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Comparison of glucose, lactate, and nucleotide degradation products content of cooked Hanwoo and Australian beef steaks by internal temperature (가열 한우육 및 호주산우육 스테이크에서 심부온도에 따른 glucose, lactate 및 핵산 분해 물질 함량 비교)

  • Kang, Sun-Moon;Kang, Geun-Ho;Seong, Pil-Nam;Kim, Young-Chun;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Ba, Hoa Van;Jang, Seon-Sik;Cho, Soo-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to compare the glucose, lactate, and nucleotide degradation products content of cooked beef steaks from Korean Hanwoo (quality grade: 1) and Australian cattle (Bos indicus, grain-fed for 100 d) by internal temperature. The loins (M. longissimus dorsi) and top rounds (M. semimembranosus) from two cattle breeds were cut into about 2 cm thickness and then cooked in a $180^{\circ}C$ electronic oven until internal temperature attained to 50, 70, or $90^{\circ}C$. Regardless of internal temperature, glucose content was higher (P<0.05) in cooked loin and top round steaks from Hanwoo compared to those from Australian cattle. Lactate content was shown to be lower (P<0.05) in cooked steaks from Hanwoo than in those from Australian cattle. Lower (P<0.05) hypoxanthine and higher (P<0.05) guanosine 5'-monophosphate, inosine 5'-monophosphate, inosine contents were observed in cooked steaks from Hanwoo. Furthermore, glucose content tended to be decreased by internal temperature but nucleotide degradation products content was not changed by internal temperature. Therefore, these findings suggest that cooked Hanwoo beef steaks had higher flavor precursors related to sweet and umami tastes than cooked Australian beef steaks

Frequency of Spontaneous Polyploids in Monoembryonic Jeju Native Citrus Species and Some Mandarin Cultivars (단배성 제주 재래귤 및 만다린잡종에서 자연 발생적인 배수체의 발생 빈도)

  • Chae, Chi-Won;Yun, Su-Hyun;Park, Jae-Ho;Kim, Min-Ju;Koh, Sang-Wook;Song, Kwan-Jeong;Lee, Dong-Hun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.871-879
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    • 2012
  • Polyploids are a potentially important germplasm source in seedless citrus breeding program. Seedlessness is one of the most promising traits of commercial mandarin breeds that mandarin triploid hybrids possess permanently. The formation of new constant triploid hybrids can be recovered through diploid species hybridization from the fusion of divalent gametes at low frequencyor intra-and inter-ploidy crosses. However, extensive breeding work based on small $F_1$ hybrid seeds developed is impossible without a very effective aseptic methodology and ploidy event. In this study, in vitro embryo culture was employed to recover natural hybrids from monoembryonic diploid, open-pollinated mandarin. Flow cytometry was used to determine ploidy level. A total of 10,289 seeds were extracted from 792 fruits having approximately 13 seeds per fruit. Average frequency of small seeds developed was 7.1%, while the average frequency of small seeds per fruit were: 8.9% for 'Clementine' 10.2% for 'Harehime' 2.6% for 'Kamja' 3.1% for 'Pyunkyool' 2.8% for 'Sadookam' and 7.0% for 'Wilking' mandarin. Average size of a perfect seed was $49.52{\pm}0.07mm^2$ ('Clementine') while the small seed measured $7.95{\pm}0.04mm^2$ ('Clementine'), which was about 1/6 smaller than the perfect seed. In total, 731 small seeds were obtained and all of them contained only one embryo per seed. The efficiency of 'Clementine' was 14 times higher than 'Wilking' and more than 109 times higher than 'Pyunkyool'. The basic information on spontaneous polyploidy provides for the hybridization of constant triploids and increases the efficiency of conventional cross.

Protein Expression in Pig Species Longissimus dorsi Muscles among Different Breeds and Growth Stages (돼지의 품종 및 성장 단계에 따른 등심조직의 단백질 발현 양상 비교, 분석)

  • Kim, Byung-Uk;Kim, Sam-Woong;Hong, Yeon-Hee;Jeong, Mi-Ae;Ryu, Yeon-Sun;Park, Hwa-Chun;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Kwon, Young-Min;Choi, In-Soon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Kim, Chul-Wook;Cho, Kwang-Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.713-722
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    • 2012
  • When proteins extracted from longissimus dorsi muscles of Landrace and Berkshire at the finishing stage were compared by 2-DE, the Landrace demonstrated a quantitative increase in proteins related to slow skeletal muscle function, such as serum albumin precursor, troponin T (slow skeletal muscle; sTnT) and myoglobin. In contrast, the Berkshire exhibited comparatively elevated enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, fast skeletal muscle function, and energy production, such as heat shock 27-kDa protein (HSP27)-1, TnT (fast skeletal muscle; fTnT), muscle creatine kinase, phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi1) and adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1). When compared to growing Berkshire, finishing Berkshire showed increased levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDHL1), and muscle creatine kinase. In contrast, the growing Berkshire muscle had elevated levels of HSP27-1, sTnT, fTnT, serum albumin precursor, PGM1, AK1, and Tpi 1 as compared to the finishing Berkshire. The Landrace longissimus dorsi muscle may be composed of slower skeletal muscle, whereas Berkshire is composed of a faster skeletal muscle. The uniquely elevated quantities of proteins involved in skeletal muscle function, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton function in the growing Berkshire indicate that these factors support growth and maintenance during the growing stage when compared with the finishing Berkshire.

