• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bubble Column

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The Pitch/Turning Control Driver Design Modeling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (영구자석형 동기전동기의 고저/선회 제어용 드라이버 설계 모델링)

  • Lee, Chun-Gi;Hwang, Jeong-Won;Lee, Joung-Tae;Yang, Bin;Lim, Dong-Keun;Park, Seung-Yub
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this paper is to control of the low-speed, high-precision PMSM 2-axes pitch/turning. In this paper, apply the PAM-PWM inverter for it. However, The PAM-PWM inverter, control algorithms and hardware is complex. But it is possible to improve the performance in the low-speed operation can reduce the effect of the PWM ripple and Dead Time of inverter by applying suitable DC-bus voltage control. The direct driver PMSM(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) configured to vector control part, PAM control part and the other controller. The vector control part includes PI current, speed control, additional space vector modulation. PAM control part has to have PI voltage controller and P current controller for DC-bus voltage control. Besides, the motor position estimator, the speed estimator and the counter electromotive force and Dead Time Compensation are added. With this arrangement, PMSM was driven with a low pole pitch/turning by performing the current control to the current command or torque command is the paper. As a result, it was possible to minimize the disturbance component that appears in the drive in proportion to the DC voltage magnitude. The use of a hydraulic drive method for a two-axis bubble column is a typical tank. When using the PWM PAM inverter driver is in the turret can be driven by high-precision, low vibration, low noise compared to the hydraulic drive may contribute to the computerization of the turret.

Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Starvation on Growth and Fatty Acid Production in Newly Isolated Two Freshwater Green Microalgae from Nakdonggang River (낙동강 수계에서 분리한 녹조류 2종의 질소와 인의 결핍에 따른 생장 및 지방산 변화 연구)

  • Yim, Kyung June;Park, Hanwool;Lee, Chang Soo;Jo, Bok Yeon;Nam, Seung Won;Lee, Choul-Gyun;Kim, Z-Hun
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2019
  • In this study, effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) starvation on the cell growth and fatty acid (FA) production of newly isolated freshwater microalgae were investigated. The microalgae were identified as Chlorella sp. and Parachlorella sp. through 18S rRNA sequencing. Optimal culture temperature and light intensity were investigated using a high-throughput photobioreator, and the result was validated in 0.5 L bubble column photobioreactors using BG-11 without NaNO3 and/or K2HPO4. Under nutrient starvation conditions, total FA contents of the microalgae were significantly changed rather than FA composition. Starvation of both N and P was most effective for increasing FA contents in Parachlorella sp (24.4±0.1%) whereas highest FA contents (42.6±1.8%) was achieved when only P was starved in Chlorella sp. among tested conditions. These results suggest an effective strategy for increasing FA production from microalgae using appropriate nutrient starvation.

Far-ultraviolet study of the GSH006-15+7: A local Galactic supershell

  • Jo, Young-Soo;Min, Kyoung-Wook;Seon, Kwang-Il
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.61.1-61.1
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    • 2014
  • GSH 006-15+7 is a Milky Way supershell discovered by Moss et al. (2012). This supershell shows large shell-like structures in H I velocity maps. We have analyzed FUV emission for the supershell regions based on the FIMS and GALEX observations. Bright FUV flux at the boundaries of the supershell is mostly originated from dust scattering of FUV photons by dust clouds which was also observed at the boundaries of the supershell. We could find the distance to the supershell can be closer more than 30% compared with the distance of 1500 pc suggested by Moss et al. (2012) from the dust scattering simulation. And we also found the albedo and the phase function asymmetry factor of interstellar grains were 0.30 and 0.40, respectively. The confidence range for the albedo covers the theoretical value of 0.40, but g-factor is rather smaller than the theoretical value of 0.65. The small g-factor might mean the environment of turbulent ISM of the supershell. Meanwhile, the excess of C IV and X-ray emissions in the inside of the supershell can support the existence of hot gas and cooling in the supershell. And the C IV and X-ray emissions are monotonically decrease as away from the center of the SNR. This indicates the size of the hot bubble has considerably shrunk. We applied a simple simulation model to the PDR candidate region of the lower part of the supershell and obtained a H2 column density N(H2) = 1017.0-18.0 cm-2 and total hydrogen density nH ${\geq}$ 10 cm-3. This result shows the PDR candidate region represents a transition region from the warm phase to the cool phase in the PDR.

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Analysis of Holdup Characteristics of Large and Small Bubbles in Three-Phase Fluidized Beds by using a Dynamic Gas Disengagement Method (삼상유동층에서 동력학적 기체유출 측정방법에 의한 큰 기포와 작은 기포의 체류량 특성 해석)

  • Lim, Hyun Oh;Lim, Dae Ho;Seo, Myung Jae;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon;Lee, Ho Tae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 2011
  • Phase holdup characteristics of relatively large and small bubbles were investigated in a three-phase(gasliquid-solid) fluidized bed of which diameter was 0.105 m(ID) and 2.5 m in height, respectively. Effects of gas(0.01~0.07 m/s) and liquid velocities(0.01~0.07 m/s) and particle size($0.5{\sim}3.0{\times}10^{-3}m$) on the holdups of relatively large and small bubbles were determined. The holdups of two kinds of bubbles in three phase fluidized beds were estimated by means of static pressure drop method with the knowledge of pressure drops corresponding to each kind of bubble, respectively, which were obtained by dynamic gas disengagement method. Dried and filtered air which was regulated by gas regulator, tap water and glass bead of which density was $2500kg/m^3$ were served as a gas, a liquid and a fluidized solid phase, respectively. The two kinds of bubbles in three-phase fluidized beds, relatively large and small bubbles, were effectively detected and distinguished by measuring the pressure drop variation after stopping the gas and liquid flow into the column as a step function: The increase slope of pressure drop with a variation of elapsed time was quite different from each other. It was found that the holdup of relatively large bubbles increased with increasing gas velocity but decreased with liquid velocity. However, the holdup showed a local minimum with a variation of size of fluidized solid particles. The holdup of relatively small bubbles increased with an increase in the gas velocity or solid particle size, while it decreased slightly with an increase in the liquid velocity. The holdups of two kinds of bubbles were well correlated in terms of operating variables within this experimental conditions, respectively.

Development of Land Fill Gas(LFG)-MGT Power Generation and Green House Design Technology (쓰레기 매립지 MGT 발전 및 유리온실 설계기술개발)

  • Hur, Kwang-Beom;Park, Jung-Keuk;Lee, Jung-Bin
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2011
  • The high fuel flexibility of Micro Gas Turbine(MGT) has boosted their use in a wide variety of applications. Recently, the demand for biogas generated from the digestion of organic wastes and landfill as a fuel for gas turbines has increased. We researched the influence of firing landfill gas(LFG) on the performance and operating characteristics of a micro gas turbine combined heat and power system. $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ simultaneous recovery process has been developed for field plant scale to provide an isothermal, low operating cost method for carrying out the contaminants removal in Land Fill Gas(LFG) by liquid phase catalyst for introduce into the green house for the purpose of $CO_2$ rich cultivation of the plants. Methane purification and carbon dioxide stripping by muti panel autocirculation bubble lift column reactor utilizing Fe-EDTA was conducted for evaluate optimum conditions for land fill gas. Based on inflow rate of LFG as 0.207 $m^3$/min, 5.5 kg/$cm^2$, we designed reactor system for 70% $CH_4$ and 27% $CO_2$ gas introduce into MGT system with $H_2S$ 99% removal efficiency. A green house designed for four different carbon dioxide concentration from ambient air to 1500 ppm by utilizing the exhaust gas and hot water from MGT system.