• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breeds

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LEVEL OF TESTOSTERONE IN BLOOD PLASMA OF SELECTED RAMS

  • Abdul Wahid, S.;Yunus, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.583-585
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    • 1995
  • Following importation of temperate Australian breeds of sheep into Malaysia, it was demonstrated that there was variability in libido and semen productivity. Consequently, a study was conducted to determine the concentration of testosterone and relate it with libido and semen production. A total of 10 rams each of Dorset Horn, Cross of Merino with Border Leicester, Siamese Long Tail, Suffolk and local Malin were used to study the composition of testosterone in the blood plasma of these breeds. The study showed that there was significant difference between the testosterone level of different breeds in Spring and Summer but not in Autumn and Winter. The difference was pronounced in August and January. A significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded in the testosterone levels of the different breeds during the day where Malin had better libido compared to the other breeds. There was no significant difference between the testosterone levels of the different breeds at night. The testosterone level of Suffolk, however, was elevated throughout the night (2.00 ng/ml and over) which resulted in better libido at night compared to the other breeds.

Chicken Breeding with Local Breeds in China - A Review

  • Jiang, X.;Groen, A.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1482-1498
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    • 2000
  • This paper reviews the meat-type chicken breeding with local breeds in China. The quality chickens are defined as purebred final products of local breeds, and semi-quality chickens as crossbreds of local breeds with specialized broiler (sire or dam) lines from western breeding organizations. The present status of the chicken production and the market in China, in comparison with the western countries, is reviewed, indicating that there is large market demand for (semi-) quality chickens in the present and future China. Breeding for (semi-) quality chickens emphasizes the sensory quality of chicken meat. The present status of breeding for (semi-) quality chickens with the local breeds is illustrated, including breeding goals and the existing breeding programs. The potential role of local breeds in breeding programs in China is discussed in relation to both providing higher quality (than commercial hybrid broilers) of chicken meat for the local market and meeting the objectives of genetic resource conservation. Besides, further research topics on breeding for (semi-) quality chickens are suggested.

Evaluation of the Genetic Relationship among Ten Chinese Indigenous Pig Breeds with Twenty-six Microsatellite Markers

  • Li, Changchun;Wang, Zhigang;Liu, Bang;Yang, Shulin;Zhu, Zhengmao;Fan, Bin;Yu, Mei;Zhao, Shuhong;Li, Kui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.441-444
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    • 2004
  • The genetic diversities and relationships of 10 Chinese indigenous pig breeds and three exotic pig breeds have been evaluated using 26 microsatellites recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization & the International Society of Animal Genetics (FAO-ISAG). The allele frequencies, genetic heterozygosity (H) and polymorphism information content (PIC) have been calculated. The results showed that genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous pig breeds is higher than that of the introduced pig breeds. The clustering of 10 breeds is generally consistent with their geographical distribution.

Genetic Variation of the Major Histocompatibility Complex DRB3.2 Locus in the Native Bos indicus Cattle Breeds

  • Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra;Verma, Naresh Kumar;Behl, Rahul;Sodhi, Monika
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1487-1494
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    • 2009
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays well-defined roles in eliciting immune responses and combating infectious diseases. The major histocompatibility complex of cattle is referred to as BoLA (Bovine Lymphocyte Antigen). This genetic system is among the most polymorphic. In the present study, polymorphism of the BoLA- DRB3.2 locus in three Bos indicus breeds viz., Sahiwal, Rathi and Hariana was studied by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using the enzymes RsaI, Bst Y1 and Hae III. Both Sahiwal and Rathi are good Indian dairy breeds and survive under tough tropical conditions, while Hariana is a prominent dual-purpose breed reared both as a dairy animal and for bullock production. A total of 30 different BoLADRB3.2 alleles were observed to be present in the 3 Bos indicus breeds. Certain alleles were common amongst the three breeds while there were others that were unique to each breed. Allelic distribution amongst the three breeds showed that each breed had a unique allelic distribution pattern that was different from each other and also different from the earlier breeds studied so far for the existence of allelic variation at this locus. A dendogram was constructed based on the frequencies of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles using the UPGMA method. The Rathi and Hariana animals were genetically the most apart. The Hariana animals clustered on a different branch from the other two breeds viz. the Rathi and the Sahiwal. The smallest genetic distances for the DRB3 alleles were those between Sahiwal and Rathi (0.5461) while genetic distance between Hariana and Sahiwal was 0.6123. A comparison of the allelic frequencies of the BoLADRB3.2 locus in these 3 breeds viz. Sahiwal, Hariana and Rathi with the allelic frequencies present in the previously characterized Bos indicus Kankrej breed, which is a dual purpose breed reared both as a draught and a dairy animal, showed that the Bos indicus Sahiwal and Rathi breeds clustered into one group while the Hariana and Kankrej breeds formed another group. The Rathi and Sahiwal showed the least genetic distance of 0.5461 amongst the breeds whereas the Rathi and Kankrej, with a Nei''s genetic distance of 1.1622, were genetically the most distant apart.

