• Title, Summary, Keyword: Buddhist Arts

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A Study on the Architectural Decorative Expression of the East Asian Buddhist Reliquaries in the Ancient Period (고대 동아시아 사리장치에 표현된 건축의장요소 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Tae
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2010
  • The Buddhist reliquaries of these 6 Reliquaries(松林寺, 感恩寺, 法門寺, 慶山寺, 唐招提寺, 法隆寺 玉蟲廚子), when compared with those of China, Japan and Korea in the same period, they worshiped the Buddhist reliquary as a Buddhist God itself and put them as a part of the architectural decoration, being installed in the construction forms. In the form and the composition of the architecture, we can see those having been designed with very detailed and brightly decorated form. The Buddhist reliquaries in the Song-Lim-Sa, Kam-Eun-Sa, Famensi, Qingshansi, Toshodaiji, and the Horyuji Tamamushi Zushi, the most important ones in this research, were in the precious tent and the inner and outer Coffins shapes having completely the altar part, interior space part, and the ceiling part, which inform us the whole structure of the architecture in details. After all these researches, we conclude that the Buddhist reliquaries in form of the Treasure-architecture represented the architectural style of the same period as a form of industrial arts and we can see that they tried to use all of their highly skilled and talented methods to describe the Buddhist Pure Land.

A Study on Architectural Decorative Design of the Silla Buddhist Reliquaries in the $7{\sim}8th$ Centuries (7.8세기 신라 사리장엄에 표현된 건축의장 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Tae
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 2007
  • We study, in this paper, on the decorative design of the Treasure-architectural form for the Silla Buddhist reliquary and this research went through the observation on the Buddhist Reliquaries of the Song-Lim-Sa, the Eastern-Western three floor pagodas in the Kam-Eun-Sa, the three floor pagodas in the Bul-Guk-Sa and the reportedly discovered Nam-Won. The Buddhist reliquaries of these 5 Reliquaries, when compared with those of China and Japan in the same period, they worshiped the Buddhist reliquary as a Buddhist God itself and put them as a part of the architectural decoration, being installed in the construction forms. In the form and the composition of the architecture, we can see those having been designed with very detailed and brightly decorated form. The Buddhist reliquaries in the Song-Lim-Sa and Kam-Eun-Sa, the most important ones in this research, were in a royal palace shape having completely the altar part, interior space part, and the ceiling part, which inform us the whole structure of the architecture in details. In particular, for the case of Kam-Eun-Sa, the columns in the shape of bamboo trees, the expression of the gates, the terrace of double parts formed of word-shape Man, and the statue of a general with superhuman ability in the shrine explain us the description of the Gyun-Bo-Tap-Pum of Lotus Sutra. After all these researches, we conclude that the Buddhist reliquaries in form of the Treasure-architecture represented the architectural style of the same period as a form of industrial arts and we can see that they tried to use all of their highly skilled and talented methods to describe the Buddhist Pure Land.

The Significance and Limitation of the Publication of the Manual for Buddhist Rituals (釋門儀範) (『석문의범(釋門儀範)』 간행의 의의와 한계)

  • Lee, Sunyi
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.72
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    • pp.329-363
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    • 2018
  • The Manual for Buddhist Rituals (1935) is the manual of Buddhist rituals which has a pivotal position in terms of the modernization of Korean Buddhist rituals. The text has been established through the contents and systems of the two texts, The Manual for Practising Rituals (作法龜鑑, 1827) and the Compulsory Manual for Buddhists (佛子必覽, 1931). These three manuals include the examples for practising the Manuals. The analysis of the examples for the practices of the three texts is as follows: The Manual for Practising Rituals tries to include the Sounds of the Music for the Buddhist Rituals through the Four Sounds (四聲) and the Twin words (儷語); the marks of the sounds are excluded after the compulsory Manual for Buddhists. The Manual for Buddhist Rituals has replaced the rituals for repentance (三寶通請) with the rituals for revering (四聖禮): and this text has made it easier that people participate in Buddhist rituals with the text which is written in bilingual format in Korean and Classic Chinese. The text has been popularized through above-mentioned changes against the previous two texts but it has ended up excluding the practices for the music of Korean Buddhism such as the music for Buddhist rituals (梵唄) and reciting the name of Buddhas (念佛).

