• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breeds

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Determination of Phylogenetic Relationships of Turkish Native Cattle Breeds with Other Cattle Breeds Using Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequence Polymorphism

  • Ozdemir, Memis;Dogru, Unsal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.955-961
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to determine the specific polymorphic sites in cattle breeds and inter- and interbreed genetic variation among breeds and to develop a databank of Turkish native cattle mtDNA using sequence analysis. The entire D-loop region was analyzed based on DNA sequences in Turkish Grey, East Anatolian Red, South Anatolian Red, and Anatolian Black native breeds. In total, 68 nucleotide differences were observed at 26 different sites. The variable positions consisted of 22 transitions, two transversions, and two insertions, but no deletions. Haplotype number, haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, and mean number of pairwise difference values were found to be 17, 0.993, 0.00478, and 4.275, respectively. In addition, a phylogeny was developed by comparison among cattle populations for which the entire D-loop sequence was available. A high level of genetic variation was observed within and among the native cattle breeds.

Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Goats of Sub-saharan Africa Using Microsatellite DNA Markers

  • Chenyambuga, S.W.;Hanotte, O.;Hirbo, J.;Watts, P.C.;Kemp, S.J.;Kifaro, G.C.;Gwakisa, P.S.;Petersen, P.H.;Rege, J.E.O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.445-452
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    • 2004
  • Genetic diversity of sub-Saharan African goats was assessed using 19 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from eastern Africa (Maasai, Kigezi, Mubende, North West Highland, Arsi-Bale), southern Africa (Ndebele, Pafuri) and West Africa (West African Dwarf, Maure, Djallonke). European breeds (Grisons Striped, Toggenburg), Asian breeds (Mongolian Cashmere, Bandipur) and a Middle East breed (Arab) were also included. The mean number of alleles per locus and average gene diversity ranged from 5.26$\pm$0.464 (Djallonke) to 7.05$\pm$0.516 (Mubende) and from 0.542$\pm$0.036 (Pafuri) to 0.672$\pm$0.031 (Ndebele), respectively. The between breeds variation evaluated using $$G_{ST}$$ and $\theta$ were found to account for 14.6% ($\theta$) and 15.7% ($$G_{ST}$$) of the total genetic variation. The $D_{A}$ measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the largest genetic distance was between Pafuri and Djallonke while the lowest genetic distance was between Arsi-Bale and North West Highland. A neighbour-joining tree of breed relationships revealed that the breeds were grouped according to their geographic origins. Principal component analysis supported the grouping of the breeds according to their geographic origins. It was concluded that the relationships of sub-Saharan African goat breeds were according to their geographical locations implying that the goats of eastern Africa, West Africa and southern Africa are genetically distinct. Within each sub-region, goat populations could be differentiated according to morphological characteristics.

Genetic diversity and divergence among Korean cattle breeds assessed using a BovineHD single-nucleotide polymorphism chip

  • Kim, Seungchang;Cheong, Hyun Sub;Shin, Hyoung Doo;Lee, Sung-Soo;Roh, Hee-Jong;Jeon, Da-Yeon;Cho, Chang-Yeon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1691-1699
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    • 2018
  • Objective: In Korea, there are three main cattle breeds, which are distinguished by coat color: Brown Hanwoo (BH), Brindle Hanwoo (BRH), and Jeju Black (JB). In this study, we sought to compare the genetic diversity and divergence among there Korean cattle breeds using a BovineHD chip genotyping array. Methods: Sample data were collected from 168 cattle in three populations of BH (48 cattle), BRH (96 cattle), and JB (24 cattle). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the Illumina BovineHD SNP 777K Bead chip. Results: Heterozygosity, used as a measure of within-breed genetic diversity, was higher in BH (0.293) and BRH (0.296) than in JB (0.266). Linkage disequilibrium decay was more rapid in BH and BRH than in JB, reaching an average $r^2$ value of 0.2 before 26 kb in BH and BRH, whereas the corresponding value was reached before 32 kb in JB. Intra-population, interpopulation, and Fst analyses were used to identify candidate signatures of positive selection in the genome of a domestic Korean cattle population and 48, 11, and 11 loci were detected in the genomic region of the BRH breed, respectively. A Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree showed two main groups: a group comprising BH and BRH on one side and a group containing JB on the other. The runs of homozygosity analysis between Korean breeds indicated that the BRH and JB breeds have high inbreeding within breeds compared with BH. An analysis of differentiation based on a high-density SNP chip showed differences between Korean cattle breeds and the closeness of breeds corresponding to the geographic regions where they are evolving. Conclusion: Our results indicate that although the Korean cattle breeds have common features, they also show reliable breed diversity.