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

  • Choo, Y.K.;Kwon, H.J.;Oh, S.T.;Um, J.S.;Kim, B.G.;Kang, C.W.;Lee, S.K.;An, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.

Genetic Variability and Relationships of Native Japanese Chickens Assessed by Microsatellite DNA Profiling - Focusing on the Breeds Established in Kochi Prefecture, Japan -

  • Osman, S.A.-M.;Sekino, M.;Nishibori, M.;Yamamoto, Y.;Tsudzuki, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.755-761
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    • 2005
  • Blood samples were collected from eight native Japanese breeds of chickens (Miyadi-dori, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Shoukoku, Tosa-Jidori, Tosa-Kukin, Toutenkou and Uzurao) and two foreign breeds of chickens (White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red) to examine the genetic variability and relationships among the breeds by using a microsatellite DNA technique. Except for the Shoukoku breed, the other Japanese chicken breeds all originate from Kochi Prefecture. Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Tosa-Jidori, Toutenkou and Uzurao are fancy fowl, and Miyadi-dori and Tosa-Kukin are utility fowl. Among the fancy fowl, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, and Toutenkou males have thick and long feathers in the saddle and tail. Genetic variabilities of the 20 microsatellites examined, varied depending on the breed: the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.05 (Miyadi-dori) to 3.90 (Rhode Island Red); proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.75 (Miyadi-dori) to 1.00 (Rhode Island Red, Shoukoku and Uzurao); and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.330 (Miyadi-dori) to 0.607 (Rhode Island Red). Unique microsatellite alleles were detected in each breed. Using the neighbour-joining method, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the genetic distances of D$_{A}$ and D$_{ST}$. Among the breeds originating from Kochi Prefecture, fancy and utility breeds belonged to different clusters. Among the fancy breeds, those having thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle showed a close genetic relationship to the Shoukoku breed, which also has thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle.

Effects of breeds on body weight, age, body conformation, backfat thickness and steroid hormone concentrations at first estrus and mating of gilts (첫발정과 종부시 체중, 연령, 체형, 등지방 두께 및 스테로이드 호르몬 농도에 미치는 종빈돈 품종의 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Ki;Kim, Jong-Sang;Kim, Hong-Zoo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to get a fundamental information for improvement of reproductive performance in gilt. We investigated the effects of breeds on body weight, age, body length, wither's height, girth and backfat thickness, and the serum concentrations of estradiol-17${\beta}$, cortisol and progesterone at first estrus and mating of gilts. A total of 47 gilts of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, produced at Livestock Experiment Station, Chungnam livestock sanitation research institute from 2000 through 2002, were used for this experiment. Body weight, age and girth of Duroc at frist estrus and mating were higher than those of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on body length among the three breeds at frist and mating. Wither's height of Duroc and Yorkshire at first estrus and mating was higher than that of Landrace. Backfat thickness of Yorkshire was thinnest among the three breeds at first estrus, but there were no differences on backfat thickness among the three breeds at first mating. Serum estradiol-17${\beta}$ concentration of Landrace(45.0 pg/ml) at first estrus was higher than that of Yorkshire(27.4 pg/ml) and Duroc(21.8 pg/ml), but there were no differences on estradiol-17${\beta}$ concentration (from 18.5 to 31.9 pg/ml) among the three breeds at first mating. Serum cortisol concentration of Duroc at first esturs and mating was higher than that of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on serum progesterone concentration among the three breeds at first estrus and mating of gilt.

