• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broiler chicks

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Effect of Antioxidants and Oxidized Fat on the Performance of Broiler Chicks (항상화제와 산패지방이 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 남궁환;스티브리슨;백인기
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.36-53
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    • 2000
  • Five experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of antioxidants(Santoquin and Oxiban) using fresh or oxidized fat on the performance of broiler chicks. Day-old broiler chicks (except for Experiment 5 in which 6-d-ol birds were given experimental diets for 10 d) were fed diets containing fresh or oxidized fat (animal-vegetable fat blend in Experiments 1, 4, and 5 and corn oil in Experiments 2 and 3) with or without graded concentrations of Santoquin (0,250, 500 ppm in Experiments 1 and 2 and 0, in Experiment 4 and 400 ppm with 0.1% lipase in Experiment 5) of 2wk. In all experiments, birds fed fresh fat gained more weight, had better feed/gain, together with higher AME$_{n}$ and apparent fat digestibility (Experiments 1 and 2) than birds fed oxidized fat(P<0.05). There was no interaction among fat sources and antioxidants on the performance of chicks in any experiment. In Experiment 3, Santoquin more than 200 ppm resulted in a reduction in weight gain and feed intake(P<0.05). The livers of chicks fed oxidized fat in Experiments 2 and 5 had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) values (P<0.05) Chicks fed oxidized fat with 250 ppm Santoquin in Experiment 2 had lower liver MDA values, although this situation did not occur in Experiments 1, 4, and 5. These results indicate that antioxidant supplements can alleviate most deleterious effects of feeding oxidized fat and that supplementation of Santoquin more than 200 ppm has a negative effect on the performance of broiler chicks.s.

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The Effects of Supplementing Methionine plus Cystine to a Low-protein Diet on the Growth Performance and Fat Accumulation of Growing Broiler Chicks

  • Bunchasak, C.;Satoso, U.;Tanaka, K.;Ohtani, S.;Collado, Cristino M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a low-protein diet supplemented with DL-methionine plus L-cystine (Met + Cys) on the growth performance and fat accumulation of female broiler chicks during the growing period (3-6 wks old). A low-protein diet (17% CP; 3,200 ME kcal/kg) was supplemented with Met + Cys (1.1 : 1.0) at levels 0.75, 0.94, 1.25, 1.31 or 1.50% of diet, respectively. Another diet with 21% CP and 3,200 ME kcal/kg served as the control group. All essential amino acids were adjusted to meet the National Research Council (1984) requirement for chicks. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Body weight of the chicks fed the low-CP diets supplemented with Met + Cys were heavier than those of the control birds. Feed conversion ratio and feed intakes were not significantly different between and among the treatment groups. Similary, abdominal fat content was not significantly different among the various treatments except that of the chicks fed the low CP diet with 1.25% Met + Cys which was higher than that of the control group. Fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activities and carcass protein content were not influenced by dietary treatments. Carcass fat content was lowest in chicks fed low CP diet with 0.75% Met + Cys and highest in the group that received 1.50% Met + Cys supplementation. Liver triglyceride increased as Met + Cys supplementation level increased. Various lipid fraction concentrations (cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, and phospholipid) in the serum went up as Met + Cys increased up to 1.25% after which it levelled off. Results of this experiment suggest that it is possible to reduce dietary protein level from 21% to 17% for growing broiler chicks by the supplementation of Met + Cys when other EAA were sufficient.

Disposition of sulfathiazole in plasma and tissue of broiler chicks following oral administration (육계에서 sulfathiazole 경구투여 후 혈장 및 조직내 잔류량)

  • 서형석;임정철;허부홍;권정택;김성문;천희웅;최인방;김진상
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2002
  • The purposes of this study were to characterize the disposition of sulfathiazole(ST) and to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the disposition of ST in broiler chicks(2.5~3.0kg). Animals were given ST acutely(10~80mg/kg, PO), and plasma, kidney, muscle, heart, liver and spleen samples were collected and analyzed for ST by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue data was consistent with a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The drug is rapidly but incompletely(2.5~3.87%) absorbed with peak plasma and tissue levels being achieved within one hour after dosing. The plasma and tissue levels depended on drug dosage, and the descending order in concentration of ST was kidney > plasma > heart > muscle $\geq$ spleen $\geq$ liver from animals sacrificed at one hour after dosing. Moreover, significant positive correlations(r>0.9) existed between plasma and tissue levels of ST. In addition, sodium bicarbonate pretreatment decreased plasma level, indicating that an alkalinization stimulate the excretion of ST. Results of this study suggest that oral application of ST was rapidly absorbed and eliminated, and confirmed that tissue residues of ST can be estimated from plasma drug concentration in broiler chicks.