Expansion of the Field: 10 Years of Research in Southeast Asian Arts (외연의 확대, 지평의 확산 : 동남아 미술 연구 10년)

  • KANG, Heejung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.43-74
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    • 2018
  • There was few research dealing with the cultural property or the arts of Southeast Asia before, however many articles and books on the arts of Southeast Asia were published since 2008. There are more than 50 papers dealing Southeast Asian art during the period. It was Vietnamese ceramics and the Buddhist relics of Indonesia which paid attention among those articles. This was relevant to the launching of the Humanities Korea (HK) project by the National Research Foundation in 2007. A study on Southeast Asian arts from each of eleven countries is difficult to achieve outstanding results in a short period of time. Since art historical approach is quite a professional field, the growth of research is limited. Since art historical approach is a professional field, the growth of research is limited. At this point we can say the research on Southeast Asian art are developed in an unbalanced extent in the limited area focused on ceramics and sculptures. Over the past decade, the research on Southeast Asian art has developed, but we still need more experts in specific regions and fields. For establishing the art history as a field of regional studies, it is imperative to cultivate specialists in each region for the profound and balanced understanding the value of Southeast Asian art.

A Study on the Buddhist Stone Arts of Mt. Bukhan (북한산 불교 석조미술 연구)

  • Lee, Seohyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.90-119
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the significance of Buddhist stone art in the cultural zone of Mt. Bukhan. Mt. Bukhan witnessed the prevalence of Buddhist culture in and around it since the introduction of Korean Buddhism and served as the center of Buddhist culture in the nation, where new Buddhist temples continued to be built from the Three Kingdoms Period to the Joseon Period. Of the characteristics of its Buddhist culture, it is very noteworthy that the construction of military temples in and around it in the latter half of Joseon supported the function of Buddhist temples as basic places of worship. These military temples were closely related to the mountain's geopolitical location, traffic routes, and position in the national defense system-- its mountain fortress was an important defense facility. The stone art works of Mt. Bukhan can be categorized into various types, including stone stupas, stone pagodas, rock-carved Buddhas, stone Buddhas, towers and monuments (stone monuments), stone lanterns, flagpole supports, and rock-carved sarira pagodas. There are diverse types of stone art left on the mountain. As for its period characteristics, it is clear that the Buddhist art of Silla spread even to the Gyeonggi region, and that most of the works of stone art were created during the first half of Goryeo and the latter half of Joseon. Starting in Goryeo, the Buddhist temples of the mountain maintained close relations with the royal court by operating as the royal buddhist shrine for the royal family. In the latter part of Joseon, the construction of the Bukhan mountain fortress became the most important opportunity to produce stone art. As for the distribution of the stone artwork, it was usually created in the west part of the mountain from Unified Silla to the first half of Goryeo and in the southern and eastern parts of the mountain from the latter half of Goryeo to the latter half of Joseon. It is estimated that central Buddhist temples of the mountain changed due to Silla's military goal of advancing toward the west coast along the Han River in its early days and the construction of the Bukhan mountain fortress in the latter half of Joseon to protect the capital city. Finally, the stone art of Mt. Bukhan holds very high significance in art history because various types of stone art continued to be created on and around the mountain, the stone artwork of the mountain reflected representative styles for each period, and e rare and ofthe works produced on the mountain exemplified rare and unique styles.

Establishment of Buddhist Monks' Pungmul in the Late Joseon Dynasty and Its Meanings (조선 후기 절걸립패 풍물의 성립과 그 풍물사적 의의)

