• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broiler Chickens

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THE EFFECTS OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SOYABEAN MEAL WITH BOILED FEATHER MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS

  • Ochetim, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.597-600
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    • 1993
  • An experiment was conducted using 160 Arbor Acres broiler strain of chickens to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal with feather meal on the diets of broiler chickens raised from day old to 8 weeks of age. Feathers, obtained from a local poultry processing plant, were boiled in water for 30 minutes, sun-dried and ground using a 2 mm sieve for inclusion into the experimental diets at 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% levels at the expense of soyabean meal. The feather meal was assayed and found to contain 86.5% crude protein and to be low in lysine, methionine and histidine amino acids. The inclusion of such processed feather meal up to 3% in the diet did not (p>0.05) affect growth or feed conversion ratio. However, the highest level of inclusion of feather meal in the diet, 4.5%, significantly reduced both growth rate and feed conversion ratio of the birds. The results of this experiment showed that up to 3% of water-boiled feather meal, which represents 12% of dietary protein, the equivalent of 6% level of use of soyabean meal in the diet, can be successfully included as a protein source in the diets of broiler chickens.

Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

  • Kim, Jong Hyuk;Jung, Hyunjung;Pitargue, Franco Martinez;Han, Gi Ppeum;Choi, Hyeon Seok;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.979-984
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    • 2017
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results: Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. Litter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10) for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Conclusion: Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

Effects of supplemented culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens

  • Liu, Shaoshuai;Yan, Wenjuan;Ma, Chang;Liu, Yajing;Gong, Limin;Levesque, Crystal;Dong, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.568-578
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate effects of supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae (I. cicadae) on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 648 Arbor Acres male broiler chickens(1 d; average body weight, 42.93±0.47 g) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with six replicates and 18 broiler chickens per replicate. Broiler chickens were fed phase I (d 1 to 21) and phase II (d 22 to 42) diets. The phase I diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively. The phase II diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 1.33%, 2.67%, 4.00%, 5.32%, or 6.67% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively. Results: In phase I, the broiler chickens with the supplementation of culture media had increased body weight gain and feed intake (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing inclusion of culture media. The levels of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly (p<0.05). In phase II, levels of serum T-AOC and interleukin-1β increased linearly (p<0.05), and GSH increased (p<0.05). In the kidney, GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentrations increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) and SOD concentration increased linearly (p<0.05). Compared to the control, shear force and drip loss of breast muscle decreased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05). Drip loss of leg muscle decreased linearly and quadratically (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented I.cicadae which was enriched in both wheat and residual bioactive components of I. cicadae enhanced the growth performance of broiler chickens. It also improved body anti-oxidative status and contributed to improve broiler meat quality.

Effect of Copper on Plasma Ceruloplasmin and Antioxidant Ability in Broiler Chickens Challenged by Lipopolysaccharide

  • Song, Zhigang;Zhu, Lixian;Zhao, Tong;Jiao, Hongchao;Lin, Hai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1400-1406
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    • 2009
  • The effects of dietary copper (Cu) supplementation in broiler chickens challenged with a single injection of Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the antioxidant capacity and plasma levels of ceruloplasmin (Cp) were evaluated. The broiler chickens were provided with a basal diet or diets supplemented with 8 and 50 mg/kg Cu from 1d of age. At 25d of age, 48 chickens with similar body weight were selected from each diet. Half of the chickens in each dietary treatment were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). The other half was injected with saline, serving as the control. Body weight gain and feed consumption were significantly suppressed by LPS challenge during the first 12-h after injection, regardless of dietary Cu levels. Feed efficiency was reduced by LPS injection during the 72-h experimental period. Dietary Cu levels had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations in chickens injected with saline. In contrast, high dietary level of Cu elevated plasma Cp levels in chickens with LPS challenge. Short-term LPS challenge had no significant effect on the antioxidant ability of broilers, as indicated by superoxide dismutase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power and the thiobarbituric acid reacting substances in the plasma. The result suggests that high dietary Cu level (as much as 50 mg/kg supplementation) is favorable for coping with short-term LPS challenge through upregulating plasma Cp levels.

