-vegetables in As. CONCLUSION(S): Soil HCl-extractable concentration of As, Cd, and Pb had the larger effects on thier contents in agricultural products than total soil concentrations. We suggests that TF are served as influential factor on the prediction of uptake. Further study for uptake and accumulation mechanism of toxic metals by agricultural products will be required to assess the human health risk and need TF of more agricultural products.

The Influence of Store Images of Discount Stores on Shopping Values and Shopping Satisfaction: The Roles of Perceived Retail Crowding (대형마트의 점포이미지가 쇼핑가치 및 쇼핑만족에 미치는 영향: 지각된 혼잡의 역할)

  • Bae, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2012
  • Conceptualization of store image have been suggested in the past by many marketing scholars. The dominant perspective about store image is treated as the results of a multi-attribute model. Store image is expressed as a function of the salient attributes of a particular store that are evaluated. Though, there is a little confusions about what elements compose the store image, most scholars agree that merchandise, service, atmosphere, physical facilities, comfort, and location are generally accepted elements as store image. A considerable researches support that shopping can provide both hedonic and utilitarian value. Hedonic shopping value reflects the value received from fantasy and emotive aspects of shopping experience, while utilitarian shopping value reflects the acquisition of products. These two types of shopping value can affect shopping satisfaction. This study examines the relationships among stores images(store atmosphere, salespeople services, facilities, product assortment, and store location), shopping values(utilitarian shopping value and hedonic shopping value), and shopping satisfaction based on discount stores (E-Mart, Home plus, and Lotte Mart). The author hypothesized that five store image components affect shopping values, and these shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. The author focused on the roles of perceived retail crowding between these relationships. Specifically, the author hypothesized that perceived retailing crowding moderated the relationship between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. The author also hypothesized the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Finally, the author hypothesized that five store image components affect directly shopping satisfaction. Research model is presented in

    . To test model and hypotheses, data were collected from 114 consumers located mid-size city in local area. The author employs PLS methodology (SmartPLS 2.0) to test hypotheses. Data analysis results indicate that among five store images salespeople services, and store location affect utilitarian shopping value. Store atmosphere, salespeople services, and store location affect hedonic shopping value. Two shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. Hedonic shopping value affect more shopping satisfaction than utilitarian shopping value. Data analysis results is presented in . The author examines the moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Results indicate that there are no moderating effects between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between utilitarian shopping value and shopping satisfaction are presented in
    . Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between hedonic shopping value and shopping satisfaction is presented in . The author examines the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Results are presented in
    . The author analyzed the relationship between perceived retail crowding and shopping satisfaction using WarpPLS 3.0 which can analyze the non-linear relationship. Result indicates that perceived retail crowding affects directly shopping satisfaction and there is a non-linear relationship between them. Among five store image components, store atmosphere and salespeople services affect directly shopping satisfaction. The author describes about the managerial implications, limitations, and future research issues.

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  • Assessment of the Breast-Firmming Effects of a Cosmetic Preparation with Moir$\acute{e}$ Tophography in Combination with 2D and 3D Digital Image Analyses (2D 및 3D 디지털 이미지 분석과 함께 Moir$\acute{e}$ Tophography 분석을 이용한 화장품의 가슴 탄력개선 효과 평가)

    • Seo, Young Kyoung;Yoo, Mi Ae;Ryu, Ja Hyun;Kim, So Jeong;Cho, Seong A;Nam, Gae Won;Cho, Jun-Cheol;Boo, Yong Chool;Koh, Jae-Sook
      • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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      • v.38 no.4
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      • pp.289-296
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      • 2012
    • Cosmetic products which might augment the breast have attracted an attention and objective methods for the evaluation of such products are in high demand. This study was conducted to establish a method for assessing the breast-firmming effects of cosmetics. This study included a total of 30 healthy Korean females aged 20-50 years. A cosmetic product was applied by massaging it onto the breast twice a day for 8 weeks. Measurement of breast girth with a tape ruler, 2D and 3D digital image analyses, and Moir$\acute{e}$ topographic analysis were performed before and following the treatment. The application of a cosmetic onto the breast significantly increased breast girth at 2, 4 and 8 weeks without a significant change in underbreast girth, implicating the breast might be augmented. The 2D image analysis indicated that the arc length of the breast which represents the surface distance from the nipple to the periphery of the under-breast was significantly increased at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The height of the breast which represents the perpendicular distance from the nipple to the periphery of the under-breast was also increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks. The 3D image analysis of body surface also demonstrated a significant increase of breast volume at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Moir$\acute{e}$ topographic analysis indicated that breast sagging was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The results of this study suggest that Moir$\acute{e}$ topography in combination with 2D and 3D digital image analyses may be useful for evaluating the breast-augmenting effects of cosmetics.

