• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bubble Column

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High-Density Cultivation of Microalgae using Microencapsulation (Microencapsulation에 의한 미세조류의 고밀도 배양)

  • HAN Young-Ho;LEE Jung-Suck;KWAK Jung-Ki;LEE Eung-Ho;CHO Man-Gi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.186-191
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    • 1999
  • The three speices of miroalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella salina and Porphyridium purpureum) were immobilized in Ca-alginate capsules as a basic study for development of economic cultivation process, and then were cultivated in an air-bubble column bioreactor. Under the batch culture of aerobic conditions, the thickness of the capsule membrane and $CO_2$ supply did not affect the growth of the immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Cell concentration of immobilized microalgae in the capsule was higher than those of imobilized microalgae in beads and free cells. The cell concentration of microencapsulated Dunaliella salina was greater about 5 times than that of free cells. Based on these results, it is concluded that the application of microencapsulation technology to the culture of microalgae was an effective method for high-density cultivation.

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Production of Mycelia and Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Submerged Culture of Lentinus lepideus in Bioreactor (생물반응기를 이용한 잣버섯(Lentinus lepideus)의 균사체 및 수용성 다당체 생산특성)

  • Ahn, Jin-Kwon;Ka, Kang-Hyeon;Lee, Wi-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2007
  • The mushroom Lentinus lepideus was used to produce mycelial as well as soluble polysaccharides in bioreactor cultures. To determine optimal submerged culture conditions, both growth characteristics and water soluble polysaccharides production were compared among four different types of bioreactor and culture conditions. For the production of mycelial biomass, the following bioreactors were proven to be effective in decreasing order: an external-loop type air-lift bioreactor (ETAB; 7g/l), a balloon type air bubble bioreactor (BTBB; 6.2g/l), a stirrer type bioreactor (STB; 6g/l), and a column type air bubble bioreactor (CTBB; 5g/l). Maxiaml production of water soluble exopolysaccharides (EPS; 0.62g/l) and endopolysaccharides (PPS; 7.7%) could also be obtained from BTBB. The mycelial biomass increased with increase in glucose concentration from 15g/l to 75g/l in the media. In contrast, PPS contents in the cells decreased with increase in glucose concentration in the media, showing the highest PPS content (7%) at 15g/l. Among different medium feeding types, fed-batch culture based on concentration control in media (10g/l) produced higher mycelia than fed-batch culture based on volume control of media (5.8g/l) or batch culture (3.4g/l). EPS production was also higher in fed-batch culture based on medium concentration control than that in other feeding types.

Bio-oil production from Chlorella sp. KR-1 using carbon dioxide from bubble column (기포탑에서 이산화탄소를 이용한 Chlorella sp. KR-1로부터 바이오오일 생산)

  • Lee, Ja-Youn;Seo, Kyoung-Ae;Park, Soon-Chul;Lee, Jin-Suk;Oh, You-Kwan
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.513-513
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    • 2009
  • 최근 바이오디젤의 원료로 미세조류가 많은 관심을 끌고 있다. 미세조류는 물, 이산화탄소와 태양광을 이용해 광합성 성장이 가능하며, 지질(오일) 성분이 풍부하여 바이오디젤의 원료로 이용할 수 있다. 미세조류는 단위 면적당 오일 생산량이 곡물류의 50-100배 이상이며, 이산화탄소를 기질로 이용하므로 온실가스 직접 저감이 가능하다. 또한 배양시 비경작지나 황무지를 사용할 수 있으므로 기존 식용작물과 경쟁하지 않으며, 하수, 해수, 폐수 등 다양한 물자원을 이용할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 고농도 $CO_2$에 내성을 지닌 Chlorella sp. KR-1을 대상으로 1 L 규모 기포탑 광생물반응기에서 균체 성장 및 지질(바이오오일) 합성에 대한 $CO_2$ 농도, 가스 공급속도, 질산염 농도 등 환경 및 영향 조건의 영향을 조사하였다. 가스 공급속도 0.4 L/min에서 $CO_2$ 농도를 0.03-20% 범위에서 조사하였을 때 최대 균체성장은 $CO_2$ 10%에서 관찰되었다. 균체내 지방산 함량은 $CO_2$ 농도 0.03%에서 가장 낮았고, 5-20% 범위에서는 $CO_2$ 농도 증가에 따라 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었다. 가스 공급속도를 0.2 L/min에서 0.8 L/min으로 증가시켰을 때 최대 균체농도는 0.6-0.8 L/min의 범위에서 관찰되었고, 생체내 최대 지방산 함량은 0.4 L/min에서 관찰되었다. Nitrate 농도 1-20 mM 범위에서 최종 균체농도는 nitrate 농도 증가에 따라 10mM까지 증가하였으나 그 이상에서는 증가하지 않았다. 반면 지방산 함량은 nitrate 농도 증가에 따라 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었다. 본 실험에서 얻은 최대 지방산 생산량은 1,100 mg/L이었으며, 주요 지방산은 C10:0(1.7%), C16:0(28.5%), C18:0(11%), C18:1n9c(25.9%), C18:2n6c(26.3%), C18:3n3(6.6%)이었다. 현재 100 L 규모 광생물반응기에서 석탄발전소 배가스($CO_2$ 12-15%, SOx 50ppm, NOx 100ppm)를 이용한 바이오오일 생산 실험이 진행 중이다.

