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Postmortem Changes in the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Korean Native Chicken (저장기간에 따른 한국산 토종닭고기의 품질 특성)

  • 성삼경;권연주;김대곤
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the postmortem changes in physico-chemical characteristics of chicken meat with different breeds. Thigh and breast meats from Korean Native Chicken(KNC, 15-wk old), Wangchoo(15-wk old), and broiler(7-wk old) were stored at 5 ˚C. Differences in postmortem pH changes were not recognized among breeds, and pH showed by the lowest value at the 1st day of postmortem in all breeds. Breast meat had tendency to drop pH faster than thigh meat. Heme pigment contents showed no differences among breeds. KNC showed the lowest cholesterol contents in all breeds, total collagen contents showed the lowest value at the 1st day of postmortem, and thereafter it was gradually increased. Heat soluble collagen contents was lowest in Wangchoo. Water soluble and salt soluble protein showed the lowest extractability at the 1st day of storage. Broiler showed the highest extractability of these proteins and Wangchoo showed the lowest. Water holding capacity(WHC) had increasing tendency whilst cooking loss had decreasing tendency by the ageing. WHC of breast and thigh meat showed the highest values in KNC and broiler, respectively. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) was significantly increased in all breeds by the ageing. Breast and thigh meat showed almost same MFI in KNC and broiler, and in KNC and Wangchoo, respectively. Hardness of breast meat showed decreasing tendency by the ageing.

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Genetic Identity between Bhadawari and Murrah Breeds of Indian Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Using RAPD-PCR

  • Saifi, H.W.;Bhushan, Bharat;Kumar, Sanjeev;Kumar, Pushpendra;Patra, B.N.;Sharma, Arjava
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.603-607
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    • 2004
  • Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out with a battery of 11 random decamer primers to study band frequency (BF), genetic identity index (I) and mean average percentage difference (MAPD) between Bhadawari and Murrah breeds of buffalo. The primers OPA04 and BG15 resolved a band of 460 bp, which was present only in animals of Bhadawari breed. Whereas, the primers OPA14, BG27 and BG28 produced Murrah specific fragments of sizes 730 bp and 1,230 bp, respectively. The estimate of genetic identity index was highest (0.845) with the primer OPA01 and the lowest (0.479) with the primer BG27. The genetic identity index pooled over the primers was 0.596${\pm}$0.037 between these two breeds. The highest MAPD estimate (53.9) between the two breeds was obtained with the primer BG27 and the lowest (14.3) with the primer OPA01. It might be concluded that the genetic identity index between these two breeds calculated on the basis of BF showed moderate level of genetic identity with the primers employed. MAPD calculated on the basis of uncommon bands also demonstrated lower to medium level of genetic difference between Bhadawari and Murrah breeds of buffalo.

Polymorphism of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Gene in Six Chicken Breeds and Its Relationship with Growth Traits

  • Wang, Wenjun;Ouyang, Kehui;Ouyang, Jianhua;Li, Haihua;Lin, Shumao;Sun, Han
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2004
  • The polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) in 6 chicken breeds (total n=515) was detected by PCR-Pst IRFLP, and allele A (621 bp) or allele B (364 and 257 bp) were observed. In these chicken breeds, it was found that exotic chicken carried high frequencies of allele B, while Chinese native chicken breeds carried high frequencies of allele A. Meanwhile the role of IGF I was investigated in 133 Ningdu Yellow chicken and 162 Wanzhai Yellow chicken. Five growth traits were recorded for analyzing the association between IGFI gene polymorphism and performance. In both the Ningdu and Wanzhai Yellow breeds, body weight at 4 months was significantly higher with BB genotype than with AA genotype (p<0.05). Furthermore, body weight at 2 months in the Wanzhai Yellow breeds was also higher with BB genotype than with AA genotype (p<0.05). There were no differences among the genotypes for the other traits studied. Based on these results, it is necessary to do more studies on IGFI before making the IGFI locus into the application of maker-assisted selection programms.