Effects of Dietary Gum Phospholipid on Lipid Metabolism in Broiler Chicks

  • An, B.K.;Kang, C.W.;Nishiyama, H.;Iwata, T.;Tanaka, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.506-510
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was to determine the usefulness of gum safflower phospholipid as a feed ingredient. Forty female broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets containing following fats and oils; beef tallow (Tallow), the blend of safflower oil and palm oil (SP-oil), gum rapeseed phospholipid (Rap-PL), or gum safflower phospholipid (Saf-PL) for 21days. There were no differences in growth performances among the treatments. Abdominal fat weight tended to be reduced in the chicks fed. phospholipids. The activity of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in the Rap-PL and Saf-PL as compared to that of Tallow. Feeding dietary phospholipids resulted in a slight reduction in total fat and triglyceride contents in the breast and thigh muscles. In addition, total fat and triglyceride contents in the thigh muscle were significantly decreased by dietary Saf-PL as compared to those of Tallow. These results suggested that dietary gum phospholipids, either from rapeseed or safflower, had desirable effects of lowing abdominal and muscle fats, and could be used as a feed ingredient for broiler diets.

Determination of Optimal Toxic Concentration and Accumulation of Cadmium in Broiler Chicks

  • Subhan, Fazli;Khan, Ayaz;Wahid, Fazli;Shehzad, Adeeb;Jan, Amin Ullah
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2011
  • Cadmium is considered one of the most toxic, non biodegradable heavy metal for the human and animals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in biochemical parameters of blood and accumulation of cadmium in various tissue caused by various levels of dietary cadmium chloride ($CdCl_2$) in broiler chicks. $CdCl_2$ was administered through drinking water to broiler chicks. In spectral analysis, $CdCl_2$ treatment caused a significant increase in Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), creatinine and uric acid levels in all treated groups. Intriguingly, the GPT, creatinine, and uric acid levels were significantly higher at 75 mg/kg as compared to the groups treated with high doses (100, 125 and 150 mg/kg) of $CdCl_2$. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the determination of Cd accumulation in kidney, liver and Breast muscles. AAS analysis revealed that Cd accumulation is increased in breast muscles as compared to liver and kidney at higher doses of Cd than 75 mg/kg.

Effects of Feeding Single or Multiple Probiotics on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (단일 및 혼합 생균제의 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;여영수;류명선;박홍석;김상호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effents of feeding single or combined probiltics on performance and intestinal micreflora of broiler chicks for five weeks. Diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 21.50, 19% CP and 3,100, 3,150kcal/kg ME for starting and finishing period, respectively. Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from chicks intestine(LSC), Lactobacillus salvarius isolated from piglet(LSP), Bacillus polyfermenticus(BP) were fed with alone and mixed ones at the level of 0.21 and 0.1% in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Three hundred eighty four chicks were randomly assigned to eight treatments with four replicates of 12 chicks each per treatment. Weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio(FCR) were weekly measured for 5 weeks. The number of intestinal micreflora was examined at the end of experiment. In both experiments, weight gain of chicks fed probiltics tended to be similar or higher than control, but was not in LSC+LSP treatment. Feed intake was not consistent among treatments. In experiment 1, FCR of chicks fed LSC alone was the lowest of all treatments, whereas it was significantly higher in LSC+LSP treatments than control(P〈0.05). In experiment 2, LSP supplemental groups tended to increase FCR compared to the control. The number of ileal E. coli was the lowest in LSP alone treatment of experiment 1, whereas cecal E. coli was higher concentration in probiotics supplemental groups than control. Total Lactobacillus of chicks fed probiotics was decreased in ileum, but was no consestency in cecum. In experiment 2, ileal total yeast tended to be higher in probiotics supplemental groups except LSP alone supplement than control. Total Lactobacillus of chicks fed LSC or LSP alone treatments was significantly higher than control(P〈0.05).

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Effect of Feed Withdrawal and Heat Acclimatization on Stress Responses of Male Broiler and Layer-type Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