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A Study on the Degradation Characteristics of 1,4-dioxane at Different Initial $H_2O_2$ Concentration with Advanced Oxidation Process using Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide ($O_3/H_2O_2$를 이용한 고급산화공정에서 초기 $H_2O_2$ 농도에 따른 1,4-dioxane의 제거 특성 연구)

  • Park, Jin-Do;Suh, Jung-Ho;Lee, Hak-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1108-1113
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    • 2005
  • Advanced oxidation process involving $O_3/H_2O_2$ was used to eliminate 1,4-dioxane and to enhance the biodegradability of dioxane-contaminated water. Oxidation process was carried out in a bubble column reactor under different pH and $H_2O_2$ concentrations. The removal efficiencies of 1,4-dioxane were investigated at hydrogen peroxide concentration between 40 and 120 mg/L. At the same pH, removal efficiencies of 1,4-dioxane increased with increasing initial $H_2O_2$ concentration. There was a linear relationship between initial concentration of $H_2O_2$ and the amount of consumed $O_3$. It was observed that the high $H_2O_2$ concentration accelerated the generation of hydroperoxy ions(${HO_2}^-$) and hydroxyl radicals($OH{\cdot}$). Hydrogen peroxide enhanced the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane and the biodegradability of the solution.

Prevention of Early Frost Damage of the Concrete under Severely Low Temperature according to Heat Curingmethods (극저온 조건에서 보온양생 방법 변화에 따른 콘크리트의 초기동해 방지)

  • Han, min-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2016
  • Concrete exposed to severely low temperature below $-20^{\circ}C$ should be provided with proper heat supplying curing to protect the concrete from early frost damage at the time of pouring.meanwhile, so far, effective heat curingmethods of the concrete under severely low temperature are not well established in Korea. For this reason, the objective of this paper is to provide effective heat curingmethod of concrete exposed to severely low temperature to protect early frost damage by varying the combination of heat curingmaterial combinations. Temperature history,maturity development and core strength results are investigated. Fourmock-up specimens simulating slab, wall and column were prepared and heat insulation, heat supplying and both were applied. Test results indicate that the combination of quadruple layer bubble sheet(4BS) and embedding of heating cable has desirable performance for a slab, and heat supplying curing inside heat enclosure and heat generationmat also shows desirable performance for a wall, and for a column, use of EPS heat insulation has proper performance against early frost damage, which reaches $45^{\circ}D{\cdot}D$ and helps the concretemaintain above $0^{\circ}C$ within 3 days. Themethodsmentioned above are believed to be optimum protection from early frost damage of the concrete under $-20^{\circ}C$.

Oxidation of Phenol Using Ozone-containing Microbubbles Formed by Electrostatic Spray (전기장에 의해 생성된 미세기포를 이용한 페놀의 오존산화)

  • Shin, Won-Tae;Jung, Yoo-Jin;Sung, Nak-Chang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1292-1297
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    • 2005
  • The use of ozone in water and wastewater treatment systems has been known to be a process that is limited by mass transfer. The most effective way to overcome this limitation is to increase the interfacial area available for mass transfer by decreasing the size of the ozone gas bubbles that are dispersed in solution. Electrostatic spraying(ES) of ozone into water was investigated in this work as a method of increasing the rate of mass transfer of ozone into a solution and thereby increasing the rate of phenol oxidation. Results were obtained for ES at input power levels ranging from 0 to 4 kV and compared with two different pore-size bubble diffusers($10{\sim}15{\mu}m$ and $40{\sim}60{\mu}m$). It was determined that the rate of mass transfer could be increased by as much as 40% when the applied voltage was increased from 0 to 4 kV as a result of the smaller bubbles generated by ES. In addition, ES was shown to be more effective than the medium-pore-size($10{\sim}15{\mu}m$) bubble diffuser and the best results were achieved at low gas flow rates.

CPFD Simulation of Bubble Flow in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed with Shroud Nozzle Distributor and Vertical Internal (CPFD 시뮬레이션을 통한 Shroud 노즐 및 수직 구조물이 설치된 기포 유동층 반응기 내에서의 기포 흐름 해석)

  • Lim, Jong Hun;Bae, Keon;Shin, Jea Ho;Lee, Dong Ho;Han, Joo Hee;Lee, Dong Hyun
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.678-686
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    • 2016
  • The effect of internal and shroud nozzle distributor to bubbling fluidized beds which has the size of $0.3m-ID{\times}2.4m-high$ column was modeled by CPFD (Computational Particle-Fluid Dynamics). Metal-grade silicon particles (MG-Si) were used as bed materials which have $d_p=149{\mu}m$, ${\rho}_p=2,325kg/m^3$ and $U_{mf}=0.02m/s$. Total bed inventory and static bed height were 75 kg and 0.8 m, respectively. Effect of vertical internal on the bubble rising velocity was investigated. Bubbles were split by internal when the axial position of the internal from the distributor, z = 0.45 m. Bed pressure drop and axial solid holdup were not affected by internal. However, in the case that axial distance of internal from distributor was too close to jet penetration length, bubbles were not separated and bypassed internal, and faster than without internal or z = 0.45 m.

