• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brown Swiss

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The Relationship between Milk Protein Phenotypes and Lactation Traits in Brown Swiss and Canadienne

  • Kim, S.;Ng-Kwai-Hang, K.F.;Hayes, J.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 1998
  • A total of 1033 Brown Swiss and 610 Canadienne cows were phenotyped for the genetic variants ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein, ${\beta}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein, ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin and ${\alpha}$-lactalbumin. In Brown Swiss, frequency distributions were: 97.3% B and 2.7% C variant of ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein; 31.6% $A^1$, 51.8% $A^2$, 0.5% $A^3$ and 16.1% B variant of ${\beta}$-casein; 70.4% A, 29.3% B, and 0.3% C variant of ${\kappa}$-casein; 41.7% A and 58.3% B variant of ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin; and 100% B variant of ${\alpha}$-lactalbumin. Corresponding frequencies in Canadienne for those five milk proteins were: 98.6 and 1.4%;58.5, 33.5, 0.08 and 7.9%; 78.8, 21.1 and 0.1%, 42.4 and 57.6%; and 100%. Analysis of variance by least squares showed possible association between milk protein phenotypes and some lactational production traits. There were no significant association of phenotypes of ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein, ${\beta}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin with milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage in both breeds during the three lactations. In the Brown Swiss, ${\kappa}$-casein phenotype was associated with 305-day fat yield and protein yield during the first lactation. ${\kappa}$-Casein AB was associated with higher milk, fat and protein yield during the second lactation. During the third lactation, ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin AA in Canadienne cows was associated with higher protein content in the milk (3.70%) when compared to phenotypes AB (3.54%) and BB (3.64%).

Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves

  • Nejad, J. Ghassemi;Torbatinejad, N.;Naserian, A.A.;Kumar, S.;Kim, J.D.;Song, Y.H.;Ra, C.S.;Sung, K.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.980-987
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate the effect of physical forms of starter diets on performance, weaning age, nutrient digestibility and rumen biochemical factors, 24 female of neonatal Brown Swiss calves (average body weight of $39.5{\pm}1.2kg$) were randomly assigned to three treatments. Dietary treatments were mashed (MS), pelleted (PS), and texturized (TS) starter using 8 calves from birth till 90 days of age in each treatment. Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous with 21% crude protein. Based on the experimental results, calves that received PS and TS diets, had significant higher average daily gain (ADG) than those receiving MS (p<0.01). Dry matter intake in calves fed PS and TS was greater than calves fed MS (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in feed efficiency. Treatments had no effect on initiation of rumination. Weaning age of calves in MS was longer than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Crude protein and organic matter digestibility in MS treated calves were lower than other treatments (p<0.05). No differences were observed in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash digestibility among treatments (p>0.05). Ruminal pH was higher (p<0.01) in MS than the other groups, but ruminal ammonia (g/dl) concentration was not different among the treatments. Body measurements such as body length, pin width, hip width, pin to hip length, size of metacarpus and metatarsus bones, hip height, wither height, stomach size and heart girth were not significantly different among the treatments. Overall, it is concluded that starter diets in the form of pellet and texture can improve performance in neonatal Brown Swiss calves compared to the mashed form.

The Relation between Genetic Polymorphism Markers and Milk Yield in Brown Swiss Cattle Imported to Slovakia

  • Chrenek, P.;Huba, J.;Vasicek, D.;Peskovicova, D.;Bulla, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1397-1401
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to determine genotypes of four genetic markers and to investigate their association with milk production traits in Brown Swiss cattle imported to Slovakia. The bovine $\kappa$-casein, $\beta$-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin genotypes of 107 cows were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Effects all four genetic markers on milk, fat, protein and lactose yields and fat, protein and lactose percentage were estimated from a data set of 249 lactations. The frequency of desirable B allele of $\kappa$-casein gene to milk production was 0.46, alleles A of $\beta$-lactoglobulin gene was 0.55, allele and L of growth hormone gene was 0.45 and allele A and B of bovine prolactin gene were 0.61 and 0.39. The results of milk production obtained in our work showed that BB genotypes of $\kappa$-CN gene, AA genotypes of $\beta$-LG gene, LL genotypes of bGH gene were significantly associated with better milk production traits, mainly about the fat content. Association of a bovine prolactin genotypes with milk production were not found.

