• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broiler chicks

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Ettect of Diets Containing Dried Whey and Chitin on Growth Rate of Broiler Chicks (Dried Whey와 Chitin의 첨가(添加)가 Broiler Chick의 성장(成長)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Mee-Sook;Mo, Su-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.192-201
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    • 1985
  • Two experiments, utilizing 204 broiler chicks of the Maniker strain, were conducted to study the effects of dried whey and chitin on the growth of chicks. In the first experiment, diets containing 5%, 10%, or 15% dried whey, or a control diet with no whey, were fed to chicks from 1 day to 4 weeks of age. There were no significant differences among the dietary groups, with respect to the rate of growth or protein or feed efficiency. In the second experiment, chicks were fed with diets containing no whey, 2% chitin, 20% dried whey, or 20% dried whey plus 2% chitin, from 1 day to 4 weeks of age. Adverse effects (diarrhea, crooked toes and enlarged cecum) were observed in the group fed 20% dried whey. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) tended to improve in the dietary groups with dried whey, as compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the total carcass nitrogen and lipid levels of dietary groups. But the chitin-supplemented diets tended to improve on the growth rate compared to the groups without chitin. The results of the two experiments suggest that the growing broiler chick can tolerate up to 15% dried whey in the diet, without any harmful effect on growth. Also, chitin may improve the poorer growth rate of chicks fed dried whey, but not all of the adverse effects of whey.

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Using Dietary Propionic Acid to Limit Salmonella gallinarum Colonization in Broiler Chicks

  • Alshawabkeh, K.;Tabbaa, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary propionic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum. Day-old 144 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments, three replicates per treatment. The four dietary treatments consisted of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8% dietary propionic acid. Chicks were challenged orally on three days of age with $10^6$ cfu Salmonella gallinarum. Sample of crop and cecal contents were obtained on Days 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The pH of crop contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided 1.2 and 1.8% propionic acid in the diet as compared with those provided 0.6% propionic acid and control group. The pH of cecal contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid as compared with control group. The number of Salmonella gallinarum positive culture in the crop and ceca of chicks, decreased significantly (p<0.01) from the groups provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid in the diet at day 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The addition of 1.8% propionic acid in the diet provided a high level of protection against colonization than did 0.6 and 1.2%. These results indicate that the addition of propionic acid in a concentration of 1.2 or more to the diet of newly hatched chicks significantly decreases crop and cecal colonization by Salmonella gallinarum.

Effect of Environmental Color on the Eating Behaviour in Broiler Chicks (色彩環境이 肉鷄의 攝食行動에 미치는 影響)

  • Song, Young-Han;Ko, Byeong-Dae;Chung, Ji-Dong
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1996
  • An experiment was carried out to study the effect of environmental color on the eating behaviour in broiler chicks. A total of ninety broilers with average 350g of initial body weight were randomly assigned in the $3{\times}3$ randomized complete block design with 3 treatments(yellow, blue, red) and 10 birds per replication of various environmental color at walls, feeders and electric bulbs. The results obtained from these experiments are summarised as follows: 1. Feed Intake and average daily gain were significantly(P<0.05) increased by yellow colored environment. 2. Eating time and eating rate were significantly higher in the red colored than the other, indicating that yellow colored environment would maximize body weight gain and feed conversion for broiler chicks.

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Assessment of Dietary Requirement of Broiler Chicks for Available Methionine during Summer

  • Nadeem, M.A.;Gilani, A.H.;Khan, A.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.772-775
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    • 1999
  • A six week growth performance trial involving 450 birds was conducted to determine the dietary requirement of broiler chicks for available methionine (AM). Body weight gain was significantly (p<0.01) lower on high AM diet (1411 g/bird) than low AM (1470 g/bird) and normal AM (1466 g/bird) diets. The feed intake by birds ranged from $3241{\pm}25.69$ in high AM diet to $3321{\pm}25.69g/bird$ in low AM diet. The feed efficiency for the three diets having low, normal and high level of AM were $2.26{\pm}0.02$, $2.24{\pm}0.02$ and $2.30{\pm}0.02$, respectively. The results indicated that the birds fed high AM diet consumed significantly (p<0.01) more feed per unit body weight gain as compared to birds on low and normal AM diets.

