• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broiler Chickens

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Preventive effect of oriental herbal medicine feed additives on infection of Salmonella enteritidis in broiler chickens: antimicrobial activity and colonization inhibition (한방사료첨가제를 이용한 육계의 Salmonella 방제효과 - 항균성 및 장관정착 억제 -)

  • Kang, Ho-Jo;Kim, Young-Hwan;Lee, Hu-Jang;Kim, Jong-Su;Kim, Chong-Sup;Kim, Toh-Gyong;Kim, Eun-Hee;Park, Mi-Rim;Kim, Gon-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2003
  • In this study, antibacterial activity on the chicken feed supplemented with different concentrations of oriental herbal medicine feed additives (OHMFA) extract was tested for some organisms and their preventive effects on the colonization of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chickens were examined. The growth of Bacillus cereus, listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited on the feed of 0.25% OHMFA and Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were inhibited on the feed containing 2.0% level. The broiler chickens fed a forage additived 1.0% level of OHMFA after inoculation of a $10^7CFU/ml$ of SE were increased in weight than the chicken fed forage without OHMFA. The incidence of SE in liver, spleen and cecum of the chickens fed forage with OHMFA was decreased on the 7th days of postinfection and SE was not isolated from the organs of the chickens after the 14th days of postinfection. Serum antibody titers of the chickens were lowered than the control group.

Effects of Skip-a-day Feeding Program in Early Growing Stage on Compensatory Growth and Development of Visceral Organs Following Realimentation in Male Broiler Chicks (성장초기의 격일급이가 육계 수컷의 후기 보상성장과 장기발달에 미치는 효과)

  • You, D.C.;Lee, B.D.;Lee, S.K.;Han, S.W.;Im, J.S.;Seo, O.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 1996
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of skip-a-day feeding program in early growing stage of male broiler chicks on the compensatory growth, and development of visceral organs during the later realimentation period. Day-old 328 male broiler chickens( Avian x Avian) were divided into control(ad libitum feeding) and skip-a-day feeding(limited feeding) treatments. Each treatment was consisted of 4 pens( replicates) of 41 birds each. Chickens on the skip-a-day program were fasted every other day during the second wk of age(8~15 d of age). During the starter period(0~4 wk), chickens were fed a commercial crumble diet. A commercial pellet diet was fed to chickens during the finishing period( 5~8 wk). Chickens were group-weighed every week, and one bird was selected from each pen to measure carcass characteristics. The skip-a-day program delayed the growth rate of male broilers up to 4 wk of age(P

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Effect of Thyroid Hormones on the Redox Balance of Broiler Chickens

  • Lin, H.;Decuypere, E.;Buyse, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.794-800
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of hyper- and hypothyroid status on the redox balance of broiler chickens. In Trial 1, 3 groups of broiler chickens were randomly subjected to one of the three treatments: subcutaneous administration of triiodothyronine (T3, $150{\mu}g/kg$ BW), methimazole (MMI, 150 mg/kg BW), or saline. The blood, liver and heart were sampled at 3 h after injection. In Trial 2, three groups of 20 broiler chickens were randomly fed with one of the three diets: control, dietary supplementation of T3 (1.5 mg/kg diet) or MMI (1 g/kg diet) for 7 days. In trial 1, the plasma concentrations of T3 and T3 to thyronine ratio (T3/T4) were significantly increased by T3 injection. Plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) tended to be increased (p = 0.067) by both T3 and MMI treatments while the ferric reduced/antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was increased only by MMI treatment. Acute T3 treatment had no significant effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the concentrations of FRAP and TBARS in either liver or heart tissue. In contrast, the hepatic activities of SOD were decreased (p<0.05) while the cardiac levels of FRAP were significantly increased (p<0.0001) by MMI treatment. In chronic treatments, the rectal temperature of chickens was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MMI treatment. The circulating T3 levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) by long-term T3 treatment, and showed a trend to decrease in MMI treatment. The plasma concentrations of TBARS were significantly (p<0.05) increased by MMI treatment. All the redox parameters measured in either liver or heart were not significantly altered by either long-term T3 or MMI treatment except that the hepatic SOD activities were significantly augmented by T3 treatment. The result showed that neither acute nor long-term elevation of circulating T3 levels induced lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens. The enhanced enzymatic antioxidant system (SOD in cardiac tissue) may be involved in the protection of the bird to increased oxidative challenge. The responses of redox balance to changed thyroid state seem to be tissue specific.

