• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brunei Darussalam

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Profiles of Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Gastric Carcinomas in Brunei Darussalam

  • Yen, Rachel Lai Siaw;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Cunningham, Anne;Abdullah, Muhd Syafiq;Chong, Chee Fui;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10489-10493
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    • 2015
  • Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common gastrointestinal cancer and is largely attributed to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. In addition, studies have also shown association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 10% of gastric cancers. This study assessed the characteristics of EBV associated gastric cancers (EBVaGC) in Brunei Darussalam. Materials and Methods: This study included gastric cancers diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, registered with the Department of Pathology RIPAS Hospital, Brunei Darussalam. Clinical case notes were systematically reviewed. Histology specimens were all stained for EBV and also assessed for intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori. Results: There were a total of 81 patients (54 male and 27 females) with a mean age of $65.8{\pm}14.8years$ included in the study. Intestinal metaplasia and active H. pylori infection were detected in 40.7% and 30.9% respectively. A majority of the tumors were proximally located (55.6%), most poorly differentiated (well differentiated 16%, moderately differentiated 30.9% and poorly differentiated 53.1%) and the stages at diagnosis were; stage I (44.4%), stage II (23.5%), stage III (8.6%) and stage IV (23.5%). EBV positivity (EBVaGC) was seen in 30.9%. Between EBVaGC and EBV negative gastric cancers, there were no significant differences (age, gender, ethnic group, presence of Intestinal metaplasia, tumor locations, stages of disease and degree of tumor differentiation). Conclusions: This study showed that a third of gastric cancers in Brunei Darussalam were positive for EBV, higher than what have been reported in the literature. However, there were no significant differences between EBVaGC and EBV negative gastric cancers. This suggests that the role of EBV in gastric cancer may be mostly incidental rather than any causal relation. However, further studies are required.

Overexpression of EGFR Protein in Bruneian Lung Cancer Patients

  • Han, Yu Hao;Hamid, Mas R.W. Abdul;Telisinghe, Pemasiri Upali;Hussin, Juniadah Binti Haji;Mabruk, Mohamed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 2015
  • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Brunei Darussalam, accounting for almost 20% of the total. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptor proteins, which includes c-erbb2(HER2/neu), erb-B3, and erb-B4. EGFR overexpression is found in a third of all epithelial cancers, often associated with a poor prognosis. Materials and Methods: Protein expression of EGFR in 27 cases of lung cancer tissue samples and 9 cases of normal lung tissue samples was evaluated using an immunohistochemical approach. Results: The results demonstrated significant increase and overexpression of EGFR in Bruneian lung cancer tissue samples in comparison to normal lung tissue. However, there was no significant relationship between clinicopathologic variables (age and sex) of patients and EGFR protein expression. Conclusions: EGFR is overexpressed in Bruneian lung cancer patient tissue samples in comparison to normal lung tissue samples. This may indicate that EGFR protein over expression plays an important role in the genesis of this type of cancer in Brunei Darussalam.

Cempedak Durian (Artocarpus sp.) Peel as a Biosorbent for the Removal of Toxic Methyl Violet 2B from Aqueous Solution

  • Dahri, Muhammad Khairud;Chieng, Hei Ing;Lim, Linda B.L.;Priyantha, Namal;Mei, Chan Chin
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2015
  • This paper aims to investigate the potential use of cempedak durian peel (CDP) from Negara Brunei Darussalam, which is low-cost, locally available, eco-friendly and highly efficient to remove methyl violet (MV) dye from aqueous solutions. The time required for equilibrium to be reached is 2.0 h with no adjustment of pH necessary. FTIR analysis was indicative of the involvement of -COOH and C=O functional groups in adsorption process. The Langmuir model provided the best fit with maximum adsorption capacity of $0.606mmol\;g^{-1}$. Thermodynamics data indicate that the adsorption is spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature. Best regeneration of CDP's adsorption ability is achieved by base solution, showing about 95% removal efficiency of MV even after 5 cycles, indicating that CDP can be regenerated and reused. This, together with its high adsorption capacity, makes CDP a potential adsorbent for the removal of MV in wastewater.

Smoking Initiation and Continuation - A Qualitative Study among Bruneian Male Adolescents

