• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bubble Column

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Production of Mycelia and Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Submerged Culture of Ganoderma applanatum Using Different Types of Bioreactor (생물반응기 유형에 따른 잔나비불로초(Ganoderma applanatum)의 균사체 및 수용성 다당체 생산 특성)

  • Lee, Wi-Young;Park, Young-Ki;Ahn, Jin-Kwon;Park, So-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2006
  • In order to select a suitable bioreactor type for the submerged cultivation of Ganoderma applanatum, both growth characteristics and polysaccharides production were compared among four different types of bioreactor. These include an external-loop type air-lift bioreactor (ETAB), a balloon type air bubble bioreactor (BTBB), a column type air bubble bioreactor (CTBB) and a stirrer type bioreactor (STB). The mycelial biomass produced from the reactors were in decreasing order: ETAB ($7\;g/{\ell}$) > BTBB ($6.2\;g/{\ell}$) > STB ($6\;g/{\ell}$) > CTBB ($5\;g/{\ell}$). Maximal soluble exopolysaccharides ($1\;g/{\ell}$) and endopolysaccharides (2.7%) were also obtained from ETAB. Thus, the ETAB was most suitable for submerged culture of G applanatum mycelium. Based on the results, ETAB was chosen for further detailed study. The most effective aeration rate for the mycelial growth in ETAB ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 vvm. For the maximal production, the mycelium at the initial growth stage needed low aeration rate to reduce cell damages by fluid flow. However, as the mycelia grew, the culture became viscous and thus needed higher aeration. The molecular weight of exopolysaccharides obtained from the culture grown in ETAB was higher than that from the culture grown in other bioreactors.

Characteristics of Wakes in a Viscous Liquid Medium of a Simulated GTL Process (모사된 GTL공정의 점성액체 매체에서 wake의 특성)

  • Lim, Dae Ho;Jang, Ji Hwa;Kang, Yong;Jun, Ki Won
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.571-576
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    • 2011
  • Characteristics of bubble driven wakes were investigated in a simulated GTL process(0.102 m ${\times}$ 1.5 m in height) with viscous liquid medium. Effects of gas velocity(0.04 ~ 0.12 m/s) and liquid viscosity(0.001 ~ 0.050 $Pa{\cdot}s$) on the wake characteristics such as rising velocity, frequency, size and holdup were determined by employing a resistivity probe method. The wake phase formed behind the rising multi-bubbles as well as single bubbles were detected effectively from the conductivity fluctuations measured by the probe. Compressed, filtered and regulated air and aqueous solutions of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose(CMC) were used as a dispersed gas phase and a continuous liquid medium, respectively. It was found that the rising velocity and size of wake phase increased with an increase in gas velocity or liquid viscosity. The holdup and frequency of wake phase increased with increasing gas velocity due to the increase of gas input into the process with increasing gas velocity. However, the values of holdup and frequency of wake phase decreased with increasing liquid viscosity, since the size of bubbles and thus that of wakes increased with increasing liquid viscosity. The ratio of wake holdup to that of gas phase, which was in the range of 0.25 ~ 0.48, increased with an increase in liquid viscosity but decreased with gas velocity. The wake characteristics were well correlated in terms of operating variables within this experimental conditions.

Effect of Operating Variables on the Morphology of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate in a Slurry Bubble Reactor (슬러리 기포탑 반응기에서 침강성 탄산칼슘의 모폴로지에 대한 조업변수들의 영향)

  • Hwang, Jung-Woo;Lee, Yoong;Lee, Dong-Hyun
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2010
  • Effects of $Ca(OH)_2$ concentration (0.16~0.64 wt%), surfactant concentration (2~16 wt%), total volumetric flow rate (3~6 L/min) and $CO_2$ volume fraction $(0.3{\sim}0.6)$ on morphology, crystal structure, mean particle diameter, aggregation and specific surface area of the precipitated $CaCO_3$ were investigated in the slurry bubble column reactor. Experiments were carried out in acrylic reactor ($0.11\;m-ID{\times}1.0\;m-high$) with a internal tube ($0.04\;m-ID{\times}1.0\;m-high$h). The reaction time of $CaCO_3$ synthesis decreased with adding Dispex N40 of the anionic surfactant. The reaction rate of $Ca(OH)_2$ increased with increasing the volumetric flow rate of $CO_2$. From SEM images, the single crystal of $CaCO_3$ increased with increasing the reaction rate in the saturated concentration of $Ca(OH)_2$ (0.16 wt %) and the concentration of Dispex N40 (2 wt%). The mean particle size of $CaCO_3$ varied with adding Dispex N40. In addition, the specific surface area of $CaCO_3$ increased with adding of surfactant (2 wt%) from $35m^2/g$ to $44m^2/g$ at the volumetric flow rate of $CO_2$ (0.9 L/min) and the concentration of $Ca(OH)_2$(0.64 wt %).