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Amino Acid Contents on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Korean Native Ducks (사료의 조단백질 및 아미노산 함량이 토종오리의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyung Joo;Choo, Yun Kyung;Oh, Sung Taek;Kim, Hak Kyu;Kang, Chang Won;An, Byoung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2013
  • This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) concentrations for growth performance and carcass characteristics in Korean native ducks. In a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement, 1-d-old Korean native male ducks were allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets contained 23 or 21% CP with 1.31/1.09, 1.21/1.00, 1.11/0.91 and 1.11/0.91, 1.02/0.83, 0.92/0.75 AA (Lysine/Total sulfur amino acid, Lysine/TSAA), respectively, from 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, experimental diets had 19 or 17% of diet; each contained 1.00/0.79, 0.94/0.75, 0.88/0.71 and 0.88/0.71, 0.82/0.67, 0.76/0.63 AA (Lysine/TSAA), respectively. Each dietary treatment has 6 replicates and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight (BW), feed intake and uniformity were measured at 3 wk and 8 wk and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 8 wk of age. As CP increased from 21 to 23%, the BW and BW gain significantly increased (P<0.05) during 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, BW, feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion rations (FCR) and uniformity were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. Carcass yield and relative weights of liver, spleen, right breast and leg per 100 of BW were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. The meat color, shear force value, cooking loss and pH were not affected by dietary treatments (P<0.05). Korean native ducks require relatively low levels of dietary CP and AA for late growth and carcass yield due to low daily weight gain. This suggests the possible differences in CP and AA needs between Korean native ducks and commercial breeds from foreign breeding companies, especially late growth stage.

Comparisons of Meat Quality Characteristics between Castration and Non-castration from Dairy Goats (거세 및 비거세 유산양고기의 품질특성 비교)

  • Kang, Geunho;Cho, Soohyun;Seong, Pilnam;Kang, Sunmun;Park, Kyoungmi;Park, Beomyoung;Kim, Donghun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate meat quality and sensory characteristics between castrated and non-castrated dairy goats. Dairy goat of Saanen breeds was slaughtered at an age of 6 mon. Then, characteristics of dairy goat meat were analyzed to chemical compositions, collagen content, pH, meat color, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, shear force, protein solubility, and myofibrillar protein fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Also, odor from dairy goat meats was analyzed by sensory evaluation and volatile substances by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As a result, the chemical compositions and physicochemical characteristics were not significantly different between castrated and non-castrated dairy goats meat. Also, there is no difference protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and total protein) and protein fraction by SDS-PAGE. Sensory evaluation results in odour scores are highly (p<0.05) non-castration dairy goat meat better than castration. As a result, overall palatability was higher (p<0.05) in castrated goat meat when compared with non-castrated one. The indole and octadecanoic acid by GC-MS based on sensory evaluation results were only detected in non-castrated dairy goat meat. Therefore, distribution for goat meats castrated compared to non-castrated dairy goat meat is expected to be able to get a good response to the Korean consumer.

Breed Effects of Terminal Sires on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality in Commercial Pig Industry (돼지의 웅돈계열에 따른 도체형질 및 육질 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Du-Won;Seo, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Yang, Han-Sul;Joo, Seon-Tea;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, to determine the effects of terminal sire strains, carcass characteristics, yields of retail cut, and meat quality of 425 pigs were examined. Terminal sires were divided into five strains (D1, D2, B1, B2, and BD) based on the countries of origin and breeds. The strains D1 and D2 showed high grade 1+ appearance ratios and strains B1, B2, and D1 showed high appearance ratios of carcass yield grade A. As for the real retail cut yields of meat, strain D1 showed large real retail cut yields of meat in shoulder, rib, fore leg, loin, belly, tenderloin and hind leg. Moisture contents were significantly higher in strain B1, and protein and fat contents were significantly higher for strain D1 than in the other strains (p<0.05). Shear force values were significantly higher for strain B1 than in the other strains (p<0.05). For meat color properties, the lightness were significantly higher in strains D1, D2, and BD, and the yellowness were significantly higher in strains D1, D2, and BD relative to the other strains (p<0.05). In sensory evaluation, drip of strains D1 and D2 were significantly lower while marbling and overall acceptability were significantly higher in the other four strains (p<0.05). Therefore, when considering the results of the present study comprehensively, using strains D1 and D2 that showed high grade 1+ appearance ratios, large real retail cut yields of belly, significantly higher lightness and sensory evaluation will be helpful to the incomes of producers and farm households.

