• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breeds

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On the Breeding of Dumbbell Bivoltine Silkworm Breeds of Bombyx mori L. Tolerant to High Temperature and High Humidity Conditions of the Tropics

  • Singh, Harjeet;Kumar, Nair Suresh
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.45-59
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    • 2010
  • It is well established fact that under tropical condition, unlike polyvoltines, bivoltines are more vulnerable to various stresses i.e. hot climatic conditions of tropics, poor leaf quality and improper management during summer which are not conducive for bivoltine rearing. Therefore, attempt has been made in this study to develop promising bivoltine breeds tolerant to high temperature and high humidity conditions of the tropics. In the present study, by utilizing temperature tolerant breeds six breeding lines were made and at every generation the 5th instar larvae were exposed to high temperature and high humidity and the survived ones were back crossed with the breeds moderately tolerant to diseases were made to improve the quantitative traits. From F6 generations, alternate rearing in normal temperature and high temperature were conducted. At the end of F12 generation, it was possible to isolate three dumbbell breeds viz., HH8, HH10 and HH12 with improvement in quantitative traits. The methodologies followed for the development are discussed.

Analysis of Microsatellite DNA Polymorphisms in Five China Native Cattle Breeds and Application to Population Genetics Studies

  • Jin, Hai-Guo;Zhao, Yu-Min;Zhou, Guo-li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1700
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    • 2005
  • Five China native cattle breeds have been characterized by using 10 microsatellite DNA markers. The studied populations can be divided into five groups: Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle, Qinchuan cattle and Yanbian cattle. Allele frequencies were calculated and used for the characterization of the breeds and the study of their genetic relationships. Heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, the effective number of alleles was calculated. Nei' standard genetic distance (1978) was calculated and used for a neighbor-joining tree construction. NJ tree showed that Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle are closely related, whereas Yanbian cattle are clearly distinct from other four populations. The genetic relationship of five breeds corresponds to their history and geographic origins. This work analyzes the recent origin of these populations and contributes to the knowledge and genetic characterization of China native breeds.

Recognition of Dog Breeds based on Deep Learning using a Random-Label and Web Image Mining (웹 이미지 마이닝과 랜덤 레이블을 이용한 딥러닝 기반 개 품종 인식)

  • Kang, Min-Seok;Hong, Kwang-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.201-202
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, a dog breed image provided by Dataset of existing ImageNet and Oxford-IIIT Pet Image is combined with a dog breed image obtained through data mining on Internet and a random-label is added. this paper introduces to recognize 122 classes of dog breeds and 1 class that is not dog breeds. The recognition rate of dog breeds using both conventional DB and collection DB was improved 1.5% over Top-1 compared to recognition rate of dog breeds using only existing DB. The image recognition rate about non-dog image, was 93% recognition rate in case of 10000 random DBs.

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Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in 12 Pig Breeds and Its Relationship with Pig Growth and Carcass Traits

  • Wang, Wenjun;Huang, Lusheng;Gao, Jun;Ding, NengShui;Chen, Kefei;Ren, Jun;Luo, Ming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2003
  • The polymorphism of the growth hormone gene in 12 pig breeds (total n=475) was detected by PCR-Apa I-RFLP, and allele A (449 bp, 101 bp and 55 bp) or allele B (316 bp, 133 bp, 101 bp and 55 bp) were observed. In these pig breeds, we found that European pig breeds had high frequencies of allele B, while Chinese native pig breeds had high frequencies of allele A. In addition, the role of porcine GH was investigated in 117 Nanchang White pigs and 361 Large Yorkshire pigs. Eight traits about growth and carcass were recorded for analyzing associations between GH gene polymorphism and performance quantitative traits. In the Nanchang White pigs, no significant difference was observed between different genotypes and different growth and carcass traits. In Large Yorkshire pigs, those with BB genotype had more lean percentage than pigs with AA genotype (p<0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that the GH locus should be further investigated in commercial breeds to determine its suitability for use in marker-assisted selection programmes.

Analysis of Genetic Characteristics of Korean Native Chicken Using DNA Marker (DNA Marker를 이용한 한국 재래닭의 유전특성 분석)

  • 이학교;이성진;황규춘;정일정;박용호;손시환;신영수;오봉국;한재용
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to analyze genetic characteristics of Korean Native Chicken three lines classified on the basis of the feather color and appearance (Red, Yellow, and Black) using DNA fingerprinting method. To estimate the genetic relatedness among breeds and similarities within breeds, we collected blood samples from Korean Native Chicken (KNC), Rhode Island Red (RIR), White Leghorn (WL), and Cornish(CN) and obtained genomic DNA from the blood of 10 individuals randomly selected within the breeds and lines. The genomic DNA samples were digested with restriction enzymes (Hinf J, Hae Ill) and hybridized with various probes (Jeffreys' probes 33.15, 33.6 and M13) after Southern transfer. Genetic similarities within breeds were characterized by band sharing (BS) value, estimated by the DFP band pattern between the pair of lanes. BS values within WL, RIR, and KNC were 0.82, 0.70 and 0.56, respectively. Relative genetic diversity (BS value) of KNC was higher than those two breeds (WL, RIR). Estimation of genetic similarity between KNC lines and control breed (RIR) was 0.32, whereas similarity within KNC lines (6 groups) was 0.50. In this analysis, KNC was showed to have a highly genetic diver-sity at the DNA level, and to be closer in genetic distance to RIR (0.67) than any other breeds.