  • Son, Tae-do
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.78-117
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    • 2017
  • Buddhism, which was subject to repression all over the early Joseon Dynasty, received a certain recognition from the state, because Buddhist monks had participated in the war of the Japanese invasion in 1592. On the other hand, however, one of the results was the destruction of many temples. In the late Joseon Dynasty, the Buddhist monks themselves acted as players of Pungmul(people's percussive band music) for the rebuilding of Buddhist temples. These so-called "the Buddhist monks' Pungmul" is the imitation of former clowns' Pungmul and farmers' one that sometimes request money or rice at houses of villages. In the late Joseon Dynasty, the activities of the Buddhist monks' Pungmul were held all over the country. Today, there are "Bitnae Nongak(farmers'percussive band music)" in Kyeongsangbuk-do, "Beokku-noli(the drum play) in the areas of Yeosu and Gangjin in Jeollanam-do, the song of the Buddhist monks' Pungmul for the people's house spirits in the Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Chungcheong-do, and Namsadang-pae(the nomadic entertaining groups composed of only men), as clear pictures of it. In these things related to Nongak or Nongak relevant affairs, the shapes of the Buddhist monks' Pungmul in the late Joseon Dynasty remain clear. On the other hand, today the Namsadang-pae, which was formed as a result of Buddhist monks' Pungmul in the late Joseon Dynasty, was left only in the Chungcheong-do and Gyeonggi-do, because the temple construction in the Gyeonggi-do was made especially many in the late Joseon Dynasty. During the late Joseon Dynasty, the Buddhist monks' Pungmul, which had long-lived and had taken place throughout the nation, had a great impact on Pungmul. There are the Buddhist elements, such as Gokkal(the Buddhist monk's peaked hat), paper flowers, the color band, the small drum, and Bara(small cymbals) are often found in the Pungmul of Korea. In the late period of the Joseon Dynasty, it is obviously important place in the Pungmul history of Korea. Research and studies on this subject should be made more in the future.

A Study on the Background of Social Design Appearance (사회적 디자인(Social Design)의 등장 배경에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Hyundae;Hong, Sunki
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.425-434
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    • 2012
  • The concept of humanity is considered as the common issue of various areas in the $21^{st}$ century. The diverse issues such as social design, social enterprise, and ethical consumption, etc., actually involves in the humanity. The unique aspect is that they focus on the disadvantaged group and want to do something for their severe situation in spite of the economic recession all the world faced. This paper shows how the social design appeared as a paradigm of the $21^{st}$ century design on the historical consideration, and tries to prove that the social design is not a new trend but the subtle movement that begun from $19^{th}$ century.

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Factors relating to Changes in Costume Style of Stone Statues at Tombs of the Emerging Gentry (Sadaebu) in the Joseon Dynasty (사대부 묘 석인상 복식의 양식변화 요인에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Eun-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.12-23
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    • 2008
  • This study reports the costume changes and the factors of the changes from stone status in joseon dynasty. It can be summarized as follows: First, the artisan for the statues is one of the most important factors for the costume changes. The artisans who were involved in building the King's tomb were also made the stone statues for scholars' tombs. This results in that the style of the King's tomb influenced the costumes of stone statues for scholars' tombs. Some craftsmen who were buddhist monks also influenced the introduction of buddhist arts. Second, the stone statues are classified into 3 types according to the dead's social position: the civil officer statues, the military official statues, and the servant statues are installed for the civil officer, the military officers, and others, respectively. This principle was applied well. However, the civil official statues are mainly installed in late joseon dynasty because the civil officers are socially preferred to the military officers in late joseon dynasty. Third, there are two types of civil officer statues; Gongbok type and jobok type. Civil officer statues of Gongbok type were mainly installed in early joseon dynasty and civil officer statues of jobok type were begun to be installed in the early 16th century. Civil officer statues of Gongbok type were fade out after the late 17th century. Fourth, there are three reasons why civil officer statues of jobok type were installed at the officers's tombs 270 years earlier than at the Kings' tombs: 1) Introduction of Daemyunghoejeon and its application, 2) an establishment of a system that requires to prepare jobok individually, and 3) self-confidence of scholars' class on political and cultural maturity.

The Development Process and Construction Characteristic of the Stone Stupa in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도 지역 석탑의 전개과정과 조영 특징)

  • Lee, Seohyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.184-205
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    • 2019
  • Buddhism was introduced to Gyeonggi-Do early on and thus created various types of Buddhist culture there. Since the introduction of Buddhism into Gyeonggi-do, the there has been continuous construction of stone stupas. More stone stupas were built in southern Gyeonggi than in northern Gyeonggi-do. In particular, Anseong, Icheon, Yongin, and Yeoju were centers of construction. Looking at the characteristics of each period, stone stupas remain from the Unified Shilla Period to Joseon, indicating that stone stupas were steadily built during this period. The stone stupa corresponding to the Unified Shilla Period is meaningful in that it shows the northern limit of Shilla Buddhist culture. Since then, the stone stupas of the Goryeo Dynasty were actively constructed in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do in the early Goryeo Dynasty. By the late Goryeo Dynasty, the stupas were built throughout Gyeonggi-do, indicating that the construction of the stupa was active. In the Joseon Dynasty, stone stupas were built in temples near Hanyang and deeply related to the royal family. Stone pagodas were erected mainly on major traffic routes. Stone stupas built in Gyeonggi-do have a variety of artistic and historical significance.