  • Talip, Tajidah;Kifli, Nurolaini;Murang, Zaidah;Naing, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3533-3540
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading global causes of premature and preventable death. In Brunei Darussalam, smoking-related diseases have been a primary cause of mortality for the past three decades. Despite the increasing efforts that have been made in recent years to reduce the consumption of tobacco products in Brunei, the prevalence of adolescent smoking cigarette, however has risen alarmingly, from 8.9% in 2013 to 11.4% in 2014, with a higher prevalence found in males (17.8%) than in females (4.8%). In response to the need for more effective smoking prevention programmes in Brunei, this study sought to explore factors that influence Bruneian male adolescents to start and continue smoking. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) as the data collection method was conducted from October to November 2015. A total of 43 studentss, comprising 31 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 13-17 years, from two government secondary schools in Bandar Seri Begawan, participated in six FGDs. Discussions were recorded and translated. Transcripts were entered into NVivo10, before thematic analysis was conducted. Results: We identified three themes under the core construct of 'factors influencing smoking initiation' ('family as teachers', 'overt pressure from peers' and 'perceived smoking has many advantages') and three themes under the core construct of 'factors influencing smoking continuation' ('craving and addiction', 'smoking as a 'social activity' and 'easy accessibility of cigarettes'). Conclusions: Based on the findings, it is recommended that future prevention activities should be embedded in a comprehensive approach, involving all stakeholders within a community, and should be focused towards bringing a change in smoking and parenting behavior of parents, social norms within the culture towards all population levels, and at strengthening the existing non-smoking policies in schools and other public places where young people congregate.

Rising Incidence of Primary Liver Cancer in Brunei Darussalam

  • Chong, Raymond Jih Yeong;Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq;Hossain, Mohammad Moshaddeque;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3473-3477
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    • 2013
  • Background: Primary liver cancer (PLC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and is still associated with high mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma are the two most common PLCs, and their incidence varies across regions. Currently there are no published data available on the incidence of PLC in Brunei Darussalam. Materials and Methods: All proven PLCs between 2000 and 2009 were identified from the National Cancer Registry and reviewed. Metastatic diseases were excluded. A total of 123 cases (male 65.8%, female 34.2%) were identified and their data collected for calculation of the age standardised rate (ASR). Results: The most common type of PLC was HCC (87.8%) followed by cholangiocarcinoma (10.6%). There were two cases of hepatoblastoma. The mean age at diagnosis was 63.2 years. The overall ASR of PLC was 8.2/100,000, increasing from 4.5/100,000 population in 2000 to 11.4/100,000 population in 2009. The rates were higher among males (12.0/100,000) than females (4.7/100,000). Among the ethnic groups, Chinese had the highest rates (overall 13.1/100,000 with none recorded in 2000 to 30.3/100,000 in 2009) compared to the Malays (overall 8.5/100,000 increasing from 4.5/100,000 in 2000 to 12.3/100,000 in 2009) and the indigenous groups. The incidence increased after the age of 50 and was highest among the 75-79 age groups. Increase was seen for HCC but not for cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions: The most common type of PLC is HCC and the annual incidence of PLC is increasing in Brunei Darussalam,rates being higher in males and Chinese.

Cancers of the Young Population in Brunei Darussalam

  • Mohammad, Ibnu Ayyub;Bujang, Mas Rina Wati;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Abdullah, Muhd Syafiq;Chong, Chee Fui;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6357-6362
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    • 2014
  • Background: Globally, the overall incidence of cancer is increasing as a result of ageing populations and changing lifestyles. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, especially in the developed nations. Cancers affecting the young population are generally considered uncommon. This study assessed the demography and trends of cancers of the young in Brunei Darussalam, a small and developing Southeast Asia nation. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with cancers between 2000 and 2012 were identified from the cancer registry maintained by the State Histopathology Laboratory. Cancers of the young was defined as any cancers diagnosed under the age of 40 years. Demographic data and the type of cancers were collected and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0. Results: Among the 6,460 patients diagnosed with cancer over the study period, 18.7% (n=1,205) were categorized as young with an overall decline in the proportion from 26.6% in 2000 to 18.8% in 2012 (p<0.001 for trend). Among all cancers of the young, the most common systems affected were gynecological (24.1%), hematological/lymphatic (15.8%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (10.5%), breast (10.5%) and gastrointestinal (9.9%). Overall, among the different systems, neurological (54.9%) had the highest proportion of cancers of the young followed by gynecological/reproductive (30.6%), hematological/lymphatic (39.9%), endocrine (38.7%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (22.3%) and the head and neck region (20.1%). There was a female predominance (66.9%) and the incidence was significantly higher among the Malays (20.1%) and expatriates (25.1%) groups compared to the Chinese (10.7%) and indigenous (16.8%) groups (p<0.001 for trend). Conclusions: Cancers of the young (<40 years) accounted for almost a fifth of all cancers in Brunei Darussalam with certain organ systems more strongly affected. There was a female preponderance in all racial groups. Over the years, there has been a decline in the overall proportion of cancers of the young. Selective screening programs should nevertheless be considered.