Removal Characteristics of 1,4-dioxane with O3/H2O2 and O3/Catalyst Advanced Oxidation Process (O3/H2O2와 O3/Catalyst 고급산화공정에서 1,4-dioxane의 제거 특성)

  • Park, Jin-Do;Suh, Jung-Ho;Lee, Hak-Sung
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2006
  • Advanced oxidation processes involving $O_3/H_2O_2$ and $O_3/catalyst$ were used to compare the degradability and the effect of pH on the oxidation of 1,4-dioxane, Oxidation processes were carried out in a bubble column reactor under different pH. Initial hydrogen peroxide concentration was 3.52 mM in $O_3/H_2O_2$ process and 115 g/L (0.65 wt.%) of activated carbon impregnated with palladium was packed in $O_3/catalyst$ column. 1,4-dioxane concentration was reduced steadily with reaction time in $O_3/H_2O_2$ oxidation process, however, in case of $O_3/catalyst$ process, about $50{\sim}75%$ of 1,4-dioxane was degraded only in 5 minutes after reaction. Overall reaction efficiency of $O_3/catalyst$ was also higher than that of $O_3/H_2O_2$ process. TOC and $COD_{cr}$ were analyzed in order to examine the oxidation characteristics with $O_3/H_2O_2\;and\;O_3/catalyst$ process. The results of $COD_{cr}$ removal efficiency and ${\Delta}TOC/{\Delta}ThOC$ ratio in $O_3/catalyst$ process gave that this process could more proceed the oxidation reaction than $O_3/H_2O_2$ oxidation process. Therefore, it was considered that $O_3/catalyst$ advanced oxidation process could be used as a effective oxidation process for removing non-degradable toxic organic materials.

KIER Liquefaction R & D's status (KIER 액화 기술 개발 현황)

  • Yang, Jung-Il;Yang, Jung Hoon;Lee, Ho-Tae;Chun, Dong Hyun;Kim, Hak-Joo;Jung, Heon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.110.1-110.1
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    • 2010
  • A bench scale slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) with active-Fe based catalyst was developed for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction. Considering the highly exothermic reaction heat generated in the bench scale SBCR, an effective cooling system was devised consisting of a U-type dip tube submerged in the reactor. Also, the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were controlled so as to achieve high activity for the CO conversion and liquid oil ($C_{5+}$) production. Firstly, the FTS performance of the FeCuK/$SiO_2$ catalyst in the SBCR under reaction conditions of $265^{\circ}C$, 2.5 MPa, and $H_2/CO=1$ was investigated. The CO conversion and liquid oil ($C_{5+}$) productivity in the reaction were 88.6% and 0.226 $g/g_{cat}-h$, respectively, corresponding to a liquid oil ($C_{5+}$) production rate of 0.03 bbl/day. To investigate the FTS reaction behavior in the bench scale SBCR, the effects of the space velocity and superficial velocity of the synthesis gas and reaction temperature were also studied. The liquid oil production rate increased upto 0.057 bbl/day with increasing space velocity from 2.61 to 3.92 $SL/h-g_{Fe}$ and it was confirmed that the SBCR bench system developed in this research precisely simulated the FTS reaction behavior reported in the small scale slurry reactor.

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A new nano-ZnO/perlite as an efficient catalyst for catalytic ozonation of azo dye

  • Shokrollahzadeh, Soheila;Abassi, Masoud;Ranjbar, Maryam
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.513-520
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    • 2019
  • In this investigation, nano ZnO was sonochemically synthesized by a novel method using a methionine precursor. A narrow size distribution (41-50 nm) of nano ZnO was achieved that was immobilized on perlite and applied as a catalyst in catalytic ozonation. The catalyst was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, and field emission scanning electron microscope. The ozonation of recalcitrant Remazol black 5 (RB5) di-azo dye solution by means of the synthesized catalyst was investigated in a bubble column slurry reactor. The influence of pH values (7, 9, 11), catalyst dosage (8, 12, 15, $20g\;L^{-1}$) and reaction time (10, 20, 30, 60 min) was investigated. Although the dye color was completely removed by single ozonation at a higher reaction time, the applied nanocatalyst improved the dye declorination kinetics. Also, the degradation of the hazardous aromatic fraction of the dye was enhanced five-times by catalytic ozonation at a low reaction time (10 min) and a neutral pH. The second-order kinetics was best fitted in terms of both RB5 color and its aromatic fraction removal. The total organic carbon analysis indicated a significant improvement in the mineralization of RB5 by catalytic ozonation using the nano-ZnO/perlite catalyst.