Effect of Dietary Cinnamon Powder on Savor and Quality of Chicken Meat in Broiler Chickens (닭고기의 품질 및 맛에 관한 계피 급여효과)

  • Park, Byung-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.618-624
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    • 2008
  • A 35-day trial was carried out to determine the influence of dietary cinnamon powder (CNP) on the sensory evaluation and quality of chicken meat, carcass characteristics, plasma lipid level and growth performance of broiler chickens. There were 5 treatment groups: control; CNP 2.0%; CNP 3.0%; CNP 4.0%; and CNP 5.0%. The body weight of the broilers fed the diets containing 3.0% CNP was higher than the broilers fed the control feeds (p<0.05). The concentration of triacylglyceride, HDL-C was higher in the plasma from broiler chickens fed diets with CNP (p<0.05) but the concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The carcass percentage, chicken breast and thigh weight were not different between the CNP and control groups. The WHC was significantly higher in the chickens fed 4% CNP diet, while the TBARS was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the chickens fed 3% CNP diet compared to the control group. The color of the breast muscle from the chickens fed 3% CNP diet was lighter than those from the control groups (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the taste and savor related to CNP in fried or boiled chicken meat were significantly better from the broiler chicken fed diets containing CNP than the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary cinnamon powder may improve savor and quality of chicken meat in broiler chickens.

Effect of Probiotic Inclusion in the Diet of Broiler Chickens on Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Quality

  • Khaksefidi, A.;Rahimi, Sh.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1153-1156
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted with three hundred and twenty broiler chickens to evaluate the influence of supplementation of probiotic on growth, microbiological status and carcass quality of chickens. The probiotic contained similar proportions of six strains of variable organisms namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Aspergillus oryzae, Streptococcus faecium and Torulopsis sps and was fed at 100 mg/kg diet. The body weight and feed conversion of probiotic fed groups were superior (p<0.05) compared to the control group in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks. The chickens fed the diet with probiotic had lower (p<0.05) numbers of coliforms and Campylobacter than chickens fed the control diet. All chickens' carcasses on the control diet were positive for Salmonella while only 16 of the 40 carcasses were positive from chickens fed diets containing probiotic. The leg and breast meat of probiotic fed chickens were higher (p<0.05) in moisture, protein and ash, and lower in fat as compared to the leg and breast meat of control chickens.

The Effects of Live Yeast and Yeast Culture Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens -Effects of Yeast Products on the Broiler Chickens- (활성효모 및 효모배양물의 첨가가 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향 -육계에 있어서 효모제품의 첨가효과-)

  • 유종석;남궁환;백인기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.167-181
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    • 1991
  • In order to study the effects of dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) products on the performance of broiler chickens, tow feeding trial using Arbor Acres strain were conducted. In experiment 1, 200 hatched male broiler chickens were divided into groups of 10 birds each and four groups were given each of the five dietary treatments : control, 0.25% yeast culture supplemented (YC-0.25%), 2.5% yeast culture supplemented(YC-2.5%), 0.05% live yeast supplemented(LY-0.05%) and 0.1% live yeast supplemented(LY-0.1%) . In experiment 2, 240 hatched broiler chickens(120 birds in each sex) were assigned to 2$\times$3(sex$\times$feed) factorial design Dietary treatments were control, 0.1% live yeast supplementation in finisher diet(LY-Finisher) , and 0.1% live yeast supplementation in whole period (LY-Whole). Results of experiment 1 showed that weight gain, feed intake and mortality were not significantly different among treatments. However, weight .gain of YC-0.25% and LY-0.1% tended to be greater than other treatments after 3wks of age Feed efficiency of LY-0.05% was poorer than those of control, YC-0.25% and LY-0.1% . Although nutrients availabilities were not significantly different among treatments, availiabilities of Ca and P were greater in yeast products supplemented groups than in control group. The number of Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp . and yeast in small intestine tended to be greater in supplemented groups while that of Coliforms bacteria tended to be greafter in control group. In experiment 2, there were significant effects of factors (feed and sex) and interaction on growth rate. LY-Whole groups showed best weight gain in male while LY-Finisher groups did best in female broiler chickens. Feed intake and mortality were significantly higher in male broiler chickens. Feed$\times$sex interaction had a significant effect on feed efficiency. LY-Whole groups showed best feed efficiency in male while LY-Finisher did best in female broiler chickens. Availabilities of dry matter, Ca and P were higher in male than in female broiler chickens. Availabilities of Ca and P were higher in live yeast supplemented groups than in control groups. Live yeast supplemented groups tended to have greater number of Lactobacillus spp . and yeast in the small intestine and Stre))tococcu spp. in the small intestine and cecum, and lesser number of Coliforms bacteria in the small intestine The pH of small intestinal contents tended to be higher in live yeast supplemented groups.

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Effects of Heat Stress and Dietary Tryptophan on Performance and Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Broiler Chickens

