• Title, Summary, Keyword: Buffalo Calves

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EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM ON IMMUNITY IN NEWBORN JERSEY AND BUFFALO CALVES

  • Afzal, M.;Hussain, M.;Khan, K.N.M.;Munir, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 1988
  • Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on immunity was studied in newborn Jersey and buffalo calves. The supplement contained 500 mg vitamin E and $200\;{\mu}g$ selenium; and was fed daily from birth to day 30. Differences in weight gain, total leucocytic count, differential leucocytic count, antibody titre and susceptibility to disease were found to be nonsignificant between supplemented and control calves during the study period of 3 months. Vitamin E seemed to enhance the recovery from disease in buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were found to be more sensitive to selenium toxicity than Jersey calves.

Fasting Heat Production of Growing Buffalo Calves

  • Tiwari, C.M.;Chandramoni, Chandramoni;Jadhao, S.B.;Khan, M.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.307-312
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    • 2000
  • Fasting heat production (FHP) of growing buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) in the body weight range of 76 to 236 kg was determined using open circuit respiration chamber. The details of the chambers, calibration of gas analysers and operation of the systems are described. Animals were fasted for 96 hrs during which only water was provided. FHP was determined during next 24 hrs. The mean oxygen consumed, carbon dioxide and methane produced and urinary N excretion per 24 h was $17.03{\ell}$, $11.70{\ell}$, and $0.12{\ell}$ and 0.35 g respectively. The mean respiratory quotient ranged from 0.68 to 0.71, which indicated that post absorptive stage is reached after 96 hrs in growing buffalo calves previously fed ammoniated straw-based ration. Mean FHP of calves was $331.4kJ/kg\;W^{0.75}$. FHP of calves with range of mean body weights of 167 to 235 kg, although nonsignificant but, was almost 12% higher than of calves having mean body weight of 101 kg. Suitable exponent to body weight to describe FHP of buffalo calves was 0.87.

BLOOD METABOLITES LEVELS IN RELATION TO AGE AND LIVE WEIGHT IN YOUNG BUFFALO CALVES

  • Sikka, P.;Sethi, R.K.;Tomer, A.K.S.;Chopra, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 1994
  • Thirty buffalo calves were randomly categorized into three groups on the basis of age, i.e. birth to 6 months; 6 to 12 months and 12-24 months. Blood samples were collected to monitor certain vital metabolites in relation to age and prediction of performance in growing buffalo calves. Amongst the various blood parameters estimated the serum glucose, cholesterol and gamma globulins have shown highly significant correlations with age and live weight-gain of the animal as well. However, the multiple regression analysis clearly indicated the influence of age and live body weight on blood metabolites in buffalo calves.

DIGESTION OF STARCH AND NITROGEN IN DIFFERENT PART OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL OF DEFAUNATED MURRAH BUFFALO (Bubalu bubalis) CALVES

  • Chaudhary, L.C.;Srivastava, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.667-670
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    • 1996
  • Four Murrah male buffalo calves with an average body weight of $188{\pm}1.6kg$ each fitted with rumen and abomasal cannula were subjected to defaunation followed by refaunation. The animals were offered wheat straw and a concentrate mixture. There was no difference in dry matter, starch and nitrogen intake in defaunated and refaunated buffalo calves. Production of ruminal total volatile fatty acid and acetate : propionate ratio decreased (p < 0.01) whereas, molar proportion of propionate increased (25.8 Vs 19.4% p < 0.01) in defaunated animals. Fermentation of starch in rumen increased (73.9 Vs 65.8%, p < 0.01) but in small intestine decreased (20.2 Vs. 28.2%, p < 0.05) in defaunated calves. The flow of non ammonia nitrogen (NAN) to abomasum (75.1 vs 68.6 g/d, p < 0.01) and its digestion in small intestine (37,6 vs 32.5 g/d, p < 0.01) was improved due to defaunation. However, No difference in the total tract digestibility of starch and nitrogen was found in defaunated and refaunated buffalo calves.

Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

  • Shahzad, F.;Abdullah, M.;Chaudhry, A.S.;Bhatti, J.A.;Jabbar, M.A.;Ahmed, F.;Mehmood, T.;Asim, M.;Ahmed, S.;Kamran, Z.;Irshad, I.;Tahir, M.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 2016
  • The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

Comparative evaluation of ultrasonography with clinical respiratory score in diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases in weaned dairy buffalo and cattle calves

  • Hussein, Hussein Awad;Binici, Cagri;Staufenbiel, Rudolf
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.12
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    • pp.29.1-29.11
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    • 2018
  • Background: Respiratory troubles have economic impacts in countries where livestock industry is an important segment of the agricultural sector, as well as these problems may cause significant economic losses for bovine producers. Various practical methods are used to assess diseases that affect the bovine respiratory system. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive tool that has been used frequently in diagnosis of various animal diseases. The present study was designed to establish whether thoracic ultrasonography is a diagnostic tool for detection of respiratory troubles in weaned buffalo and cattle calves, as well as to assess its prognostic value in comparison with clinical respiratory scores. Thirty five (15 buffalo and 20 cattle) calves were included. Twelve (6 buffalo and 6 cattle) clinically healthy calves were enrolled as controls. Results: Based on physical examinations, clinical respiratory scores (CRS), ultrasound lung scores (ULS) and postmortem findings, animals were classified into 4 groups as pulmonary emphysema (n = 8), interstitial pulmonary syndrome (n = 7), bronchopneumonia (n = 12), and pleurisy (n = 8). The mean values of CRS and ULS were significantly higher in diseased calves (P < 0.01). In calves with pulmonary emphysema and interstitial syndrome, thoracic ultrasonography revealed numerous comet-tail artifacts, which varied in numbers and imaging features. Furthermore, variable degrees of pulmonary consolidation with alveolograms and bronchograms were noticed in bronchopneumonic calves. In addition, thick irregular or fragmented pleura with pleural effusions and fibrin shreds were imaged in calves with pleurisy. A weak correlation was calculated between CRS and ULS (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). Hematologically, the counts of white blood cells, activities of aspartate aminotransferase and partial tensions of carbon dioxide were significantly increased in all diseased groups. Serum concentrations of total globulins were higher in claves with bronchopneumonia (P < 0.05). The partial tension of oxygen was decreased in all diseased calves (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Thoracic ultrasonography is a diagnostic tool for various lung troubles and assessment the grade and severity of pulmonary diseases, as well as it can be used as a follow-up tool for evaluating the prognosis of respiratory troubles and monitoring the efficacy of therapies.