A New Detergentless Micro-Emulsion System Using Urushiol as an Enzyme Reaction System

  • Kim, John-Woo-Shik;Yoo, Young-Je
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2001
  • Urushiol, a natural monomeric oil, was used to prepare a detergentless micro-emulsion with water and 2-propanol The formation of micro-emulsion was verified by conductivity measurements and dynamic light scattering. The conductivity data showed phase change dynamics, a characteristics of micro-emulsions, and subsequent dynamic light scattering study further confirmed the phenomenon. Average water droplet diameter was 10 nm to 500 nm when the molar ratio of 2-propanol ranged from 0.40 to 0.44 . Earlier studies were performed on toluene and hexane, in which the insoluble substrate in water phase was added to the solvents to be reacted on by enzymes. However, in the present urushiol system, urushiol was used as both solvent and substrate in the laccase polymerization of urushiol. The laccase activity in the system was examined using polymerization of urushiol. The laccase activity in the system was examined using syringaldezine as a substrate, and the activity increased rapidly near the molar ratio of 2-propanol at 0.4, where micro-emulsion started. The activity rose until 0.46 and fell dramatically thereafter. The study of laccase activity in differing mole fractions of 2-propanol showed the existence of an ‘optimal zone’, where the activity of laccase was significantly higher. In order to analyze urushiol polymerization by laccase, a bubble column reactor using a detergentless micro-emulsion system was constructed. Comparative study using other organic solvents systems were conducted and the 2-propanol system was shown to yield the highest polymerization level. The study of laccase activity at a differing mole fraction of 2-propanol showed the existence of an ‘optimal zone’ where the activity was significantly higher. Also, 3,000 cP viscosity was achieved in actual urushi processing, using only 1/100 level of laccase present in urushi.

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Evaluation of electrical energy consumption in UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for simultaneous removal of NO and SO2

  • Shahrestani, Masoumeh Moheb;Rahimi, Amir
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2019
  • The electrical energy consumption (EEC) in removal of NO by a $UV/H_2O_2$ oxidation process was introduced and related to removal efficiency of this gas. The absorption-reaction of NO was conducted in a bubble column reactor in the presence of $SO_2$. The variation in NO removal efficiency was investigated for various process parameters including NO and $SO_2$ inlet concentrations, initial concentration of $H_2O_2$ solution and gas flow rate. EEC values were obtained in these different conditions. The removal efficiency was increased from about 22% to 54.7% when $H_2O_2$ concentration increased from 0.1 to 1.5 M, while EEC decreased by about 70%. However, further increase in $H_2O_2$ concentration, from 1.5 to 2, had no significant effect on NO absorption and EEC. An increase in NO inlet concentration, from 200 to 500 ppm, decreased its removal efficiency by about 10%. However, EEC increased from $2.9{\times}10^{-2}$ to $3.9{\times}10^{-2}kWh/m^3$. Results also revealed that the presence of $SO_2$ had negative effect on NO removal percentage and EEC values. Some experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of $H_2O_2$ solution pH. The changing of pH of oxidation-absorption medium in the ranges between 3 to 10, had positive and negative effects on removal efficiency depending on pH value.

The Characteristics of the Ozonation of the Phenol Wastewater in the Continuous PCR and BCR (연속식 PCR과 BCR에서 기$cdot$액 접촉 방법 및 주입 오존 유량에 따른 페놀 폐수의 오존 처리특성)

  • Kim, Yong-Dai;Ahn, Jae-Dong;Lee, Joon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 1996
  • The main objectives of this research program were to study the ozonation characteristics of phenol wastewater in the continuous packed colamn reactor(PCR) and the bubble column reactor (BCR) using ozone and to provide the fundamentals of ozonizing the phenol wastewater. Among various influencing factors that affect on phenol decomposition through the oxidation by ozone, contacting method, and ozone flow rate were chosen as reaction parameters. The results were obtained from two different types of contacting methods where the countercurrent flow was more efficient than the cocurrent flow in both the phenol removal efficiency and the ozone utilization efficiency. Furthermore, PCR showed the phenol removal efficiency 1.6 to 3% higher than that of BCR in both contacting methods, as well as the ozone utilization efficiency, suggesting that the countercurrent flow is more efficient than the cocurrent flow. The phenol removal efficiency and the ozone utilization efficiency were reduced in both reactors as the influent ozone flow rate increased. Upon varing flow rate from 0.5l/min to 2.0 l/min by 0.5 l/min, the phenol removal efficiency was reduced approximately from 8.5% to 10.5% and the ozone utilization efficiency was reduced approximately from 6% to 8% in both reactors. The performance of PCR was superior to that of BCR in the aspects of phenol removal and ozone utilization efficiency.