The Relationship of the Expressions of Stress-related Markers and Their Production Performances in Korean Domestic Chicken Breed (닭의 스트레스 연관 표지인자들의 발현도와 생산능력 간의 상관 분석)

  • Park, Ji Ae;Cho, Eun Jung;Choi, Eun Sik;Hong, Yeong Ho;Choi, Yeon Ho;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to verify the relationships between the expression values of stress-related markers and their production performances in 25 strains of Korean domestic chicken breeds. For stress response markers, the amount of telomeric DNA; expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP)-70, $HSP-90{\alpha}$, and $HSP-90{\beta}$; and comet scores were analyzed. Production performances were measured by the survival rate, body weights, days at first egg laying, egg weight and hen housed egg production. The results showed that the production traits and values of stress-related markers showed significant differences between strains. In general, the stress response of pure bred chickens with heavy weights was relatively high, while that of hybrid chickens with light weights was relatively low. The correlation coefficients between telomere contents and body weights showed that there were weak negative relationships. However, the correlations of telomere content with the survival rate and egg production were weakly positive after 20 weeks old. The expression levels of HSP genes and DNA damage rate (comet scores) were positively correlated to body weight, but were negatively correlated to the survival rate and egg production. The results implied that increasing body weight was associated with increasing HSPs expression and the DNA damage rate was associated with decreasing telomere content. In addition, increasing HSPs expression and the DNA damage rate decreased the survival rate and egg production, but the relationships with the telomere content was the reverse. Correlations among the stress-related markers showed that there were significant correlation coefficients between all of the marker values. HSPs expression was negatively correlated to the telomere content, while it was positively correlated to the DNA damage rate. There was a highly negative correlation between the telomere content and DNA damage rate. In conclusion, increasing the HSP values and DNA damage rate can promote telomere reduction, which led to a decrease in disease resistance and robustness of the chicken. Thus, increasing the stress response was verified to adversely affect the laying performance and viability of chickens.

Experiment for Various Soils on Economic Duty of Water in Paddy Fields (각종토성별 경제적용수량 결정시험연구)

  • Hwang, Eun
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1561-1579
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    • 1969
  • In Korea, the duty of water in paddy fields was measured at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Suwon about 60 years ago. After that time some testing has been made in several places, but the key points in its experiment were the water depth of evapo-transpiration. Improved breeds, progress in cultivation and management techniques as well as development of measuring apparatus in recent years have necessitated the review of the duty of water in paddy fields. The necessity of reviewing the conventional methods has become even more important, as no source of information has been made available through survey of water utilization on a soil use basis which requires data on peculiar features of the water depth of evapo-transpiration. For example, the duty of water in paddy field is largely affected by the water depth of evapo-transpiration in connection with the wetted paddy field, whereas in connection with the normal paddy fields without this characteristic the vertical percolation become the predominant factor in measuring the decreasing depth of water. Therefore, it becomes important. that not only the water depth of evapotranspiration but also the vertical percolation process should also be observed in order to arrive at a realistic conclusion. As the vertical percolation has aclose relationship to the height of the underground water, the change of the latter can be measured. As the conclusion of this experiment, the following subjects are indicated. 1. In order to determine the economic duty of water in paddy fields on a basis of varying soil features, the varying soil features in the benifited area should be investigated thoroughly. The water depths of evapo-transpiration(ET) ratio to evaporation in the evaporator(V) on a basis of the varying soil features are as follows: clay loam ET/V = 1.11, loam ET/V = 1.64, sandy loam ET.V = 1.63 2. The decreasing depth of water consists of the water depth of evapotranspiration, the vertical per colation and the percolation of foot path. Among these three, the percolation of foot path can be utilized again. 3. As the result of this experiment, it shows the decreasing depth of water as follows. clay loam 9.3 mm/day, loam 13.5mm/daty, sandy loam 15.3mm/day 4. On a basis of the varying soil features and the height of the underground water, the vertical percolation varies. 5. The change of the vertical percolation on a basis of the varying soil features shows as follows: clay loam $1{\sim}2$ mm/day, loam $2{\sim}3$mm/day, sandy loam $3{\sim}4$mm/day 6. The level of the underground water changes sensibly by priority of clay loam, loam, sandy loam. When it rains, the level of the underground water rises fast and falls down slowly. 7. The level of the underground water changes within the scope of 25cm 8. The transpiration ratio is given in table 8 and their value are as follows: clay loam 168.8, loam 255.6, sandy loam 272.5