Effect of Naturally Fermented Wheat Straw Based Complete Feeds on the Growth of Buffalo Calves

  • Pannu, M.S.;Kaushal, J.R.;Wadhwa, M.;Bakshi, M.P.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1568-1572
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    • 2002
  • A 152 day trial was conducted to see the effect of feeding naturally fermented wheat straw (FWS) with either energy, protein or energy protein supplements on the growth of buffalo calves. Twenty four male buffalo calves (10-12 months old) divided in 6 equal groups were individually offered FWS as sole roughage along with either conventional concentrate mixture (conc), maize grains (M), solvent extracted mustard cake (DMC), M-DMC mixture (50:50), deoiled rice bran (DRB) or uromol bran mixture (UBM) in 70:30 ratio. The digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen retention and nutritive value was maximum in FWS:UBM followed by FWS:DMC and FWS:Conc groups. Almost, all the blood parameters were observed well within the normal range except that of blood urea (FWS:UBM) and creatinine (FWS:DMC and FWS:DRB). The dietary combination in which FWS was supplemented with only conventional protein supplement like DMC proved to be highly efficient as far as live weight gain was concerned. FWS supplemented with energy-protein combination i.e. MDMC could also be used as complete feed for growing calves in comparison to conventional feeding system.

Effects of Substituting Cottonseed Meal with Sunflower Meal in Rations for Growing Buffalo Calves

  • Yunus, A.W.;Khan, A.G.;Alam, Z.;Sultan, J.I.;Riaz, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.659-662
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    • 2004
  • A growth trial of 60 days with 16 male buffalo calves (10 to 11 months age; 100${\pm}$7 kg live weight mean) was conducted to investigate comparative efficacy of cottonseed meal (CSM) and sunflower meal (SFM). Cottonseed meal was substituted isonitrogenously with SFM at 0, 12, 24 and 36% levels in four rations viz. A, B, C and D. Daily feed consumption was 5.07, 4.30, 4.17 and 3.20 kg, while daily weight gain was recorded to be 0.98, 0.74, 0.57 and 0.33 kg under rations A, B, C and D, respectively. In the digestibility and nitrogen balance trial using eight calves, digestibility of organic matter was 63.2, 62.9, 62.1 and 61.7, respectively. Nitrogen retained as percent of intake did not differ significantly. Sunflower meal was purchased at half the price of CSM but economics of weight gain did not favor SFM inclusion in rations. Results suggested that SFM should not be fed to buffalo calves gaining more than 0.7 kg/day.

Influence of Dietary Butyrate on Growth Rate, Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization and Cost of Unit Gain in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Male Calves

  • Vidyarthi, V.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.474-478
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    • 2001
  • Eighteen Murrah male buffalo calves were allotted into three groups of six each. The calves in group I (control) were fed with whole milk, skim milk, calf starter and green maize fodder. The calves in group II (high butyric acid) and group III (low butyric acid) were fed with the same diet as control along with 24 ml and 12 ml of butyric acid/calf/day for 120 days, respectively for 120 days. Dry matter intake was higher in group II and III as compared with group I. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose was the highest in group II followed by group III and the control group. Body weight gain and conversion efficiency of dry matter, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients were better in group II. Cost of feed for per unit of live weight gain was the lowest in group II. It was concluded that dietary addition of butyric acid (24 ml/day) was economical and had positive effect on the performance of Murrah buffalo calves.

Effects of Long-term Heat Exposure on Adaptive Mechanism of Blood Acid-base in Buffalo Calves

  • Korde, J.P.;Singh, G.;Varshney, V.P.;Shukla, D.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.742-747
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    • 2007
  • In order to investigate the mechanism of adaptation to long-term heat stress, six female buffalo calves of about 7 to 8 months age, were exposed to the cool-comfort environment (THI 65) for 21 days to obtain normal values of blood acid-base. An adaptive response of acid-base regulation was determined to long term (21 days) exposure of buffalo calves to hot-dry (THI 80) and hot-humid (THI 84) conditions. Higher rectal temperature and respiratory rate was recorded under hot-humid exposure compared to hot-dry. Significant reduction in the rectal temperature and respiratory rate on day 21 of hot-dry exposure indicated early thermal adaptation compared to hot-humid. Decreasing rectal temperature and respiratory rate from day 1 to 21 was associated with concurrent decrease in blood pH and pCO2. Increased plasma chloride concentration with low base excess in blood and in extracellular fluid suggested compensatory response to respiratory alkalosis. Reduced fractional excretion of sodium with increased fractional excretion of potassium and urine flow rate indicated renal adaptive response to heat stress.