    Study on purchase and intake patterns of individuals consuming dietary formula for weight control or health/functional foods (체중조절용 조제식품과 다이어트 건강기능식품 섭취자의 제품구매 및 취식 행태에 관한 연구)

    • Won, Hye Suk;Lee, Hyo Jin;Kwak, Jin Sook;Kim, Joohee;Kim, Mi Kyung;Kwon, Oran
      • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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      • v.45 no.6
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      • pp.541-551
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      • 2012
    • In our previous work, we reported consumers' perceptions of body shape and weight control. In an ongoing effort, we analyzed the purchasing behavior, intake patterns, future purchasing decisions, and degree of satisfaction in individuals consuming dietary formula for weight control (DF) or heath/functional foods (HFFs) by using the same survey questions. Portfolio analysis for marketing strategy was also investigated. Subjects were divided into two groups according to consumption of DF or HFF during the previous year : DF group (n = 89) and HFF group (n = 110). Average intake frequency was $1.7{\pm}0.7$ per day for HFFs and $1.5{\pm}0.9$ per day for the DF, and the most prevalent form was pill (58.2%) for HFFs and bar (42.7%) for DF. Duration of intake was $3.1{\pm}2.3$ months for HFFs versus $3.9{\pm}3.5$ months for DF. The average degree of satisfaction was $3.6{\pm}0.6$ on a 5-point scale, meaning 'relatively satisfied'. For the weight control method to be used in the future, 44.5% of the HFF group selected 'HFFs' while 47.2% of the DF group selected 'DF', showing a tendency to use the current product type in the future. The average planned period for the intake was $3.8{\pm}3.7$ months for HFFs and $3.0{\pm}2.4$ months for DF (p < 0.05). The HFF group emphasized efficacy, functional ingredients of the products, reliable products, and higher satisfaction, whereas the DF group emphasized the added materials in addition to weight control effects.

    Color Marketing Strategy of Milk Packaging (우유 Packaging 색채 마케팅전략)

    • Kim, Kyung-Hwa;Na, Ji-Young
      • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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      • v.12 no.1
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      • pp.197-210
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      • 2012
    • In this research, we executed a questionnaire survey targeting men and women in 20' or more who reside in the metropolitan area and have experienced purchasing the vehicles in order to study how Promotion Mix Activity affects Brand assets, and ultimately what kind of relation it has with Purchase intention. In the statistical process of collected data, we analyzed the data by using SPSS 12.0 for Windows statistical package and AMOS 7.0 program. As the result of analysis, first, when we analyzed the relation of the Promotion Mix Activity and Brand Assets of the companies, the more affirmative the assessment on the advertising activities of the companies was, the higher the brand popularity, royalty and image increased, And it appeared that as the assessment on PR activities of the companies got more affirmative, the brand popularity, image and royalty increased. Second, as the result of the analysis of the relation between salespersons' Promotion Activities and Brand assets, it appeared that salespersons' social capacity improved Brand awareness and royalty and their strategic capacity improved Brand awareness, royalty and image. Third, seeing the result of the analysis on the relation between Brand assets and Purchase intention, it was shown that Brand popularity had a meaningful positive(+) effect upon satisfaction and repurchase(oral) intention, and Brand royalty had a meaningful positive(+) effect upon satisfaction and repurchase(oral) intention. In addition, it appeared that Brand image had a meaningful positive(+) effect upon satisfaction and repurchase(oral) intention, and finally it could be known that Brand assets had a close correlation with Purchase intention. Therefore, this research established the color marketing strategy as follows. First, we shall build up the functional role such as aesthetic favor, information communication, protection of ecosystem, publicity reinforcement etc. so as to emphasize the properties of the package design; second, we have to construct the color marketing strategy to convey the images of the commodity besides the psychological and physiological utility which colors grants, the utility used in visual conveyance as communication media; third, we should build the color marketing strategy for the integration of company image; finally we have to compose the colors fitted for the company and product style and introduce design marketing using company colors.

    Expression of the FHIT gene Located in Chromosome 3p14.2 in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines (폐암 세포주에서 염색체 3p14.2에 위치한 FHIT 유전자의 발현 이상에 대한 연구)

    • Kim, Cheol-Hyeon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon-Taek;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Kim, Young-Whan
      • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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      • v.45 no.5
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      • pp.984-991
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      • 1998
    • Background: The 3p deletions has been shown to be the most frequent alteration in lung cancers, strongly suggesting the presence of at least one tumor suppressor gene in this chromosomal region. However, no solid candidate for the tumor suppressor gene(s) on 3p has as yet been identified. Recent attention has focused on a candidate 3p14.2 tumor suppressor gene, FHIT, which is located in a region that is homozygously deleted in multiple tumor cell lines and disrupted by the hereditary renal cell carcinoma t(3;8) chromosomal translocation breakpoint FHIT also spans FRA3B, the most common fragile sites in the human genome. In the present study, we have analyzed expression of the FHIT gene in lung cancer cell lines. Methods: RNA from 21 lung cancer cell lines (16 NSCLC, 5 SCLC) were extracted using standard procedures. Random-primed. first strand cDNAs were synthesized from total RNA and PCR amplication of coding exons 5 to 9 was performed. The RT-PCR products were electrophoresed in 1.5% ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Results: 12 of 21(57%) lung cancer cell lines exhibited absent or aberrant FHIT expression [7 of 16(44%) of non-small cell lung cancer and 5 of 5(100%) of small cell lung cancer cell lines]. Conclusion: The result shows that abnormal transcription of the FHIT gene is common in human lung cancer cell lines, especially in small cell lung cancer.

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