• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broiler Chickens

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Effect of tissue culture medium waste after harvest of Korean wild ginseng on growth performance and diseases resistance in broiler chickens (산삼배양액 급여에 따른 육계의 생산성 및 질병 저항성 효과)

  • Seol, Jae-Won;Park, Jae-Hong;Chae, Joon-Seok;Kang, Hyung-Sub;Ryu, Kyeong-Seon;Kang, Chun-Seong;Park, Sang-Youel
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2010
  • The large amount of tissue culture medium (TCM), which contains some of the active secretory components of Korean wild ginseng (KWG; Panax ginseng) such as saponins, is usually discarded after harvest of KWG. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral administration of the TCM-KWG on growth performance and diseases resistance in broiler chickens. A day old broiler chickens randomized in 6 groups (n = 60/groups) were administered orally with 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mL/L TCMKWG through drinking water for 5 weeks and examined the change of weight gain, feed intake and blood components. Also, five weeks old broiler chickens (n = 15/groups) were challenged orally with Salmonella (S.) gallinarum and investigated the mortality in broiler chickens. An average weight gain and feed intake significantly didn't change in TCM-KWG administration groups as compared to control group. The concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pi) and potassium (K) in serum were increase by TCM-KWG administration in broiler chickens. We also found that oral administration of TCM-KWG through drinking water significantly reduced the mortality in broiler chickens experimentally infected with virulent S. gallinarum. The results of this study indicated that TCM-KWG administration may elevate the resistance on disease and improved the skeleton formation and body homeostasis of chickens, and TCM-KWG can be used as a cost-effective and environmentally alternative additives to control of the disease and growth.

Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Supplemented with Different Level of Chromium Methionine under Heat Stress Conditions

  • Ebrahimzadeh, S.K.;Farhoomand, P.;Noori, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.256-260
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the immune responses of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with different level of chromium methionine (CrMet) in heat stress (HS) condition. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatment groups (supplementation with 0, 200, 400 or 800 ppb Cr in the form of CrMet) in a completely randomized design. The experiment was conducted at heat stressed condition and all birds were kept under temperature of $33{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L), and concentration of plasma cortisol (CPC) were measured at 21 and 42 d. At 42 days of age two birds were chosen randomly from each replicate, slaughtered, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected, weighed and expressed as a percentage of live body weight. Antibody titers against NDV and IBV at 21 and 42 days of age in broiler fed supplemental CrMet were higher than in broiler chickens fed control diet (p<0.05). CPC level in broiler chickens fed CrMet were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Increases in lymphocyte counts and consequently a decrease in heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in broiler chickens fed 800 ppb Cr were observed at 21 and 42 d. Supplementation with CrMet had no significant effect on lymphoid organs of broilers. The results suggest that dietary CrMet supplementation at a level of 800 ppb can improve some immune responses of broiler chickens under heat stress conditions.

Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler Chickens

  • Kim, Nara;Lee, Sang-Rak;Lee, Sang-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1044-1049
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be strongly affected by the presence of light. On the other hand, there was no discernible difference in their energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens exposed to the different LED lights.

Reduction of Fat Accumulation in Broiler Chickens by Sauropus Androgynus (Katuk) Leaf Meal Supplementation

  • Santoso, Urip;Sartini, Sartini
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.346-350
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    • 2001
  • The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of Sauropus. androgynus leaf (SAL) meal on reducing fat accumulation in broiler chickens. Eighty unsexed broiler chickens were allocated to four treatment groups with five replicates of four chickens each. SAL meal supplementation had no effect on body, leg, back, breast, wing, liver and heart weights, carcass protein, moisture and ash contents (p>0.05). Broilers fed diets supplemented with 30 g of SAL meal had lower feed intake with better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) than did the control chickens. SAL supplementation at all levels significantly reduced fat accumulation in abdomen region, and liver (p<0.01), and in carcass (p<0.05). Higher SAL supplementation resulted in lower fat accumulation in the carcass ($r^{2}=0.94$; p<0.01), abdomen ($r^{2}=0.99$; p<0.01) and liver ($r^{2}=0.98$; p<0.01). The current study showed that a 30 g supplementation of SAL meal to the broiler diet was effective to improve feed conversion ratio without reducing body weight. SAL meal supplementation to the diet reduce fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

  • Li, Jianhui;Yuan, Jianmin;Miao, Zhiqiang;Guo, Yuming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods: A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results: The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion: These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased.

Pigmentation and Delayed Oxidation of Broiler Chickens by the Red Carotenoid, Astaxanthin, from Chemical Synthesis and the Yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

  • An, G.-H.;Song, J.-Y.;Chang, K.-S.;Lee, B.-D.;Chae, H.-S.;Jang, B.-G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1309-1314
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    • 2004
  • The red carotenoid, astaxanthin was studied to improve the meat quality of broiler chickens. Astaxanthin pigmented chickens and delayed oxidation of lipid in them. Two sources of astaxanthin were used to pigment broiler chickens in a five-wk feeding trial: biological astaxanthin (BA) from the red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, and chemical astaxanthin (CA) from chemical synthesis. The concentrations of CA (45 mg/kg feed) and BA (22.5 mg/kg feed) were set to give similar levels of pigmentation. The colorimetric values (a and b) of breast muscles were significantly changed by astaxanthin (p${\leq}$0.01). Absorption and accumulation of BA were higher than those of CA, probably due to the high contents of lipids in the yeast (17%). Lipid peroxide formation in skin was significantly decreased by astaxanthin (p${\leq}$0.05). This result indicated that the production of lipid peroxides in the carcasses of broiler chickens during storage could be delayed by astaxanthin. Therefore, astaxanthin could be used as an antioxidant as well as a colorant for broiler chickens.