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

  • Jeong, Hyeon-Soo;Kim, Dae-Won;Chun, Se-Yoon;Sung, Samsun;Kim, Hyeon-Jeong;Cho, Seoae;Kim, Heebal;Oh, Sung-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1394-1398
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    • 2014
  • Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

Comparison of Carcass and Meat Quality Traits among Three Rabbit Breeds

  • Wang, Jie;Su, Yuan;Elzo, Mauricio A.;Jia, Xianbo;Chen, Shiyi;Lai, Songjia
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to compare carcass composition and meat quality traits in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in the Hyla, Champagne and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds. Tianfu Black rabbits had the heaviest head, skin, thoracic viscera and commercial carcass percentage (p<0.05). In addition, Tianfu Black had the highest pH0 h value, followed by the Champagne and Hyla breeds (p<0.01) in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles. Tianfu Black had a higher a* (0 h and 24 h) than the other two breeds in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). The Hyla, Champagne, and Tianfu Black breeds showed a similar pattern of differences for meat quality traits (pH, L*, a* and b*) measured in fresh meat (0 h) and meat stored for 24 h. Hyla had the highest IMF values of the three breeds (p<0.01). The lower intramuscular fat of Tianfu Black and Champagne rabbits gives them an advantage over Hyla rabbits among most consumers seeking lean rabbit meat.

Genetic Variation and Genetic Relationship of Seventeen Chinese Indigenous Pig Breeds Using Ten Serum Protein Loci

  • Mo, D.L.;Liu, B.;Wang, Z.G.;Zhao, S.H.;Yu, M.;Fan, B.;Li, M.H.;Yang, S.L.;Zhang, G.X.;Xiong, T.A.;Li, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.939-945
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    • 2003
  • Seventeen Chinese indigenous pig breeds and three introduced pig breeds had been carried out by means of vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). According to the results, eight serum protein loci were highly polymorphic except Pi-2 and Cp. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of Hpx was the highest (0.5268), while that of Cp was the lowest (0.0257). The population genetic variation index showed that about 84% genetic variation existed in the population, and the rest of 16% distributed between the populations. The genetic variation of Yimeng black pig and Duroc were the highest and the lowest, respectively. The genetic variation of Chinese indigenous pig breeds was much more than that of exotic groups. Genetic distance results showed that Chinese indigenous pig breeds were classified into four groups with the three introduced pig breeds clustered into another group. The results also supported the geographic distribution of Chinese indigenous pig breeds in certain extent.

Genomic diversity and admixture patterns among six Chinese indigenous cattle breeds in Yunnan

  • Li, Rong;Li, Chunqing;Chen, Hongyu;Liu, Xuehong;Xiao, Heng;Chen, Shanyuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1069-1076
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Yunnan is not only a frontier zone that connects China with South and Southeast Asia, but also represents an admixture zone between taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. The purpose of this study is to understand the level of genomic diversity and the extent of admixture in each Yunnan native cattle breed. Methods: All 120 individuals were genotyped using Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (777,962 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Quality control and genomic diversity indexes were calculated using PLINK software. The principal component analysis (PCA) was assessed using SMARTPCA program implemented in EIGENSOFT software. The ADMIXTURE software was used to reveal admixture patterns among breeds. Results: A total of 604,630 SNPs was obtained after quality control procedures. Among six breeds, the highest level of mean heterozygosity was found in Zhaotong cattle from Northeastern Yunnan, whereas the lowest level of heterozygosity was detected in Dehong humped cattle from Western Yunnan. The PCA based on a pruned dataset of 233,788 SNPs clearly separated Dehong humped cattle (supposed to be a pure zebu breed) from other five breeds. The admixture analysis further revealed two clusters (K = 2 with the lowest cross validation error), corresponding to taurine and zebu cattle lineages. All six breeds except for Dehong humped cattle showed different degrees of admixture between taurine and zebu cattle. As expected, Dehong humped cattle showed no signature of taurine cattle influence. Conclusion: Overall, considerable genomic diversity was found in six Yunnan native cattle breeds except for Dehong humped cattle from Western Yunnan. Dehong humped cattle is a pure zebu breed, while other five breeds had admixed origins with different extents of admixture between taurine and zebu cattle. Such admixture by crossbreeding between zebu and taurine cattle facilitated the spread of zebu cattle from tropical and subtropical regions to other highland regions in Yunnan.

Genetic Relationship among the Korean Native and Alien Horses Estimated by Microsatellite Polymorphism