  • Tabiri, Hayford Y.;Sato, Kan;Takahashi, Kazuaki;Toyomizu, Masaaki;Akiba, Yukio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.247-253
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of high temperature and dietary tryptophan (Trp) on performance, selected organ weights and plasma free amino acid (AA) concentrations in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, exposure to $27-33^{\circ}C$ of chickens for 2 weeks from 2 weeks of age did not affect growth and plasma free AA concentration except for a decrease in the concentration of plasma tyrosine (Tyr). In Experiment 2, 2-week-old birds were allocated to one of three temperature treatments; $24^{\circ}C$ (control), $36^{\circ}C$ (heat stress, HS) and $24^{\circ}C$ pair-fed (24PF) for 2 weeks and fed on diets containing 50, 100 and 300% of NRC requirement for Trp. Heat stress caused a reduction of weight gain and feed intake irrespective of dietary Trp levels compared with control counterparts, while feeding of 300% Trp diet did not attenuate the reduced performance by HS exposure. In groups fed the 100% Trp diets, plasma aromatic AA (AAA) and Tyr concentrations were decreased in the HS birds compared with the 24PF group. Plasma concentrations in most of AA groups were increased by HS in chickens fed the 50% Trp diet, while those were not changed by HS in chickens fed the 300% Trp diet, compared with 24PF counterparts. The plasma Trp/LNAA (LNAA=large neutral AAs, which are comprised of BCAA, AAA and Trp) ratio was increased by HS in chickens fed the 100% Trp diet, while it was decreased in chickens fed on 50% Trp diet as compared with 24PF group. From these results, it is suggested that performance and plasma amino acid profile deranged by heat stress are modulated, at least, to be relieved from the heat stress by feeding 50% Trp diet but not at all by feeding 300% Trp diet. The involvement of altered plasma AA profiles, in particular plasma Tyr concentrations and Trp/LNAA ratio, is discussed in association with the performance characteristics of HS chickens.

Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

  • Comert, Muazzez;Sayan, Yilmaz;Kirkpinar, Figen;Hakan Bayraktar, O.;Mert, Selim
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.987-997
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    • 2016
  • The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (p<0.05). FG had the higher breast yield, whereas SG had the higher thigh-drumstick yield (p<0.05). The O system resulted in a higher amount of abdominal fat (p<0.05). In addition, the O system values were higher for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and $pH^{15}$ values in breast meat, and for crude ash, crude protein, and $pH^{15}$ values in drumstick meat (p<0.05). In addition, total saturated fatty acids, total mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and total omega 3 were significantly higher in the O system than in the C system. Thus, the O system showed a positive advantage compared to the C system regarding female chicken meat quality, primarily within the ash, protein, and total omega 3 fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the main factor affecting the carcass characteristics of female chickens was genotype, whereas the organic system contributed to enhanced meat quality. These findings provide a better understanding of the relative roles of genotype and production systems in female broiler characteristics, and might aid producers in designing their facilities to optimize yield and quality while maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards.

Effects of Early Feed Restriction on the Occurrence of Compensatory Growth, Feed Conversion Efficiency, Leg Abnormality and Mortality in Unsexed Broiler Chickens Reared in Cages

  • Santoso, U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1319-1325
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of early feed restriction on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality in unsexed broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, 350 one-day-old broiler chickens were divided into 7 groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. One group was fed ad libitum as the control group and the other six groups were fed 25% ad libitum (25% multiplied by amount of feed intake of ad libitum chickens at the previous day) for 4 or 6 days, 50% ad libitum for 4 or 6 days, and 75% ad libitum for 4 or 6 days. In experiment 2, 500 broiler chickens were divided into 10 groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. One group was fed ad libitum as the control group. Three ages of feed restriction initial timing (2, 4 or 6 days of age) and three types of feed restriction (physical restriction, meal feeding and diet dilution) were used ($3{\times}3$) in both experiments. They were feed-restricted for 6 days. Results showed that restricted broilers exhibited compensatory growth in both experiments except for diet dilution groups. In both experiments, FCR of restricted broilers was higher, whereas feed intake of them was lower during restriction period. FCR of restricted broilers was lower upon refeeding. Mortality was inconsistently affected by early feed restriction. Leg abnormality was lower in restricted broilers in both experiments. Level of feed restriction significantly influenced body weight, FCR and feed intake of restricted broilers (p<0.05), but duration of feed restriction had no effect. Type of restriction significantly affected body weight, feed intake and FCR (p<0.05). It appeared that to achieve the best result (complete compensatory growth and better FCR), broilers should be restricted at 25% ad libitum for 6 days (Experiment 1). Meal feeding started at 2 days of age would show the best performance (Experiment 2).

Effects of Music Enrichment on Live Body Weight and Meat Quality Grade of Broiler Chickens (농장 내 특정 음원 노출이 육계의 출하 체중과 닭고기 등급에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Jae Cheong;Lee, Sang Hyeok;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Kyung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2020
  • The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of music enrichment on the live body weight of chickens and meat quality grade of the carcasses. Fourteen flocks at four broiler farms with identical windowless houses were provided with identical starter and finisher diets. These were either exposed to classical music or not exposed to any music from the starter to slaughter age. At 30 days posthatch, the chickens were transported from farms to a slaughterhouse. Two hundred carcasses from each flock were randomly selected for measurement of the carcass traits by the licensed meat inspectors at the slaughterhouse. The live body weights at the slaughter age were not significantly different between the two treatments. In addition, music enrichment did not affect meat freshness (i.e., torrymeter values) nor did it affect other carcass trait variables including percentage of bruises, flesh blemishes, abnormalities, and quality A grade. In conclusion, music enrichment did not affect the body weight or carcass quality of broiler chickens.