Characteristics of Seven Japanese Native Chicken Breeds Based on Egg White Protein Polymorphisms

  • Myint, Si Lhyam;Shimogiri, Takeshi;Kawabe, Kotaro;Hashiguchi, Tsutomu;Maeda, Yoshizane;Okamoto, Shin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1137-1144
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    • 2010
  • In this study, to examine genetic variability within a breed and genetic relationships between populations/breeds, we genotyped 606 birds from seven Japanese native chicken breeds at seven polymorphic loci of egg white proteins and compared those with Asian native chicken populations and commercial breeds. Genotyping of the Japanese native breeds showed that ovalbumin, two ovoglobulins and ovotransferrin were polymorphic, but ovomacroglobulin, ovoflavoprotein and lysozyme were monomorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci ($P_{poly}$) and average heterozygosity ($\bar{H}$) within a population ranged from 0.286 to 0.429 and from 0.085 to 0.158, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation ($G_{ST}$) was 0.250 in the Japanese native chicken breeds. This estimate was higher than that of Asian native chicken populations ($G_{ST}$ = 0.083) and of commercial breeds ($G_{ST}$ = 0.169). Dendrogram and PCA plot showed that Satsuma-dori, Jitokko, Amakusa-daio and Hinai-dori were closely related to each other and grouped into Asian native chickens and that Tsushima-jidori, Nagoya and Chan (Utaichan) were ramified far from other Japanese native chicken breeds. The egg white protein polymorphisms demonstrated that the population differentiation of the seven Japanese native chicken breeds was relatively large.

Genetic Structure and Differentiation of Three Indian Goat Breeds

  • Dixit, S.P.;Verma, N.K.;Aggarwal, R.A.K.;Kumar, Sandeep;Chander, Ramesh;Vyas, M.K.;Singh, K.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1240
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    • 2009
  • Gene flow, genetic structure and differentiation of Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi breeds of goat from North-Western India were evaluated based on 25 microsatellite markers so as to support breed conservation and improvement decisions. The microsatellite genotyping was carried out using an automated DNA sequencer. The gene diversity across the studied loci for the Kutchi breed varied from 0.57 (ILST 065) to 0.93 (OarFCB 304, OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an overall mean of 0.79${\pm}$0.02. The corresponding values for Mehsana and Sirohi breeds were 0.16 (ILST 008) to 0.93 (OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.76${\pm}$0.04, and 0.50 (ILSTS 029) to 0.94 (ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.78${\pm}$0.02, respectively. The Mehsana breed had lowest gene diversity among the 3 breeds studied. All the populations showed an overall significant heterozygote deficit ($F_{is}$). The Fis values were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.36 for Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi goat breeds, respectively. Kutchi and Mehsana were more differentiated (16%) followed by Mehsana and Sirohi (13%).The measures of standard genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest genetic distance was between Kutchi and Sirohi breeds (0.73) and the largest genetic distance was between Mehsana and Kutchi (1.0) followed by Sirohi and Mehsana (0.75) breeds. Mehsana and Kutchi are distinct breeds and this was revealed by the estimated genetic distance between them. All measures of genetic variation revealed substantial genetic variation in each of the populations studied, thereby showing good scope for their further improvement.

A study on Recognition of and Preference for Toy Breeds between Young and Older Generations (청년 세대와 중장년 세대 간 토이 견종 인지도와 선호도에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Yeun-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.8853-8860
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    • 2015
  • This study is to identify recognition of and preference for toy breeds between young and older generations by investigating their understating on pet dogs, difference in pet preference and reasons behind their choice of dog breeds, recognition and preference by toy breeds. A survey was conducted among 137 youths and 60 elderlies in medium/large cities and rural areas. Collected data was processed with ${\chi}^2$-test to see statistical significance. The result showed a significance of p<0.01 in recognition of pet/companion animals and toy breeds, and in pet dog preference and reasons of dog choice, along with p<0.05 in recognition and preference by toy breeds. Thus, this research to provide basic information requires to widely understand characteristics of toy breeds throughout generations due to widespread preference for such breeds and to continue research on change factors in their level of recognition and preference for the right choice when he/she decides to raise a toy dog.

Evaluation of the genetic structure of indigenous Okinawa Agu pigs using microsatellite markers

  • Touma, Shihei;Arakawa, Aisaku;Oikawa, Takuro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Agu pigs are indigenous to the Okinawa prefecture, which is the southernmost region of Japan. Agu pigs were exposed to a genetic bottleneck during the 20th century, due to the introduction of European pig breeds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the genetic structure of Agu pigs and to determine their relationships with those of five European breeds, two Chinese breeds and Ryukyu wild boar using microsatellite markers. Methods: A total of 203 DNA samples from 8 pig breeds were used in this study. Genotyping was performed using 21 microsatellite markers distributed across 17 chromosomes. Results: Numbers of effective alleles in Agu pigs were fewer than in European breeds and Ryukyu wild boar. Among domestic pigs, Agu pigs had the lowest heterozygosity (0.423) and highest inbreeding coefficient (FIS = 0.202), indicating a severe loss of heterozygosity in Agu pigs possibly due to inbreeding. Neighbor-joining tree analysis was performed based on Reynolds' genetic distances, which clustered Agu pigs with Duroc pigs. However, principal component analysis revealed a unique genetic position of the Agu pig, and the second principal component separated Agu pigs from all other breeds. Structure analysis with the optimal assumption of seven groups (K = 7) indicated that Agu pigs form an independent cluster from the other breeds. In addition, high and significant FST values (0.235 to 0.413) were identified between Agu pigs and the other breeds. Conclusion: This study revealed a substantial loss of genetic diversity among Agu pigs due to inbreeding. Our data also suggest that Agu pigs have a distinctive genetic structure, although gene flows from European breeds were observed.