  • Cho, G.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.784-788
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    • 2006
  • Microsatellite polymorphism and the genetic relationship were estimated using genotype information of 305 horses from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds, Korean native horse (102) and Jeju racing horse (56) together with Japan Hokkaido horse (5), Mongolian horse (19), Thoroughbred horse (108), Quarter horse (11) and Przewalskii horse (4). Allelic frequencies, the number of alleles per locus were estimated by direct counting from observed genotype, and genetic variability was computed using the CERVUX software and DISPAN. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 (HMS6) to 18 (ASB17) with an average value of 10.45 in horse breeds. The expected total heterozygosity ($H_T$) and coefficient of gene differentiation ($G_{ST}$) ranged 0.764-0.921 (the average value was 0.830) and 0.102-0.266 (the average value was 0.180) in horse breeds, respectively. Four populations (Przewalskii horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, Quarter horse, Thoroughbred horse) showed lower heterozygosity than the average value (the average value was 0.710). The expected heterozygosity within breed ($H_S$) and mean no. of observed alleles ranged from $0.636{\pm}0.064$ (Japan Hokkaido horse) to $0.809{\pm}0.019$ (Mongolian horse), and from 2.73 (Przewalskii horse) to 8.27 (Korean native horse), respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.490 (Przewalskii horse) to 0.761 (Mongolian horse) with an average value of 0.637 in horse breeds. The results showed three distinct clusters with high bootstrap support: the Korean native horse cluster (Korean native horse, Mongolian horse), the European cluster (Przewalskii horse, Thoroughbred horse), and other horse cluster (Jeju racing horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, and Quarter horse). A relatively high bootstrap value was observed for the Korean native horse cluster and European cluster (87%), and the Korean native horse and Mongolian horse (82%). Microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native horse and other horse breeds, and also be applied for parentage testing in those horse breeds.

Assessment of Genetic Variability in Two North Indian Buffalo Breeds Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers

  • Sodhi, M.;Mukesh, M.;Anand, A.;Bhatia, S.;Mishra, B.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1239
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    • 2006
  • Murrah and NiliRavi are the important North Indian buffalo breeds occupying the prominent position of being the highest milk producers. These breeds are more or less similar at morphological as well as physiological levels. The technique of RAPD-PCR was applied in the present study to identify a battery of suitable random primers to detect genetic polymorphism, elucidation of the genetic structure and rapid assessment of the differences in the genetic composition of these two breeds. A total of 50 random primers were screened in 24 animals each of Murrah and NiliRavi buffaloes to generate RAPD patterns. Of these, 26 (52%) primers amplified the buffalo genome generating 263 reproducible bands. The number of polymorphic bands for the 26 chosen RAPD primers varied from 3 (OPG 06 and B4) to 26 (OPJ 04) with an average of 10.1 bands per primer and size range of 0.2 to 3.2 kb. DNA was also pooled and analyzed to search for population specific markers. Two breed specific RAPD alleles were observed in each of Murrah (OPA02 and OPG16) and NiliRavi (OPG09) DNA pools. RAPD profiles revealed that 11 (4.2%) bands were common to all the 48 individuals of Murrah and NiliRavi buffaloes. Pair-wise band sharing calculated among the individual animals indicated considerable homogeneity of individuals within the breeds. Within breed, band sharing values were relatively greater than those of interbreed values. The low genetic distance (Nei's) value (0.109) estimated in this study is in accordance with the origin and geographical distribution of these breeds. The RAPD analysis indicated high level of genetic similarity between these two important North Indian buffalo breeds.

Genetic Variation and Relationships of Korean Native Chickens and Foreign Breeds Using 15 Microsatellite Markers

  • Kong, H.S.;Oh, J.D.;Lee, J.H.;Jo, K.J.;Sang, B.D.;Choi, C.H.;Kim, S.D.;Lee, S.J.;Yeon, S.H.;Jeon, G.J.;Lee, H.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1546-1550
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variation and establish the relationship amongst breeds and strains using 15 chicken specific microsatellite markers. A total of 285 unrelated DNA samples from four Korean native chicken strains (Black strain of Korean native chicken; KL, Red Brown strain of Korean native chicken; KR, Ogol strain of Korean native chicken; KS and Yellow Brown strain of Korean native chicken; KY) and three introduced chicken breeds (F strain of White Leghorn; LF, K strain of White Leghorn; LK, Rhode Island Red; RC and Cornish; CN) were genotyped to estimate within and between breed genetic diversity indices. All the loci analyzed in 15 microsatellite markers showed a polymorphic pattern and the number of alleles ranged from 5 to 14. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of UMA1019 was the highest (0.872) and that of ADL0234 was the lowest (0.562). The expected total heterozygosity (He) within breed and mean number of observed alleles ranged from 0.540 (LF) to 0.689 (KY), and from 3.47 (LK) to 6.07 (KR), respectively. The genetic variation of KR and KY were the highest and the lowest within Korean native strains, respectively. The genetic distance results showed that Korean native chicken strains were separated with the three introduced chicken breeds clustered into another group. The lowest distance (0.149) was observed between the KR and KL breeds and the highest distance (0.855) between the KR and LK breeds. The microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for assessing the genetic relationship between Korean native strains and other foreign breeds.