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The Genetic Diversity of Seven Pig Breeds in China, Estimated by Means of Microsatellites

  • Li, X.;Li, K.;Fan, B.;Gong, Y.;Zhao, S.;Peng, Z.;Liu, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1193-1195
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    • 2000
  • The polymorphisms of six microsatellites were investigated in four indigenous pig breeds (Erhualian, Tongcheng, Qingping and Wannanhua) and three introduced breeds (Large White, Landrace and Duroc) in China, and the genetic variations within and among populations were analyzed. The results showed that genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous pig breeds is higher than that of the introduced pig breeds. The clustering of seven breeds is consistent with their geographical distribution approximately. Estimated time of breed divergence ranged from 653 to 1856 years.

An Improved Method of Parthenogenetic Development and Analysis of Combining Ability in Bivoltine Breeds of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Gangopadhyay, D.;Singh, Ravindra
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2006
  • Parthenogenesis, the development of unfertilized ovum opens new perspectives in silkworm breeding in the development of homozygous breeds. In order to improve induction of artificial parthenogenesis in the excised unfertilized eggs of different breeds of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., a new method was devised and the results were compared with the routine method. General and specific combining abilities and hybrid vigour of newly developed bivoltine breeds were analyzed utilizing bivoltine breeds viz., $CSR_2,\;CSR_4,\;CSR_{17}\;and\;NB_4D_2$ Estimation of GCA revealed superiority of the breeds, $DNB_1$ for eight characters followed by $DNB_4$ for five characters. Among the testers, $CSR_2$ was found good general combiner for seven characters followed by $CSR_{17}$ for four characters. A great deal of variations was observed among the hybrids studied. Five hybrids namely, $DNB_1{\times}CSR_2,\;DNB_4{\times}CSR_4,\;DNB_4{\times}NB_4D_2,\;DNB_6{\times}CSR_2\;and\;DNB_7{\times}CSR_2$ showed significant SCA effects for 5-6 characters. The hybrid, $DNB_4{\times}CSR_4$ showed its superiority by expressing significant hybrid vigour over BPV for 7 characters. Majority of the hybrids exhibited significant hybrid vigour for survival rate, yield/10,000 larvae by weight, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, filament length and denier.

Identification of Genomic Differences between Hanwoo and Holstein Breeds Using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip

  • Melka, Hailu Dadi;Jeon, Eun-Kyeong;Kim, Sang-Wook;Han, James-Bond;Yoon, Du-Hak;Kim, Kwan-Suk
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2011
  • The use of genomic information in genomic selection programs for dairy and beef cattle breeds has become a reality in recent years. In this investigation, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Hanwoo (n=50) and Holstein (n=50) breeds using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip to facilitate genomic selection and utilization of the Hanwoo breed in Korea. Analysis of the entire genomes showed different spectra of SNP frequencies for Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. The study revealed a highly significant (p<0.001) difference between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle in minor allele frequency (MAF). The average MAFs were $0.19{\pm}0.16$ and $0.22{\pm}0.16$ for Hanwoo and Holstein, respectively. From the total of 52,337 SNPs that were successfully identified, about 72% and 79% were polymorphic in Hanwoos and Holsteins, respectively. Polymorphic and fixed SNPs were not distributed uniformly across the chromosomes within breeds or between the two breeds. The number of fixed SNPs on all chromosomes was higher in Hanwoo cattle, reflecting the genetic uniqueness of the Hanwoo breed. In general, the rate of polymorphisms detected in these two breeds suggests that the SNPs can be used for different applications, such as whole-genome association and comparative genetic studies, and are a helpful tool in developing breed identification genetic markers.

A Simple Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for the Discrimination of Three Chicken Breeds

  • Kubo, Y.;Plastow, G.;Mitsuhashi, Tadayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1241-1247
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    • 2009
  • A large number of branded chicken products exist in Japan, and in some cases, the breed of chicken is an important factor used to attract consumer interest in the retail product. In order to establish a simple method for verifying such breed claims we applied the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to nine chicken breeds (White Cornish, Red Cornish, White Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock, Hinaidori, Tosajidori, Tsushimajidori) to search for molecular markers able to discriminate chicken breeds. Three breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified, one for each of Hinaidori, Tosajidori, or New Hampshire. A total of 219 individuals from the nine breeds were analyzed using a specific PCR test for each of these SNP. The PCR tests made it possible to discriminate between the breeds of chickens to identify products from these three breeds. This PCR method provides an efficient method for the routine analysis and verification of certified chicken products.

Evaluation of Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationship among North Indian Cattle Breeds

  • Sharma, Rekha;Pandey, A.K.;Singh, Y.;Prakash, B.;Mishra, B.P.;Kathiravan, P.;Singh, P.K.;Singh, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2009
  • In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus). In total, 181 animals belonging to Ponwar, Kherigarh, Gangatiri and Kenkatha breeds were genotyped for 20 cattle specific microsatellite markers. Mean number of alleles observed per locus (MNA) varied between 5.75 (Kenkatha) to 6.05 (Kherigarh). The observed and expected heterozygosity for the breeds varied from 0.48 (Gangatiri) to 0.58 (Kherigarh) and 0.65 (Kenkatha) to 0.70 (Kherigarh), respectively. $F_{IS}$ estimates of all the breeds indicated significant deficit of heterozygotes being 28.8%, 25.9%, 17.7% and 17.7% for Gangatiri, Ponwar, Kherigarh and Kenkatha, respectively. The $F_{ST}$ estimates demonstrated that 10.6% was the average genetic differentiation among the breeds. Nei's genetic distance DA and Cavalli- Sforza and Edwards Chord distance ($D_C$) and the phylogenetic tree constructed from these reflected the close genetic relationship of Gangatiri and Kenkatha, whereas Ponwar appears to be more distant.