Association between Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene and Expression of Reproductive Seasonality in Sheep

  • Chu, M.X.;Cheng, D.X.;Liu, W.Z.;Fang, L.;Ye, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1079-1084
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    • 2006
  • To determine whether a link exists between reproductive seasonality and the structure of the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene, the latter was studied in nonseasonal estrous breeds (Small Tail Han and Hu ewes) and seasonal estrous breeds (Dorset, Suffolk and German Mutton Merino ewes). A large fragment of the exon 2 of the MTNR1A gene was amplified and a uniform fragment of 824 bp was obtained in 239 ewes of five breeds. The 824 bp PCR product was digested with restriction endonucleases Mnl I and Rsa I, and checked for the presence of restriction sites. The presence (allele M) or absence (allele m) of an Mnl I site at base position 605 led to three genotypes MM (236 bp/236 bp), Mm (236 bp/303 bp) and mm (303 bp/303 bp) in five sheep breeds. The presence (allele R) or absence (allele r) of a Rsa I site at base position 604 led to three genotypes RR (267 bp/267 bp), Rr (267 bp/290 bp) and rr (290 bp/290 bp) in five sheep breeds. Frequencies of MM and RR genotypes were obviously higher, and frequencies of mm and rr genotypes were obviously lower in nonseasonal estrous sheep breeds than in seasonal estrous sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed four mutations (G453T, G612A, G706A, C891T) in mm genotype compared to MM genotype and one mutation (C606T) in rr genotype compared to RR genotype. For polymorphic Mnl I and Rsa I cleavage sites, the differences of genotype distributions were very highly significant (p<0.01) between Small Tail Han ewes and seasonal estrous sheep breeds. In each group, no significant difference (p>0.05) was detected. These results preliminarily showed an association between MM, RR genotypes and nonseasonal estrus in ewes and an association between mm, rr genotypes and seasonal estrus in ewes.

Genetic Structure of and Evidence for Admixture between Western and Korean Native Pig Breeds Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

  • Edea, Zewdu;Kim, Sang-Wook;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Kim, Tae Hun;Kim, Kwan-Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1263-1269
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    • 2014
  • Comprehensive information on genetic diversity and introgression is desirable for the design of rational breed improvement and conservation programs. Despite the concerns regarding the genetic introgression of Western pig breeds into the gene pool of the Korean native pig (KNP), the level of this admixture has not yet been quantified. In the present study, we genotyped 93 animals, representing four Western pig breeds and KNP, using the porcine SNP 60K BeadChip to assess their genetic diversity and to estimate the level of admixture among the breeds. Expected heterozygosity was the lowest in Berkshire (0.31) and highest in Landrace (0.42). Population differentiation ($F_{ST}$) estimates were significantly different (p<0.000), accounting for 27% of the variability among the breeds. The evidence of inbreeding observed in KNP (0.029) and Yorkshire (0.031) may result in deficient heterozygosity. Principal components one (PC1) and two (PC2) explained approximately 35.06% and 25.20% of the variation, respectively, and placed KNP somewhat proximal to the Western pig breeds (Berkshire and Landrace). When K = 2, KNP shared a substantial proportion of ancestry with Western breeds. Similarly, when K = 3, over 86% of the KNP individuals were in the same cluster with Berkshire and Landrace. The linkage disquilbrium (LD) values at $r^2_{0.3}$, the physical distance at which LD decays below a threshold of 0.3, ranged from 72.40 kb in Landrace to 85.86 kb in Yorkshire. Based on our structure analysis, a substantial level of admixture between Western and Korean native pig breeds was observed.

Microsatellite Polymorphism and Genetic Relationship in Dog Breeds in Korea

  • Cho, G.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1071-1074
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    • 2005
  • Microsatellite polymorphism and their genetic relationships were estimated using genotype information of 183 dogs from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds Jindo dog (30), Poongsan dog (20) and Miryang dog (44) together with Chihauhau dog (31) and German Shepherd dog (58). Jindo dogs showed the highest expected heterozygosity (0.796${\pm}$0.030) and polymorphic information contents (0.755) in all populations. The phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the Korean native dogs and other dogs. They clearly show that Poongsan dog and Miryang dog are closely related to each other when compared with Jindo dog. Microsatellite polymorphism data was shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native dogs and other dog breeds, and also can be applied for parentage testing in those dog breeds.