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Eruptive mechanisms and processes at Udo tuff cone, Udo Island, Korea (우도응회과의 분출기기구와 분출과정)

  • Hwang, Sang-Koo
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.91-103
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    • 1992
  • Eruptive mechanisms and processes at Udo tuff cone can be inferred from indicative characters of products, bedforms and lithofacies, and ring faults. In terms of bedforms and lithofa-cies in particular, massive lapilli tuff beds and chaotic lapilli tuff beds are derived from subaerial falls of aggregated tephra of wet tephra finger jets, occurring dominantly at the lower sequences of proximal part at the tuff cone. Crudely stratified lapilli tuff are derived from subaerial falls of slightly aggregated tephra of less wet tephra finger jets, whereas reversely graded lapilli tuff beds are from slightly disaggregated subaerial falls of continuous uprush. Both beds frequently occur in the middle sequences at proximal and near medial part of the tuff cone. Block and lapilli tephra lenses, ash-coated lapilli tephra beds(lenses) and thin-bedded tuff beds are derived from extremely disaggregated subaerial falls of dry tephra in the continuous uprush, frequently occurring at the upper sequences of medial part at the tuff cone. Udo tuff cone is a basaltic volcano emergent through the sea water surface while water could flood across or into the vent area. Emergence of the tuff cone was from the type-Surtseyan eruption characterized by earlier tephra finger jets and later continuous uprush columns of tephra with copious volumes of steam. Explosions began when boiling of wter produced a bubble column reducing the hydrostatic pres-sure, allowing exsolution of gases from the magma. This expansion of magma into a vesiculating froth fragmented the magma and permitted mixing of magma and water so that a more vigorous generation of steam could proceed. Tephra finger jetting explosions continued to build the crater rims, then remove water from the vent that their deposits flowed like slsurries until the continuous uprush explosion ensued. Continuous uprush explosions were associated with most rapid accumula-tion of tephra. The increasing volume rate led to partial removal of water from the vent area by the newly tephra ring so that more vigorous activity could be attended by a reducing water supply. This might restrain surplus of cold water entering the vent and thus enhance the vigour of the eruption by allowing optimal heat exchange. Eventually the crater became so deep and unsuported that piecemeal sliding, or massive subsidence on indipping ring faults, filled and closed the vent, and the cycle of explosions and collapse began anew.

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Optimum Conditions for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Using Fe-EDTA Complex (Fe-EDTA 착물을 이용한 황화수소 제거의 최적 반응 조건)

  • Jin, Sang-Gi;Cha, Jin-Myeong;Lee, In-Wha;Yoon, Suk-Jin;Kim, Si-Wouk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 1996
  • The optimum conditions for the removal of hydrogen sulfide by Fe-EDTA complex in the bubble column reactor were investigated. As the concentrations of the complex increased, the conversion rate of hydrogen sulfide increased, while Fe concentration and pH were stably decreased and the amount of elemental sulfur produced was also increased. Hydrogen sulfide was removed efficiently when the concentration of Fe-EDTA complex was maintained more than 0.05M. pH acts as an important factor for the stability of complex in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and optimum pH range was 8.5~9.5. As the molar ratio of EDTA : Fe was increased, the conversion rate of hydrogen sulfide became stable. However, the rate was decreased due to the precipitation of FeS when the concentration of EDTA was decreased. As the concentration of EDTA increased, the conversion rate of hydrogen sulfide increased due to the high stability of Fe-EDTA complex.

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Biological Fixation of Carbon Dioxide by Synechocystis PCC 6803 (Synechocystis PCC 6803에 의한 이산화탄소의 생물학적 고정화)

  • 김장규;원성호;김남기
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 1998
  • Carbon dioxide is estimated to be responsible for 60% of the global warming effect, and this percentage is tending upward. Studies on removal and fixation of $CO_2$ in the flue gas are recognized as one of the important roles of the future biotechnology. Photobiological systems have considerably higher photosynthetic efficiency than conventional biomass system. The experiment for the photosynthetic fixation of $CO_2$ and the biomass production was performed with various initial cell concentration in a tubular photobioreactor and a bubble column $CO_2$ contactor with a gas sparger of $CO_2$ -enriched air(0.03~20%). Synechocystis PCC 6803 could grow at 10~20% $CO_2$ content under pH control. The highest specific growth rate, 0.0258 $h^{-1}$ , was obtained at 5% $CO_2$-air mixture. The maximum cell production rate, 0.2784 g/L.day, was obtained when the initial cell concentration was 0.45 g/L at 5% $CO_2$ -air mixture. The maximum cell concentration was 2.03 g/L in the tubular photobioreactor when the light intensity was $45.5{\mu}$ $E/m^2$ . s. This system showed 0.482 g $CO_2$ /L . day of the $CO_2$ fixation.

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