A Study on DNA Polymorphism of the Bovine c-KIT Receptor Gene (소 c-KIT Receptor 유전자의 다형성에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Y.S.;Kim, T.H.;Yoon, D.H.;Park, E.W.;Lee, H.W.;Lee, H.K.;Cheong, I.C.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.653-660
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    • 2002
  • We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.

Potential influence of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes in genetic association studies of milk quality traits

  • Zepeda-Batista, Jose Luis;Saavedra-Jimenez, Luis Antonio;Ruiz-Flores, Agustin;Nunez-Dominguez, Rafael;Ramirez-Valverde, Rodolfo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1684-1688
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    • 2017
  • Objective: From a review of published information on genetic association studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the genes ${\kappa}-casein$ (CSN3) and ${\beta}-lactoglobulin$ (LGB) on milk yield traits in Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, and Fleckvieh. Methods: The GLIMMIX procedure was used to analyze milk production and percentage of protein and fat in milk. Models included the main effects and all their possible two-way interactions; not estimable effects and non-significant (p>0.05) two-way interactions were dropped from the models. The three traits analyzed used Poisson distribution and a log link function and were determined with the Interactive Data Analysis of SAS software. Least square means and multiple mean comparisons were obtained and performed for significant main effects and their interactions (p<0.0255). Results: Interaction of breed by gene showed that Holstein and Fleckvieh were the breeds on which CSN3 ($6.01%{\pm}0.19%$ and $5.98%{\pm}0.22%$), and LGB ($6.02%{\pm}0.19%$ and $5.70%{\pm}0.22%$) have the greatest influence. Interaction of breed by genotype nested in the analyzed gene indicated that Holstein and Jersey showed greater influence of the CSN3 AA genotype, $6.04%{\pm}0.22%$ and $5.59%{\pm}0.31%$ than the other genotypes, while LGB AA genotype had the largest influence on the traits analyzed, $6.05%{\pm}0.20%$ and $5.60%{\pm}0.19%$, respectively. Furthermore, interaction of type of statistical model by genotype nested in the analyzed gene indicated that CSN3 and LGB genes had similar behavior, maintaining a difference of more than 7% across analyzed genotypes. These results could indicate that both Holstein and Jersey have had lower substitution allele effect in selection programs that include CSN3 and LGB genes than Brown Swiss and Fleckvieh. Conclusion: Breed determined which genotypes had the greatest association with analyzed traits. The mixed model based in Bayesian or Ridge Regression was the best alternative to analyze CSN3 and LGB gene effects on milk yield and protein and fat percentages.

Genetic Evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 Crosses of Hariana with Friesian, Brown Swiss and Jersey