Effect of a Mixture of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomers on T Cell Subpopulation and Responsiveness to Mitogen in Splenocytes of Male Broiler Chicks

  • Takahashi, Kazuaki;Kawamata, Kenji;Akiba, Yukio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.954-961
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    • 2007
  • The experiments were conducted to determine effects of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on T cell subpopulations and responsiveness to mitogen of splenocytes in male broiler chicks. In experiment 1, birds (8-d old) were fed basal, CLA-(CLA) and safflower oil-supplemented (SA) diets which were formulated by supplementary 10 g CLA or safflower oil/kg to the basal diet for 14 d. Broiler starter diet, which mainly consisted of corn and soybean meal, was served as the basal diet. Proliferative response and interleukin (IL)-2-like activity stimulated by concanavalin (Con) A at a concentration of $10{\mu}g/ml$ of splenocytes in chicks fed the CLA diet were greater than in chicks fed the SA diet, but not at $20{\mu}g$ Con A/ml. Percentage of CD3-positive T cells in splenocytes did not differ between chicks fed the SA diet and CLA. Ratio of CD4-positive T cells to CD8- positive T cells was significantly affected by dietary fat source. In experiment 2, broiler chicks (1-d old) were fed the same diets as in experiment 1 for 14 d. Results of splenocyte proliferation to Con A were similar to those in experiment 1, but phytohemaggulutinin (PHA)- or pokeweed mitogen (PWM)- induced splenocyte proliferation did not differ between the CLA and SA fed groups. Supplementation with SA or CLA to the basal diet tended to have a depressive effect on the proliferation, with the greater effect being that of SA. In experiment 3, effect of an addition of CLA to splenocyte culture medium on splenocyte proliferation was determined. An addition of CLA to the culture medium resulted in reduction of the splenocyte proliferation to Con A, but an addition of linoleic acid. When PWM and PHA were used as mitogen, the inhibitory effect of CLA and linoleic acid on the proliferation did not differ. The results suggested that the effect of dietary CLA on splenocyte proliferation was similar to that of SA, although the effect of dietary CLA on sub-populations was slightly different from that of dietary SA. Further studies are needed to clarify whether use of CLA would be beneficial for maintaining or enhancing T cell immunity in chicks.

Rare Earth as a Feed Additive for Broiler Growth (육계의 성장 촉진을 위한 사료 첨가제로서의 희토(稀土))

  • Ham, S.K.;Song, T.H.;Zhang, G.Q.;Hur, S.N.;Park, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2006
  • In order to study the effect of feeding rare earth(RE) on growth of broiler chicks, feed conversion ratio, and probable harmfulness of feeding high levels of RE, two feeding trials with broiler chicks were conducted; one using a commercial broiler compound feed and the other using a self mixed feed excluding any growth stimulating feed additives. The the first trial used three hundred sixty of one day old Cobb broiler chicks for six levels of dietary supplementation of RE : 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1,600 mg/kg. There were significant effect of RE stimulating broiler chick growth and improving feed conversion ratio, The dietary supplementation of RE at a level of 100 mg/kg was the best of all and increased body weight gain by 8.9% (p<0.05). Chicks fed RE at a level of 1,600 mg/kg grew as good as chicks fed feeds without RE and did not show my abnormalities. The second feeding trial was conducted in the same manner as the first trial using Ross broiler chicks and self-mixed experimental diets supplemented with RE at levels of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Differently from Results of the first trial, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of were the best at the level of 50 mg/kg RE supplementation(p<0.05). In this trial all the birds fed RE showed significantly lower ratio of abdominal fat against live weight than those of the control group birds. Overall, it can be said that dietary supplementation of RE will improve broiler growth and feed conversion ratio and the proper dietary level would be $50\sim100mg/kg$. These results suggested that the proper level of RE for broiler chicks would be 50 to 100 mg/kg and its effectiveness is varied depending upon RE mixture. There appears abdominal fat of broiler chicks is decreased by feeding RE but further investigation is in need.

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Enviro on Noxious Gas of Poultry House and Performance of Broiler Chicks (엔비로의 첨가.급여가 계사내 유해가스와 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;박재홍;서경석;김상호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplemental Enviro on noxious gas of environmental controlled poultry house and performance of broiler chicks. Diets contained 21.5, 19.00 CP and 3,100, 3,200 kcal/kg ME, respectively for starting and finishing period. Enviro were supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% in Expt. 1 and 2, respectively. $CO_{2}$ and ammonia gas were periodically detected for finsihing period in Expt. 1. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion(FC) were measured for five weeks in Expt. 2. ND antibody titer were also measured after primary and booster vaccination at two and three weeks old. Blood cholesterol and nutrients digestibility were In Expt. 1, ammonia and $CO_{2}$ gas of chicks fed 0.2% Enviro showed 32.8ppm and 1,719ppm in poultry house and significantly decrease compared to that of control(P〈0.05). $CO_{2}$ gas was 1,814ppm in 0.4% Enviro treatments and also significantly lower than control(P〈0.05), but tended to be increased compared to that of 0.2% Enviro treatments, In Expt. 2, weight gain of chicks fed 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro was significantly increased for starting period(P〈0.05), but was not statistically different for finishing period. Feed intake was no significantly different of all treatments. Chicks showed lower FC in 0.3% Enviro treatment for starting period(P〈0.05) than others, but was not for finishing period. ND AB titer of chicks fed Enviro was prone to be higher than control, but was not significantly different. Total blood cholesterol was not significantly different of all treatments, but tended to be high in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments. HDL of chicks fed those levels showed significantly higher than control(P〈0.05), whereas LDL was tended to be decreased in those treatments. The digestibilites of crude protein and fiber were improved in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments relative to those of control, but was not statistically different. However, crude ash digestibility was significantly improved in 0.1 and 0.2% Enviro treatments(P〈0.05). Chicks also showed AMEn in 0.1, 0.2% Enviro treatments, but was no significance. The results of these experiments indicated that 0.1% Enviro supplement would be maximize the performance of broiler chicks.