Prevalence of fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus in Jeonbuk, Korea (전북지역 조류아데노바이러스 및 닭전염성빈혈 감염률 조사)

  • Jeong, Han-Sol;Baek, Kui-Jeong;Koh, Won-Seok;Lee, Jeong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2018
  • Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and chicken anemia virus (CAV) have gained much importance as an immunosuppressive and economically important emerging pathogen of poultry. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of FAdV and CAV infection in chickens. The groups were divided into Korean native chickens, broiler, layer hens and broiler breeder and set up groups according to age. As results, 12.5% of the native chicken, 2.5% of broiler and 6.7% of layer chicken were positive, respectively by PCR for FAdV. Serological test showed that 84.8%, 79.0%, 97.7% and 96.1% of chickens were positive for antibody to FAdV in native chickens, broiler, layer hens and broiler breeder. The prevalence of CAV infection were 20.0%, 7.5%, 16.7% and 10.0%, based on CAV gene detection by PCR. In serological test of CAV, 40.6%, 35.9%, 84.8% and 73.9% of chickens were positive in that groups.

Effect of Chitosan on Nitric Oxide Content and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Serum and Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA in Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens

  • Li, H.Y.;Yan, S.M.;Shi, B.L.;Guo, X.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.1048-1053
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    • 2009
  • The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in serum, and relative expression of iNOS mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old Arbor Acre mixed-sex broiler chickens were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with five replicates in each treatment and eight chickens in each replicate. The broiler chickens in the six treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg chitosan. The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that dietary chitosan enhanced NO content and iNOS activity in serum as well as iNOS mRNA expression in the duodenum and ileum of broiler chickens in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.05), and improved jejunum iNOS mRNA expression in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.10) with increasing addition of chitosan. Chicks fed a diet containing 0.5-1.0 g/kg chitosan had higher NO content and iNOS activity in serum as well as small-intestinal iNOS mRNA expression compared with birds given the control diet, but positive effects of chitosan tended to be suppressed when addition of chitosan in the diet was increased to 2.0 g/kg. These results implied that there was a threshold level of chitosan inclusion beyond which progressive reductions in serum NO content and small intestinal iNOS expression occured, and the regulation of chitosan on immune functions in chickens is probably associated with activated expression of iNOS and NO secretion.

Influence of Various Levels of Organic Zinc on the Live Performance, Meat Quality Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Broiler Chickens

  • Salim, Hossan Md.;Lee, Hak-Rim;Jo, Cheo-Run;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Bong-Duk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2011
  • The influence of supplementing diets with various levels of organic zinc (OZ) on the performance, meat quality attributes, and sensory properties of broiler chickens was investigated. A total of 3,200 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 16 floor pens (replicates) with 200 birds per pen. A corn-wheat-soybean meal basal diet (control) was formulated and 20 ppm OZ (20 OZ), 40 ppm OZ (40 OZ), or 80 ppm OZ (80 OZ) was added to the basal diet to form four dietary treatments with four replicates per treatment. Live performance of broiler chickens, meat quality, and sensory properties were evaluated. The results showed no significant difference among the treatments for live performance of broiler chickens. Significant increases (p<0.05) in thigh skin epidermis and dermis thickness were shown in the OZ supplementation groups; however, no effect of OZ on the thickness of back skin epidermis or dermis was found. Dietary OZ levels did not affect the pH of breast and thigh meat or the water holding capacity (WHC) of thigh meat, but the WHC of breast meat increased significantly (p<0.05) when birds were fed 40 OZ and 80 OZ. Results of a sensory analysis showed no differences among the dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary OZ did not affect live performance or sensory properties of broiler chickens but did increase the WHC of breast meat and thickness of skin layers; thus, improving carcass quality in broiler chickens.

Effect of Feed Withdrawal and Heat Acclimatization on Stress Responses of Male Broiler and Layer-type Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

  • Mahmoud, Kamel Z.;Yaseen, A.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1445-1450
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed withdrawal (F) and heat acclimatization (A) on malebroiler and -layer chickens responses to acute heat stress (AHS) at four weeks of age. Totals of ninety male chicks of broiler or layer type were randomly allocated into 30 pens of grower batteries with raised wire floors. Chicks were subjected to F and A three times a week through the first three weeks of age. At each time, feed withdrawal and heat acclimatization (T = $35^{\circ}C$) lasted for six and four hours, respectively. Feed consumption (FC), body weight (BW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly for broiler type chickens only. At four weeks of age, all groups of chickens were exposed to AHS (T = $39{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) for three hours. Before and after AHS challenge, body temperature (Tb), heterophil (H), and lymphocyte (L) counts were recorded, and H/L ratio was calculated. Antibody (Ab) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed from all treatments without being exposed to AHS. Group F of broiler-type chickens weighed less (p<0.05) compared to control group. Also, both A and F groups of broiler-type chickens consumed less (p<0.05) feed when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated Tb of all treatment groups, however the increase was more profound (p<0.001) in broiler chicks. Broiler chicks of both A and F groups showed a tendency to have higher (p = 0.08) Tb when compared to control group. Acute heat stress elevated (p<0.001) H/L ratio in both types of chickens. Broiler chicks maintained higher (p<0.001) H/L ratio. Both F and A groups reduced (p<0.01) the level of elevation in H/L ratio compared to control groups of both types of chickens. Neither A nor F group affected the Ab production in response to SRBC. However, there was a tendency towards higher Ab responses in F group when compared to other groups in both types of chickens. Results of the present study demonstrate that previous history of feed withdrawal or episodes of heat exposures improved chicks'physiological withstanding of AHS and a tendency to improved humoral immune response.