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Genetic Diversity of Korean Native Chicken Populations in DAD-IS Database Using 25 Microsatellite Markers (초위성체 마커를 활용한 가축다양성정보시스템(DAD-IS) 등재 재래닭 집단의 유전적 다양성 분석)

  • Roh, Hee-Jong;Kim, Kwan-Woo;Lee, Jinwook;Jeon, Dayeon;Kim, Seung-Chang;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Mun, Seong-Sil;Lee, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Jun-Heon;Oh, Dong-Yep;Byeon, Jae-Hyun;Cho, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2019
  • A number of Korean native chicken(KNC) populations were registered in FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) DAD-IS (Domestic Animal Diversity Information Systems, http://www.fao.org/dad-is). But there is a lack of scientific basis to prove that they are unique population of Korea. For this reason, this study was conducted to prove KNC's uniqueness using 25 Microsatellite markers. A total of 548 chickens from 11 KNC populations (KNG, KNB, KNR, KNW, KNY, KNO, HIC, HYD, HBC, JJC, LTC) and 7 introduced populations (ARA: Araucana, RRC and RRD: Rhode Island Red C and D, LGF and LGK: White Leghorn F and K, COS and COH: Cornish brown and Cornish black) were used. Allele size per locus was decided using GeneMapper Software (v 5.0). A total of 195 alleles were observed and the range was 3 to 14 per locus. The MNA, $H_{\exp}$, $H_{obs}$, PIC value within population were the highest in KNY (4.60, 0.627, 0.648, 0.563 respectively) and the lowest in HYD (1.84, 0.297, 0.286, 0.236 respectively). The results of genetic uniformity analysis suggested 15 cluster (${\Delta}K=66.22$). Excluding JJC, the others were grouped in certain cluster with high genetic uniformity. JJC was not grouped in certain cluster but grouped in cluster 2 (44.3%), cluster 3 (17.7%) and cluster8 (19.1%). As a results of this study, we can secure a scientific basis about KNC's uniqueness and these results can be use to basic data for the genetic evaluation and management of KNC breeds.

The Effect of Seminal Plasma on Chilling and Freezing of Canine Spermatozoa (개 정액의 정장이 개정자의 냉각과 동결에 미치는 영향)

  • You, Myung-Jo;Lee, John-Hwa;Kim, In-Shik;Park, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Jung-Kee;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Bum-Seok;Yu, Il-Jeoung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.486-492
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    • 2007
  • Seminal plasma(SP) is usually removed from semen that is to be cryopreserved. However, some reports indicate that SP has beneficial effects on spermatozoa during chilling and freezing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SP on sperm survival by adding SP to the extender before cooling and freezing canine spermatozoa. In replicate experiments, ejaculates obtained from four healthy dogs(1-4 years old) of various breeds were pooled, centrifuged at $300{\times}g$ for 10 min at $25^{\circ}C$, and the supernatant of seminal plasma was decanted. Spermatozoa were suspended in egg yolk-Tris(EYT) buffer. The study comprised two experiments: [Exp 1] Sperm were suspended in EYT extender containing either 0, 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP and were slowly cooled to $4^{\circ}C$ for 2h or held at $25^{\circ}C$ as controls. Sperm concentration was adjusted to $2{\times}10^8/ml$. [Exp II] Sperm samples, each of which contained $1{\times}10^8/ml$, were assigned to nine groups to be frozen. In the first four groups, sperm in EYT containing either 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP were cooled to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol and then were frozen. The final concentrations of SP were 10, 20, 40 or 50%. In the other four groups, sperm in EYT alone were first cooled slowly to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol plus 10, 20, 40 or 50% SP and then were frozen. Spermatozoa, which chilled in EYT alone and diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol without seminal plasma, and then frozen, was regarded as control. Spermatozoa were frozen at $25^{\circ}C/min$ of cooling rate in plastic straws that were suspended above liquid nitrogen and thawed in water at $38^{\circ}C$ for 1 min. Sperm survival was assayed by determining progressive motility and integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes. Progressive motility was determined by microscopic examination at $200{\times}$ magnification. Membrane integrity was assessed by use of a double fluorescent dye, and acrosome integrity by staining sperm with Pisum sativum agglutinin. The results of the first experiment showed that adding SP did not improve motility of spermatozoa compared to those incubated without SP regardless of temperature. The results of the second experiment showed that spermatozoa suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP exhibited the higher progressive motility before being frozen(P<0.05). However, frozen-thawed spermatozoa that had suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP showed the similar or lower viability(P<0.05). In summary, although seminal plasma did not affect spermatozoa that were chilled in EYT without cryoprotectant(CPA), addition of seminal plasma to EYT containing CPA did significantly improved progressive motility of canine spermatozoa that were chilled.