Effects of Various Field Coccidiosis Control Programs on Host Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Commercial Broiler Chickens

  • Lee, Kyung-Woo;Lillehoj, Hyun S.;Jang, Seung-I.;Lee, Sung-Hyen
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2012
  • Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in the poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synthetic chemicals, and antibiotic ionophores) on immune status of broiler chickens vaccinated against infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus (ND) and raised on an Eimeria-contaminated used litter. In general, the levels of ${\alpha}$-1-acid glycoprotein, an acute phase protein, were altered by the treatments when measured at 34 days of age. Splenocyte subpopulations and serum antibody titers against ND were altered by various coccidiosis control programs. In-ovo-vaccinated chickens exhibited highest mitogenic response when their spleen cells were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) at 7 days of age. It is clear from this study that the type of coccidiosis control program influenced various aspects of innate and adaptive immune parameters of broiler chickens. Further studies will be necessary to delineate the underlying relationship between the type of coccidiosis control program and host immune system and to understand the role of other external environmental factors such as gut microbiota on host-pathogen interaction in various disease control programs.

Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

  • Kim, Sang-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Woo;Kang, Chang-Won;An, Byoung-Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.549-554
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Occurred in Broiler Chickens (육용계의 피부에 발생한 편평세포암종)

  • Cho, Kyoung-Oh
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.63-66
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    • 2001
  • Two 53-day-old broiler chickens were condemned due to multiple cutaneous nodular masses at slaughter house. Grossly, variable sized round masses were scattered in the abdomen and pelvis. Some of them were large and fused each other. Center of large fused nodules were ulcerated. Histopathologically, tumor masses consisted of multiple cords or masses of epidermal cells. Some of \ulcornerem contained central conoentric lamella of keratin (cancer pearl). From these results, these cases were diagnosed as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first report of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma occurred in broiler chickens in Korea.

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EFFECTS OF DIETARY AFLATOXIN B1 ON PERFORMANCE, ON HEMATOLOGIC, PATHOLOGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC CHANGES IN BROILER CHICKENS

  • Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Kim, Kan-Hol;Han, Sang-Bae;Chung, Chung-Soo;Jeong, Goo-Bo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 1992
  • The influences of dietary aflatoxin B1 on performance, on hematologic, pathologic and immunologic changes in broiler chickens were studied. One hundred and fifty hatched broiler chickens were fed with diet containing aflatoxin B1 (1.0 ppm and 2.5 ppm) fot three weeks. Blood samples, serum, and immune organs were obtained to investigate hematological, clinico-chemical, and histopathologial changes. Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly decreased. The liver and kidney were increased, whereas the bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus were decreased.

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제한급이 방법이 육계의 생산성과 도체특성에 미치는 영향

  • 유동조;강보석;서옥석
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.117-118
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feed restriction in early stage of growth on the compensatory growth in male and female broiler chickens. Day-old 480 male and 480 female commercial broiler chickens(Ross strain) were randomly allotted to 32 pens(replicates), 30 birds per pen, to compare the sex difference in growth performance and carcass characteristics. Birds in control group(C) were full fed throughout the study. T1, T2 and T3 were restricted at 4∼11d, 4∼14d and 4∼18d, respectively. Chickens were weighed every week, and one bird was selected from each pen to measure carcass characteristics at the end of experiment. In female chickens, all restricted-fed groups except for T3 weighed same as or heavier than the control group at 7 weeks of age. In male chickens, both T2 and T3 that had longer feed restriction period were significantly different from the control group. Viability was not different significantly. Feed intake in both male and female chickens of T3 group statistically differed from the control group. The female chicks showed larger abdominal fat pad sizes than did male birds up to market age.

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Effect of Supplementing Organic Selenium on Performance, Carcass Traits, Oxidative Parameters and Immune Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens

  • Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama;Prakash, Bhukya;Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha;Panda, Arun Kumar;Poonam, Saharia;Murthy, Orugonda Krishna
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2013
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing various concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 ${\mu}g/kg$ diet) of organic Se on growth performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency, and relative weight of liver, abdominal fat and ready to cook yields were not affected (p>0.05) by organic Se supplementation to broiler diets. Lipid peroxidation in plasma decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased (p<0.01) linearly with Se concentration in diet. The ratios between heterophyls and lymphocytes and relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen, and thymus), and antibody production to Newcastle disease vaccination were not affected (p>0.05) by Se supplementation to broiler diets. However, the cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio) increased (p<0.01) linearly with dietary Se concentration. The results of the present study indicate that the supplementation of Se did not influence body weight and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of Se increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broiler chickens.