Log-based petrophysical analysis of Khatatba Formation in Shoushan Basin, North Western Desert, Egypt

  • Osli, Liyana Nadiah;Yakub, Nur Yusrina;Shalaby, Mohamed Ragab;Islam, Md. Aminul
    • Geosciences Journal
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1015-1026
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to investigate the good reservoir quality and hydrocarbon potentiality of the Khatatba Formation, Qasr Field in the Shoushan Basin of the North Western Desert, Egypt by combining results from log-based petrophysical analysis, petrographic description and images from scanning electron microscope (SEM). Promising reservoir units are initially identified and evaluated through well log analysis of three wells in the field of study. Petrophysical results are then compared with petrographic and SEM images from rock samples to identify features that characterize the reservoir quality. Well log results show that Khatatba Formation in the study area has good sandstone reservoir intervals from depths ranging from 12848 ft to 13900 ft, with good effective porosity records of 13-15% and hydrocarbon saturations of greater than 83%. Petrographic analysis of these sandstone reservoir units indicate high concentrations of vacant pore spaces with good permeability that can be easily occupied by hydrocarbon. The availability of these pore spaces are attributed to pore-enhancing diagenetic features, mainly in the form of good primary porosity and dissolution. SEM images and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of hydrocarbon, therefore indicating a good hydrocarbon-storing potential for the Khatatba Formation sandstones.

Profile of HER2 +ve Gastric Cancers in Brunei Darussalam

  • Chong, Vui Heng;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Tan, Jackson;Abdullah, Muhamad Syafiq;Chong, Chee Fui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2555-2558
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    • 2016
  • Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common gastrointestinal cancer and is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to late presentation and diagnosis at advanced stages. Studies have reported that a variable proportion of gastric cancer is positive for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and patients with HER2 positive (HER2 +ve) lesions can benefit from targeted therapy. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HER2 +ve gastric cancers in Brunei Darussalam, a developing Southeast Asian nation. Materials and Methods: Patients were identified from the Department of Pathology registry and retrospectively reviewed. HER2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and only those staining 3+were considered positive. Results: Our study included 103 cases (66 males and 37 females) with a mean age of $65.1{\pm}14.8$ years old. There were 14 cases positive for HER2 (10 males and 4 females) giving a prevalence of 13.6%. The HER2 +ve cases were significantly older ($70.6{\pm}19.3$ years old) than the negative cases ($64.2{\pm}13.8$, p=0.041) and had significantly more advanced disease (stages 3 and 4, p=0.026). There were no significant differences in gender distribution, presence of intestinal metaplasia, EBV status, Helicobacter pylori status, tumor location (proximal vs. distal) and degree of tumor differentiation (all p values >0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that 13.6% of our gastric cancers are positive for HER2, the affected patients being older and having more advanced disease at diagnosis.

Diverticular Disease and Colorectal Neoplasms: Association between Left Sided Diverticular Disease with Colorectal Cancers and Right Sided with Colonic Polyps

  • Wong, E Ru;Idris, Fazean;Chong, Chee Fui;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Tan, Jackson;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2401-2405
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    • 2016
  • Background: Both colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD) are common in the affluent West, and their prevalence is also increasing in the rest of the world with economic development. Both diseases have common epidemiologic characteristics; increasing incidence, more common with advancing age and related to specific dietary changes. However, studies of associations between the two have generated mixed results with some showing positive correlations, whilst others have shown no or negative links. Most of these studies have been from the West with study populations that were predominantly Caucasians. Here the focus was on DD and colorectal neoplasms, including CRC, in Brunei. Materials and Methods: All patients who had undergone complete colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Patients under the age of 18 years old or had previous colonic surgeries (including previous CRC resection) were excluded. Results: The total number of colonoscopies included in the study was 2,766 (mean age $53.2{\pm}14.8$ years old, male 51.8%), of which DD, CRC and colonic polyps were detected in 17.3%, 4.7% and 28.2% respectively. The proportions of DD, polyps and CRC increased proportionally with age (<30 years, 30-49, 50-69 and ${\geq}70$). Overall, there was no association between the presence of DD and CRC (3.6% vs. 5.0%, p=0.179) but there was a significant association between CRC and left sided DD (p=0.034 by trend). There were also a significant association between presence of DD and polyps (36.1% vs. 28.2%, p=0.001), in particular with right-sided and pan-DD (p=0.001 for trend). Conclusions: Our study showed that the prevalence of DD, CRC and polyps increases with age. There were significant associations between presence of left-sided DD with CRC and right-sided or pan-DD with colonic polyps. This suggests shared risk factors. Further studies are required to assess links in other countries of the Asian Pacific region.

Improving Thinking in Children with Low Mathematics Achievement

  • Pak, Leong-Yong;Taha, Hajah Zaitun Binti Hj Mohd
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 1997
  • Many primary school children struggle with mathematics and have low self-esteem in their own abilities. They know that the subject is important but they cannot cope, get left behind in their work and begin to hate mathematics. This paper reports the efforts to encourage and help a group of seventeen low achievers in mathematics prepare for their "primary six" public examination. The children were lacking in many thinking skills, but with encouragement, guidance and practice, thirteen of them (76.5%) showed improvements in their mathematical thinking and passed this important examination. This paper discusses these children's thinking in mathematics and how improvements were made.

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