Determination of Wool Follicle Characteristics of Iranian Sheep Breeds

  • Ansari-Renani, H.R.;Moradi, S.;Baghershah, H.R.;Ebadi, Z.;Salehi, M.;Momen, S.M. Seyed;Ansari-Renani, M.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1173-1177
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    • 2011
  • In this study wool follicle characteristics of Iranian sheep breeds were investigated. A total of 242 male and female sheep of different age from 5 breeds were studied. Samples of skin were taken from the right midside to determine follicle characteristics. Overall averages for males and females were $3.7{\pm}0.1$ and $3.5{\pm}0.1$ for S/P ratio; $3.2{\pm}0.1$ and $3.6{\pm}0.1$ for primary follicle density; $12.1{\pm}0.7$ and $13.8{\pm}0.4$ for secondary follicle density; $15.3{\pm}0.7$ and $17.4{\pm}0.4$ for total primary plus secondary follicle density; $2.3{\pm}0.2$ and $3.5{\pm}0.3$ for percentage of inactive secondary follicles. Significant differences were found in some follicle characteristics between sheep breeds. Results of this study showed that sheep breeds raised in different parts of Iran characterized by a low S/P ratio and follicle density could be classed as carpet wool breeds.

Genetic Diversity Measures of 8 Local Sheep Breeds in Northwest of China for Genetic Resource Conservation

  • Zeng, X.C.;Chen, H.Y.;Hui, W.Q.;Jia, B.;Du, Y.C.;Tian, Y.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1552-1556
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the use of microsatellite markers, the current genetic diversity and the relationships of 375 individuals from 8 local sheep breeds reared in typical breeding farms in the northwest of China, and moreover, to offer a contribution towards genetic conservation decisions for the studied breeds. The expected heterozygosities and allelic richness for the 8 breeds varied from 0.474 to 0.623 and from 3.8 to 5.4, respectively. All the populations showed a significant deficit in heterozygosity and a relatively low level of genetic diversity. Furthermore, the high positive FIS value (ranging from 0.255 to 0.556) indicated inbreeding to be one of the main causes for high genetic homogeneity and lack of heterozygosity in all breeds. The clustering analysis performed with the DISPAN package showed that Aletai, Kazak, Bashibai and Bayinbuluke were grouped together, and Hetian, Qira black and Duolang were grouped together, which indicated that the relationship among breeds displayed some degree of consistency with their geographical distribution, production and origin. These findings indicate that improved conservation measures must be undertaken to avoid further losses of genetic diversity and minimize inbreeding represented by these breeds.

Quality Characteristics of Korean Native Chicken Meat (한국산 토종 닭고기의 품질 특성)

  • 권연주;여정수;성삼경
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.223-223
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    • 1995
  • A study was conducted to compare the quality characteristics among commercial broiler, Wangchoo (imported dual purpose breed) and Korean native chicken(KNC). Thigh and breast meat of the broiler(7-wk old), Wangchoo(15-wk old), and Korean native chicken(15-wk old) stored for 24 h at 5t were used to analyze chemical composition, physico-chemical characteristics, textural traits and sensory evaluation test. Crude fat and moisture contents in broiler meat and crude protein content in KNC were significantly(P<.05) higher than those in the other breeds regardless of parts of the body. Total collagen content in broiler meat was significantly higher than those of the other breeds, however, the heat-soluble and the acid-soluble collagen content in Wangchoo were significantly lower than those of the other breeds. Water-holding capacities of KNC in breast meat, and of broiler in leg meat were significantly higher than that of the other breeds, while the results of the water-holding capacity and the cooking loss were reversed. Myofibrillar fragmentation index in broiler meat was significantly higher than that in the other breeds regardless of body parts. Hardness, elasticity and cohesiveness in Wangchoo were significantly higher than those in the other breeds. The prominent fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids and run up to 79.03~83.82 %, regardless of breeds and parts. The sensory evaluation score of tenderness, taste and preference in Wangchoo were lower compared to the broiler and KNC, however, they were not significantly different between broiler and KNC. In conclusion, the quality characteristics of KNC were excellent compared to Wangchoo.

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