Interpretation of Praying Letter and Estimation of Production Period on Samsaebulhoedo at Yongjusa Temple (용주사(龍珠寺) <삼세불회도(三世佛會圖)>의 축원문(祝願文) 해석(解釋)과 제작시기(製作時期) 추정(推定))

  • Kang, Kwan-shik
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.96
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    • pp.155-180
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    • 2019
  • Samsaebulhoedo(三世佛會圖) at Yongjusa Temple(龍珠寺), regarded as a monumental masterpiece consisting of different elements such as Confucian and Buddhist ideas, palace academy garden and Buddhist artist styles, unique traditional and western painting styles, is one of the representative works that symbolically illustrate the development and innovation of painting in the late Joseon dynasty. However, the absence of painting inscriptions raised persistent controversy over the past half century among researchers as to the matters of estimating its production period, identifying the original author and analyzing style characteristics. In the end, the work failed to gain recognitions commensurate with its historical significance and value. It is the particularly vital issue in that estimating the production period of the existing masterpiece is the beginning of all other discussions. However, this issue has caused the ensuing debates since all details are difficult to be interpreted to a concise form due to a number of different records on painters and mixture of traditional buddhist painting styles used by buddhist painters and innovative western styles used by ordinary painters. Contrary to other ordinary Buddhist paintings, this painting, Samsaebulhoedo, has a praying letter for the royal establishment at the center of the main altar. It should be noted that regarding this painting, its original version-His Royal Highness King, Her Majesty, His Royal Crown Prince主上殿下, 王妃殿下, 世子邸下-was erased and instead added Her Love Majesty慈宮邸下 in front of Her Majesty. This praying letter can be assumed as one of the significant and objective evidence for estimating its production period. The new argument of the late 19th century production focused on this praying letter, and proposed that King Sunjo was then the first-born son when Yongjusa Temple was built in 1790 and it was not until January 1, 1800 that he was ascended to the Crown Prince. In this light, the existing praying letter with the eulogistic title-Crown Prince世子-should be considered revised after his ascension to the throne. Styles and icons bore some resemblance to Samsaebulhoedo at Cheongryongsa Temple or Bongeunsa Temple portrayed by Buddhist painters in the late 19th century. Therefore, the remaining Samsaebulhoedo should be depicted by them in the same period as western styles were introduced in Buddhist painting in later days. Following extensive investigations, praying letters in Buddhist paintings in the late 19th century show that it was usual to record specification such as class, birth date and family name of people during the dynasty at the point of producing Buddhist paintings. It is easy to find that those who passed away decades ago cannot be revised to use eulogistic titles as seen by the praying letters in Samsaebulhoedo at Yongju Temple. As "His Royal Highness King, Her Majesty, His Royal Crown Prince" was generally used around 1790 regardless of the presence of first-born son or Crown Prince, it was rather natural to write the eulogistic title "His Royal Crown Prince" in the praying letter of Samsaebulhoedo. Contrary to ordinary royal hierarchy, Her Love Majesty was placed in front of Her Majesty. Based on this, the praying letter was assumed to be revised since King Jeongjo placed royal status of Hyegyeonggung before the Queen, which was an exceptional case during King Jeongjo's reign, due to unusual relationships among King Jeongjo, Hyegyeonggung and the Queen arising from the death of Crown Prince(思悼世子). At that time, there was a special case of originally writing a formal tripod praying letter, as can be seen from ordinary praying letter in Buddhist paintings, erasing it and adding a special eulogistic title: Her Love Majesty. This indicates that King Jeongjo identified that Hyegyeonggung was erased, and commanded to add it; nevertheless, ceremony leaders of Yongju Temple, built as a palace for holding ceremonies of Hyeonryungwon(顯隆園) are Jeongjo, the son of his father and his wife Hyegyeonggung (Her Love Majesty)(惠慶宮(慈宮)). This revision is believed to be ordered by King Jeongjo on January 17, 1791 when the King paid his first visit to the Hyeonryungwon since the establishment of Hyeonryungwon and Yongju Temple, stopped by Yongju Temple on his way to palace and saw Samsaebulhoedo for the first and last time. As shown above, this letter consisting of special contents and forms can be seen an obvious, objective testament to the original of Samsebulhoedo painted in 1790 when Yongju Temple was built.