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Effects of Kemzyme, Phytase and Yeast Supplementation on the Growth Performance and Pollution Reduction of Broiler Chicks

  • Piao, X.S.;Han, In K.;Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Kim, Y.H.;Liang, Chao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 1999
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Kemzyme, phytase, yeast and a combination of Kemzyme, phytase and yeast (KPY) supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient utilizability and the nutrients excretion in broiler chicks. Experimental diets based on corn-soybean meal were supplemented with 0.05% Kemzyme, 0.1% phytase, 0.1% yeast, 0.25% KPY (0.05% Kemzyme + 0.1% phytase + 0.1% yeast), respectively. Each treatment had six replicates of six male birds each. A total of 180 Arbor Ares broiler chicks were fed these diets for a period of six weeks. Numerically better body weight gain was found in chicks fed Kemzyme, phytase, yeast of KPY supplemented diet. Feed conversion rate was improved by the addition of KPY compared with control group (p < 0.05). Mortality was successfully reduced by supplementation of enzymes, yeast or a combination of enzymes and yeast. The excretions of N and P were considerably reduced by supplementation of dietary enzymes, yeast or combination of all three substances, especially for KPY fed group in starting period. The nutrient excretions in the finishing period were not significantly different. It appeared that the use of Kemzyme, phytase and yeast simultaneously had an additive effect on growth rate and nutrient excretion.

Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation of Variously Treated Defatted Rice Polishing for Broiler Feeding

  • Khalique, A.;Lone, K.P.;Pasha, T.N.;Khan, A.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.873-879
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    • 2003
  • The study was conducted to improve the nutritive value of defatted rice polishing (DRP). DRP was treated with various concentrations of HCl, NaOH, $H_2O_2$ and Kemzyme-H $F^{(R)} and the effect on its chemical composition and nutritive value in broiler chicks was observed. The treatments levels of 0.4 N HCl, 0.2 N NaOH and 6% $H_2O_2$ were selected from many concentrations of HCl, NaOH and $H_2O_2$ tried earlier on DRP. The selection was made on the basis of release of nutrients from DRP. The Kemzyme-H $F^{(R)} was used at rate of 0.1% of DRP. The selected concentrations of HCl, NaOH, and $H_2O_2$ were then used for treatment of DRP that was used in biological experiments. Two hundred and forty, day-old Hubbard male broiler chicks (38-40 g) were randomly divided into 48 experimental units with five chicks each. Each chemically treated DRP was incorporated into broiler diets at 10, 20 or 30% levels replacing yellow corn from the control feed and thus sixteen experimental feeds were prepared. These feeds were randomly assigned to 48 experimental units such that there were three replicates of chicks on each diet. The results of the study suggest that DRP can be effectively used in broiler diets at 20% level. The best weight gain and feed conversion ratio were observed with diet containing 20% level of DRP treated with 6% $H_2O_2$. The diets containing 30% levels of treated DRP were uneconomical, as excess use of oil was required to compensate the energy needs of the birds.

Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Normal and Low Viscosity Rye or Barley with or without Enzyme Supplementation

  • He, T.;Thacker, P.A.;McLeod, J.G.;Campbell, G.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to measure nutrient digestibility and performance in broiler chicks fed diets based on normal and low viscosity rye or barley fed with and without enzyme (pentosanase and $\beta$-glucanase) during a 17 day growth trial. A total of 150 one-day old, male broiler chicks (5 birds per pen and 5 pens per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a $3{\times}3$ factorial design experiment (3 cereals${\times}$2 enzyme levels). Digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter and crude protein were significantly (p=0.0001) higher for the barley-based diets than for any of the rye-based diets. Digestibility coefficients for gross energy did not differ (p>0.05) due to cereal grain. There were no differences in the digestibility coefficients for dry matter and gross energy between chicks fed normal and low viscosity rye. However, the digestibility coefficient for crude protein was higher (p=0.01) for the low viscosity rye compared with the normal viscosity rye. Addition of enzyme to the diet significantly (p=0.0001) increased digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy. There were no significant differences in weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion between birds fed barley or rye or between birds fed normal or low viscosity rye. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved (p=0.0001) weight gain, intake and feed conversion. The overall results of this experiment indicate that unsupplemented barley and rye do not support adequate growth rates in poultry. Enzyme supplementation dramatically improved broiler performance. In addition, genetic selection to reduce the viscosity of rye had only a modest effect on the nutritive value of rye for broilers.