  • Mahmoud, Kamel Z.;Yaseen, A.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1445-1450
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed withdrawal (F) and heat acclimatization (A) on malebroiler and -layer chickens responses to acute heat stress (AHS) at four weeks of age. Totals of ninety male chicks of broiler or layer type were randomly allocated into 30 pens of grower batteries with raised wire floors. Chicks were subjected to F and A three times a week through the first three weeks of age. At each time, feed withdrawal and heat acclimatization (T = $35^{\circ}C$) lasted for six and four hours, respectively. Feed consumption (FC), body weight (BW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly for broiler type chickens only. At four weeks of age, all groups of chickens were exposed to AHS (T = $39{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) for three hours. Before and after AHS challenge, body temperature (Tb), heterophil (H), and lymphocyte (L) counts were recorded, and H/L ratio was calculated. Antibody (Ab) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed from all treatments without being exposed to AHS. Group F of broiler-type chickens weighed less (p<0.05) compared to control group. Also, both A and F groups of broiler-type chickens consumed less (p<0.05) feed when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated Tb of all treatment groups, however the increase was more profound (p<0.001) in broiler chicks. Broiler chicks of both A and F groups showed a tendency to have higher (p = 0.08) Tb when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated (p<0.001) H/L ratio in both types of chickens. Broiler chicks maintained higher (p<0.001) H/L ratio. Both F and A groups reduced (p<0.01) the level of elevation in H/L ratio compared to control groups of both types of chickens. Neither A nor F group affected the Ab production in response to SRBC. However, there was a tendency towards higher Ab responses in F group when compared to other groups in both types of chickens. Results of the present study demonstrate that previous history of feed withdrawal or episodes of heat exposures improved chicks'physiological withstanding of AHS and a tendency to improved humoral immune response.

Effect of dietary administration of gaeddongssuk (Artemisia annua L.) on the blood compositions and fatty acid profile of meat in the broiler chicks (개똥쑥의 첨가 급이가 육계의 혈액 성분 및 계육의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Cho, Hang-Hee;Cho, Jae-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation with gaeddongssuk (Artemisia annua L.) powder on blood biochemical compositions, meat lipids and fatty acid profiles of the broiler chicks. One hundred male broiler chicks were divided randomly into five groups: group fed with basal diet (Control); group supplemented with 2.5% antibiotics in the drink water (Antibiotics), and groups supplemented gaeddongssuk powder with 5% (BG-I), 6% (BG-II), and 7% (BG-III) in the basal diets. Levels of total lipid and LDL-C in serum of broiler chicks were significantly lower in the groups supplemented with gaeddongssuk compared to the Antibiotics group. Contents of triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the BG-III. HDL-C level was significantly higher in BG-I and BG-II compared to the Antibiotics group. Antioxidant activity of serum in the BG-II was significantly higher than Control and Antibiotics groups. Lipid peroxide contents in the BG-I and BG-II were significantly lower than to the Antibiotics group. Total lipids level of breast and legs meat was significantly lower in the groups supplemented gaeddongssuk compared to the Antibiotics group. Total cholesterol level of breast meat was significantly lower in the groups supplemented with gaeddongssuk compared to the Antibiotics group. UFA/SFA ratio of breast and legs meat from the BG-II was tend to higher compared to Control and Antibiotics groups. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of gaeddongssuk with 6% could be applicable as the possibility to improve blood biochemical compositions and meat lipids properties in broiler chicks.

The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

  • Kim, S.K.;Kim, T.H.;Lee, S.K.;Chang, K.H.;Cho, S.J.;Lee, K.W.;An, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1287-1293
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0.001) lactic acid bacteria, but lowered Coli-form bacteria in cecal contents compared with those fed the control diet. The number of Bacillus spp. was higher (p<0.001) in all groups except for LF-SBM 1 compared with control diet-fed chicks. At 7 d, jejunal villi were significantly lengthened (p<0.001) in chicks fed the fermented SBMs vs control diet. Collectively, the results indicate that feeding of fermented SBMs during early phase are beneficial to the subsequent growth performance in broiler chicks. BF-SBM and YBF-SBM showed superior overall growth performance as compared with unfermented SBM and SPC.

Effects of Dietary Supplemental Folic Acid and Choline on the Performance of Starting Broiler Chicks (육계 전기 사료에 엽산과 콜린의 첨가 수준이 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 류경선;최호성;박강희;신원집
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 1995
  • Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplemental folic acid(FA) in starting broiler chicks. In the first two experiments, basal diets based on corn and soybean meal contained 0.6 mg/kg FA but no supplemental methionine or choline. At 18 d of age, chicks showed curvilinear responses to folic acid supplementation with maximum growth and feed efficiencies at 1.45 mg/kg FA diet. The liver FA response was also curvilinear but reached a plateau at 1.70 mg/kg FA diet. The basal diet for 3 additional experiments contained soybean meal that had been washed with methanol to remove most of the choline. The diet contained only 0.6 mg /kg folic acid and 754 mg /kg choline. Chicks exhibited a larger growth response to folic acid at low choline levels as evidenced by a significant FA x choline interaction. FA supplementation increased but then decreased valgus leg deformity. Choline supplementation also decreased the incidences of valgus and varus leg deformities and decreased bone ash and increased the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia. It is concluded that chicks fed diets based on practical ingredients require from 1.45 to 1.70 mg /kg FA diet and also 1.60 mg/kg FA when choline is offered near the NRC recommended level of 1,300 mg/kg.

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