• Title, Summary, Keyword: Burnable poison

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Nuclear Design Feasibility of the Soluble Boron Free PWR Core

  • Kim, Jong-Chae;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Un-Chul;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.342-352
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    • 1998
  • A nuclear design feasibility of soluble boron free(SBF core for the medium-sized(600MWe) PWR was investigated. The result conformed that soluble boron free operation could be performed by using current PWR proven technologies. Westinghouse advanced reactor, AP-600 was chosen as a design prototype. Design modification was applied for the assembly design with burnable poison and control rod absorber material. In order to control excess reactivity, large amount of gadolinia integral burnable poison rods were used and B4C was used as a control rod absorber material. For control of bottom shift axial power shape due to high temperature feedback in SBF core, axial zoning of burnable poison was applied to the fuel assemblies design. The combination of enrichment and rod number zoning for burnable poison could make an excess reactivity swing flat within around 1% and these also led effective control on axial power offset and peak pin power, The safety assessment of the designed core was peformed by the calculation of MTC, FTC and shutdown margin. MTC in designed SBF core was greater around 6 times than one of Ulchin unit 3&4. Utilization of enriched BIO(up to 50w1o) in B4C shutdown control rods provided enough shutdown margin as well as subcriticality at cold refueling condition.

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Implementation of Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm II in the Multiobjective Burnable Poison Placement Optimization of KWU Pressurized Water Reactor

  • Gharari, Rahman;Poursalehi, Navid;Abbasi, Mohammadreza;Aghaie, Mahdi
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.1126-1139
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    • 2016
  • In this research, for the first time, a new optimization method, i.e., strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm II (SPEA-II), is developed for the burnable poison placement (BPP) optimization of a nuclear reactor core. In the BPP problem, an optimized placement map of fuel assemblies with burnable poison is searched for a given core loading pattern according to defined objectives. In this work, SPEA-II coupled with a nodal expansion code is used for solving the BPP problem of Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) pressurized water reactor. Our optimization goal for the BPP is to achieve a greater multiplication factor ($K_{eff}$) for gaining possible longer operation cycles along with more flattening of fuel assembly relative power distribution, considering a safety constraint on the radial power peaking factor. For appraising the proposed methodology, the basic approach, i.e., SPEA, is also developed in order to compare obtained results. In general, results reveal the acceptance performance and high strength of SPEA, particularly its new version, i.e., SPEA-II, in achieving a semioptimized loading pattern for the BPP optimization of KWU pressurized water reactor.

Axial BP Zoning for the Soluble Boron Free Operation in Medium-Sized PWR

  • Kim, Jong-Chae;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1996
  • Feasibility of soluble boron free operation for the medium-sized commercial reactors was investigated. Westinghouse advanced reactor, AP-600 was chosen as a design prototype. Design modification was applied for the assembly design with gadolinia burnable poison-high Gd enrichment and axial poison zoning. CASMO and NECTA-C code system checked axial offset and peaking factors as fuels burned up. A core with complex axial burnable poison zoning satisfied design goals - small excess reactivity for 18 month cycle. Therefore, critical bank positioning for three control rod banks was sought with ease. A.O. value and Fq value were kept within the safety limit.

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Neutronics design of VVER-1000 fuel assembly with burnable poison particles

  • Tran, Hoai-Nam;Hoang, Van-Khanh;Liem, Peng Hong;Hoang, Hung T.P.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.1729-1737
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents neutronics design of VVER-1000 fuel assembly using burnable poison particles (BPPs) for controlling excess reactivity and pin-wise power distribution. The advantage of using BPPs is that the thermal conductivity of BPP-dispersed fuel pin could be improved. Numerical calculations have been conducted for optimizing the BPP parameters using the MVP code and the JENDL-3.3 data library. The results show that by using $Gd_2O_3$ particles with the diameter of $60{\mu}m$ and the packing fraction of 5%, the burnup reactivity curve and pin-wise power distribution are obtained approximately that of the reference design. To minimize power peaking factor (PPF), total BP amount has been distributed in a larger number of fuel rods. Optimization has been conducted for the number of BPP-dispersed rods, their distribution, BPP diameter and packing fraction. Two models of assembly consisting of 18 BPP-dispersed rods have been selected. The diameter of $300{\mu}m$ and the packing fraction of 3.33% were determined so that the burnup reactivity curve is approximate that of the reference one, while the PPF can be decreased from 1.167 to 1.105 and 1.113, respectively. Application of BPPs for compensating the reduction of soluble boron content to 50% and 0% is also investigated.