  • Dutt, Triveni;Bhushan, Bharat;Srivastava, B.B.;Bhat, P.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.470-474
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    • 1998
  • Data on the first lactation performance traits of $F_1$, $F_2$ and $F_3$ crosses covering the period from 1972 to 1995 of a total of 803 dairy cows of three genetic grades maintained at Livestock Production Research Farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar were analysed. Three genetic grades were 1/2 Friesian + 1/2 Hariana (FH), 1/2 Friesian + 1/4 Brown Swiss and 1/4 Hariana (FBH) and 1/2 Friesian+ 1/4 Jersey + 1/4 Hariana (FJH). Age at first calving increased by 7% and 8% in $F_2$ and $F_3$, respectively, over the $F_1$ in FH. The reduction in age at first calving at $F_2$ and $F_3$ levels by 2-7% over the $F_1$ was observed in FBH and FJH. The lactation milk yield of $F_1$, $F_2$ and $F_3$ crosses was $1,943{\pm}100.3$, $2202{\pm}120.5$ and $1,925{\pm}123.2kg$ in FH; $2,014{\pm}76.7$, $2,264{\pm}91.5$ and $2,096{\pm}123.9kg$ in FBH and $2,005{\pm}87.0$, $2,414{\pm}94.4$ and $2,093{\pm}121.1kg$ in FJH, respectively. The lactation milk yield improved by 12-20% in $F_2$ crosses in various genetic grades. The performance of $F_1$ was, however, maintained in FH $F_3$ crosses, it improved by 4% in FBH and FJH $F_3$ crosses. The lactation lengths and calving intervals were nearly the same for $F_1$, $F_2$ and $F_3$ crosses in FH while lactation lengths and calving intervals were reduced by 3-11% in $F_2$ and $F_3$ crosses in FBH and FJH genetic grades. The milk yield/day of lactation length and milk yield/day of calving interval increased by 16-35% in $F_2$ and 2-14% in $F_3$ over the $F_1$ in various genetic grades. It is recommended that a sufficiently large effective population size of these three genetic grades be maintained by inter se matings and rigorous selection of sires so for developing a genetic base population for new breed development.

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Bovine HMGA1 Gene

  • Yu, S.L.;Chung, H.J.;Sang, B.C.;Bhuiyan, M.S.A.;Yoon, D.;Kim, K.S.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1662-1669
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    • 2007
  • The high mobility group AT-hook1 (HMGA1) proteins are known to be related to the regulation of gene transcription, replication and promotion of metastatic progression in cancer cells. The loss of expression by disrupting the HMGA1 gene affects insulin signaling and causes diabetes in the mouse. Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HMGA1 was significantly associated with fat deposition traits in the pig. In this study, we identified 3,935 bp nucleotide sequences from exon 5 to exon 8 of the bovine HMGA1 gene and its mRNA expression was observed by quantitative real-time PCR. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine HMGA1 gene were detected and the allele frequencies of these SNPs were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method in nine cattle breeds including Limousin, Simmental, Brown Swiss, Hereford, Angus, Charolais, Hanwoo, Brahman and Red Chittagong cattle. The map location showed that the bovine HMGA1 gene was also closely located with a previously identified meat quality QTL region indicating this gene is the most likely positional candidate for meat quality traits in cattle.

Genetic and Phenotypic Evaluation of Milk and Fat Production Traits and Their Interrelationship in (Zebu×European) Crossbred Cattle Using Parent Group Mixed Model

  • Singh, D.;Yadav, A.S.;Dhaka, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1242-1246
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    • 2003
  • Data pertained to 335 crossbred cows comprising of 1/2 Friesian (F) + 1/2 Hariana (H), 1/2 F + 1/4 Jersey (J) + 1/4 H, 1/2 F + 1/4 Brown Swiss (BS) + 1/4 H, 1/2 F + 1/4 Red Dane (R) + 1/4 H, FR (I) and FRH (I) genetic groups extending over a period of 21 years (1970-1990) maintained at Animal Farm of CCS HAU, Hisar. The averages for first lactation milk yield was $2,486.24{\pm}80.26kg$ and peak yield of first three lactation were $11.35{\pm}0.72kg$, $13.97{\pm}0.60kg$ and $16.02{\pm}0.42kg$, respectively. The lifetime milk production was observed as $11,305.16{\pm}1,004.52kg$ in crossbred cattle. The average first lactation fat yield was observed as $102.06{\pm}0.01kg$ and peak fat yield of first three lactation were $0.458{\pm}0.01$, $0.490{\pm}0.01$ and $0.500{\pm}0.02kg$, respectively. The lifetime fat production was estimated as $502.31{\pm}45.90kg$. LTMP and LTFP had reasonably good additive genetic variance which could be exploited either through mass selection/combined with family or pedigree selection. FLMY, peak yields and LTMP had significant positive phenotypic correlation with FLFY and LTFP and the correlation at the genetic level were also higher and positive for these traits. Finally, peak week milk yield of first lactation (PMY1) was the earliest available trait having desirable and significant correlation at phenotypic and positive at genetic level with FLFY, PFY1 and PFY2, PFY3 and LTFP and selection for this trait will help in early evaluation of sires and dams and will increase genetic advancement per unit of time.

A CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF PANAX GINSENG ROOT AGAINST SOME CANCER CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

  • Hwang Woo Ik;Cha Sung Man
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 1978
  • This study was devised to observe the cytotoxic activity of extracts of Panax ginseng root against some cancer cells and to purify the crude extract. Three kinds of cancer cells(leukemic cells L5178Y, HeLa cells and Sarcoma 180 cells) and mouse embryo cells (as normal cells) were used for this study. The ginseng roots were extracted with petroleum ether in soxhlet apparatus, and the crude extracts were purified by the silicic acid column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography methods. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Eight to ten mg of the petroleum ether extract (crude extract) were obtained from 1 g of Panax ginseng root, and its activities per mg were about 1,000 units. 2. Doubling time of the L5178Y cells was increased to two fold by 24 hours incubation in culture medium containing about one ${\mu}g$ of extract per ml, and eight and ten folds higher concentration of ginseng extract were required for the Sarcoma 180 cells and HeLa cells, respectively, than for the leukemic cells(L5178Y) to inhibit the cellular growth to the same degree. 3. When the L5178Y cells were exposed to medium containing various concentration of the extract for 24 hours before initiation of the soft agar cloning procedure, about $99\%$ of the L5178Y cells were killed at concentration of 8 units per ml. 4. The growth rate of mouse embryo cell (as normal cell) was not affected by the culture with media containing various amounts (1.45 to 30.0 ${\mu}g/ml$) of the extract. 5. The crude extract could be purified about four times by silicic acid column chromatography using several solvent systems, and one spot of active compound could be obtained on the thin-layer chromatogram. 6. In the Swiss mice inoculated with Sarcoma 180 cells, a survival time of the experimental group (injection group of active compound) was extended more. 1.5 to 2.0 times than the control group's(no injection group).

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Selection of Young Dairy Bulls for Future Use in Artificial Insemination

  • Dutt, Triveni;Gaur, G.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.117-120
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    • 1998
  • Relationships of breeding values of sires for first lactation milk yield with pedigree information or indices were examined to identify the optimal criteria of selecting young dairy bulls for future use in artificial insemination (AI). Records of performance data on 1087 crossbred daughters (Holstein - Friesian, Jersey and Brown Swiss with Hariana) of 147 sires, generated at Livestock Production Research (Cattle and Buffaloes) Farm, IVRI, Izatnagar, U.P., during 1972 - 1995 were used to obtain the estimates of sire's breeding values (EBV) using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction Procedures. The correlations between young bull's EBV and the dam's first lactation milk yield was non-significantly different from zero. However, the young bull's EBV was negatively and significantly related (r = - 0.275 ; P < 0.05) to the dam's best lactation milk yield, suggesting that the selection of young dairy bulls from high yielding elite dams is not a suitable criteria for genetic improvement. The correlations of sire's and paternal grandsire's EBV's with young bull's EBV were high and positive (0.532, 0.844; P < 0.01). The maternal grandsire's EBV was positively but non-significantly related to grandson's EBV. The pedigree index incorporating dam's milk records and sire's EBV's showed a negative and non-significant correlation with young bull's EBV. However, the correlation of a pedigree index $(I_3)$ combining information on sire's and paternal grand-sire's EBV's with young bull's EBV's was considerably high and positive (0.797; P < 0.01). The regression coefficients of young bull's EBV on pedigree index $I_3$, was higher than those on other pedigree information. These results revealed that there was no advantage in basing selection on dam's performance or maternal grand-sire's EBV and that sire's and paternal grandsire's EBV's were reliable pedigree information for selection of young dairy bulls for future use in AI.