Feasibility of combinational burnable poison pins for 24-month cycle PWR reload core

  • Dandi, Aiman;Lee, MinJae;Kim, Myung Hyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.238-247
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    • 2020
  • The Burnable Poison (BP) is very important for all Light Water Reactors in order to hold-down the initial excess reactivity and to control power peaking. The use of BP is even more essential as the excess reactivity increases significantly with a longer operation cycle. In this paper a feasibility study was conducted in order to investigate the benefits of a new combinational BP concept designed for 24-month cycle PWR core. The reference designs in this study are based on the two Korean fuel assemblies; 17 × 17 Westinghouse (WH) design and 16 × 16 Combustion Engineering (CE) design. A modification was done on these two designs to extend their cycle length from 18 months into 24 months. DeCART2D-MASTER code system was used to perform assembly and core calculations for both designs. A preliminary test was conducted in order to choose the best BP suitable for 24-month as a representative for single BP concept. The comparison between the results of two concepts (combinational BP concept and single BP concept) showed that the combinational BP concept can replace the single BP concept with better performance on holding down the initial excess reactivity without violating the design limitations.

Analysis of Burnable Poison Effect on Power Distribution using Power Sensitivity Coefficient Concept (출력민감도 계수개념을 이용한 가연성 독붕봉이 출력분포에 미치는 영 향의 분석)

  • Yi, Yu-Han;Oh, Soo-Youl;Seong, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Un-Chul
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1988
  • The low leakage leading pattern has features as the placement of some fresh fuel assemblies in the core interior to reduce the neutron fluence on the pressure vessel and to enhance the neutron economics. But as fresh fuel assemblies are loaded in the core interior, the local power tends to exceed safety limit due to the high reactivity of the fresh assemblies. Therefore, a large number of burnable poisons must be utilized in a low leakage scheme to suppress the high assembly power as well as the excess reactivity. In this study the effects of burnable poisons are treated as a perturbation on the power distribution, and the 'Power Sensitivity Coefficient' concept is adopted. An application study is performed for cycle 1 of the Korea Nuclear Unit-7 (KNU-7) to justify the usefulness of the reverse depletion method coupled with the above concept. To obtain the optimal burnable poision distribution at the given burnup step, the linear programming technique is adopted. The result shows maximum 4.5% error in the amount of burnable poisons between the calculated and the reference values. It is concluded that the design methodology which consists of the reverse depletion, the power sensitivity coefficient concept, and the linear programming technique can be used to find the optimal turnable poison distribution.

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Design Optimization of Duplex Burnable Poison Rods and Feasibility Evaluation for Core Design (이중구조 가연성독봉 설계안의 최적화 및 노심 핵설계 타당성 평가)

  • Yoon Seok-Kyun;Lee Dae-Jin;Kim Myung-Hyun
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.242-258
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    • 2004
  • The duplex burnable poison absorbers concept was suggested by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This BP rod is composed of inner region of natural U-Gd$_2$O$_3$ and outer shell of enriched UO$_2$-Er$_2$O$_3$. It is expected that this burnable absorber has same reactivity control capability with gadolinia burnable absorber used in extened fuel cycle. In order to evaluate the nuclear feasibility of duplex BPs, the nuclear design characteristics were compared with that of four types of burnable absorbers; gadolinia, erbia, IFBA, dysprosia duplex BP on 24 months fuel cycle for Korean Standard Nuclear Power plants. According to the evaluation results of nuclear characteristics, the duplex BPs were better than other BPs on k-infinitives, reactivity holddown worth (RHW), pin power peaking and moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). The possibility of nuclear core design was also confirmed based on the optimized fuel assemblies which were searched for a sensitivity analysis. Characteristics of core design with duplex BPs was compared with that of reference core with gadolinia BPs for cycle length, power peaking and MTC. The duplex BP core had a little longer cycle length by 4 to 7 days because of increased amount of fissile in enriched uranium at the outer shell of duplex BP In case of power peaking F$\_$Q/ of duplex BP core was reduced from 1.5773 to 1.5335. MTC was also less -0.48 pcm/C than that of reference core. Finally, evaluation of fuel cycle economy was performed for the manufacturing feasibility test and fuel cost evaluation with duplex BPs. Fuel cycle economy of duplex BP core almost was equivalent with that of gadolinia BP core.

Criticality benchmark of McCARD Monte Carlo code for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

  • Jang, Junkyung;Lee, Hochul;Lee, Hyun Chul
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.1024-1036
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, McCARD code was verified using various models listed in the NUREG/CR-6361 benchmark guide, which provides specifications for single pin-cells, single assemblies, and the whole core classified depending on the nuclear properties and structural characteristics. McCARD code was verified by comparing its results with those of SCALE code for single pin-cell and single assembly benchmark problems. The difference in the multiplication factor obtained through the two codes did not exceed 90 pcm. The benchmark guide treats a total of 173 whole core experiments. The experiments are categorized as simple lattices, separator plates, reflecting walls, reflecting walls and separator plates, burnable absorber fuel rods, water holes, poison rods, and borated moderator. As a result of numerical simulation using McCARD, the mean value of the multiplication factors is 1.00223 and the standard deviation of the multiplication factors is 285 pcm. The difference between the multiplication factors and the experimental value is in the range of -665 pcm to + 1609 pcm. In addition, statistics of results for experiments categorized by reactor shape, additional structure, burnable poison, etc., are detailed in the main text.