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The Genetic Diversity of Trans-caucasian Native Sheep Breeds

  • Hirbo, Jibril;Muigai, Anne;Naqvi, A.N.;Rege, E.D.;Hanotte, Olivier
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.943-952
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    • 2006
  • The genetic variation in 10 indigenous Caucasian sheep breeds was studied with 14 micro-satellite loci in order to determine the genetic diversity among and between the breeds. Five breeds from Asia, five breeds from Europe and one breed from Africa, were included in order to study any relationships or influences they may have with the Caucasian sheep analyzed. A Karakul population from Uzbekistan was included in the study to see whether there was any Central Asian influence. All the 14 loci were found to be polymorphic in all the breeds, with the exception of ILST0056, which was monomorphic in Imeretian. A total of 231 alleles were generated from all the 688 individuals of the sheep analyzed. The mean number of alleles (MNA) at each locus was 16.5. The total number of alleles detected in all samples ranged from 13 in several loci to 23 in OarJMP029. Out of total 308 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) tests, 85 gave significant results. After Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, 30 comparisons still remained significant to the experimental levels. The Gala population was the most diverse and Imeretian the least diverse with a MNA of 8.50 and 5.51, respectively. Gene diversity estimates exhibited the same trend and ranged from 0.803 in Gala and 0.623 in Imeretian, but generally there is higher diversity among the Caucasian breeds in comparison to other eference breeds. The closest breeds were Tushin and Bozakh with Da of 0.113 and most distant breeds were $Djallonk{\acute{e}}$ and North Rondalsy with Da of 0.445. Principal Component (PC) analyses were done. PC1 described 14% of the differences. PC2, which described 13% of the differences, further separated the Caucasian breeds from Asian breeds except Karakul and Awasi, and the two British breeds. PC3 described 10% of the differences, allowing better differentiation of the Caucasian breeds. A moderate degree of reliability was observed for individual-breed assignment from the 14 loci using different approaches among which the Bayesian method proved to be the most efficient. About 72% of individuals analyzed were correctly assigned to their respective breeds.

Diversity of Chinese Indigenous Goat Breeds: A Conservation Perspective - A Review -

  • Li, M.H.;Li, K.;Zhao, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.726-732
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    • 2004
  • In this manuscript, a review of the diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds according to data from body stature and appearance, chromosome group, blood proteins, DNA molecular markers (mitochondria DNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellite DNA, major histocompatibility complex) has been introduced. All of these provide efficient tools for the diversity analysis of Chinese indigenous goat breeds and are very important for biodiversity conservation, restoration of declining goat breeds, the priority defining in Chinese indigenous goat breeds' protection and the selection of nature preservation zones. Many Chinese indigenous goat breeds with small population size in the isolated mountains or reservoir areas are verging the potential threat of extinction, effectively lost with the rapid destroying of ecological environment. On the other hand, as a result of the introduction of modern commercial goat breeds and shortage of effective conservation, some populations, such as Small-xiang goat and Tibetan goat decrease rapidly in number of sires. In the interests of the long-term future of the goat breeds in China, conservation of goat breeds' genetic resources should be considered urgently and some conservation measures should be adopted. In addition, the continuing development of molecular biology will further enhance conservation of diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds.

Comparison of Carcass Composition of Iranian Fat-tailed Sheep

  • Kiyanzad, M.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1348-1352
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    • 2005
  • Most breeds of sheep in Iran are adapted to their agro ecological niches where it is likely that they were also artificially selected by their owners. In general, most of sheep breeds are multipurpose producing lambs, wool and milk. To compare the physical and chemical composition of the carcasses of ten Iranian native fat-tailed sheep breeds, 243 male lambs (6-7 months of age) of ten fattailed, Iranian breeds of sheep, Sanjabi (S), Ghezel (G), Afshari (A), Mehrabani (M), Lori (L), Lori Bakhtiari (LB), Kordi Khorasan (K), Sangesari (Sa), Baluchi (B) and Chal (C) were studied. Lamb breed group had a significant (p<0.05) effect on all the carcass traits measured. The LB and C lambs showed the same live weight which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other breeds. Carcass dressing- out percentage in S lambs was lowest (p<0.05), but not different from G lambs. K and Sa breeds showed the highest (p<0.05) carcass dressing-out percentage. The S lambs had the highest (p<0.05) lean meat percent. Lean meat percentage was not significantly (p>0.05) different in the G, A, M and C breeds. The Sa and K breeds showed the lowest lean meat percent. The S lambs showed the lowest (p<0.05) fat percent in their carcass, while K and Sa showed the highest (p<0.05). Subcutaneous fat in K, Sa and B was higher (p<0.05) than the other breeds. Lambs of S, G, A and M breeds had the lowest subcutaneous fat in their carcasses (p>0.05). Intramascular fat was significantly (p<0.05) lower in M, S and C despite the fact that this values were highest in B and K lambs. The K and Sa breeds had highest fat-tail percentage (p<0.05) in their carcass, whereas S and G showed lowest. Lambs of G, S and A breeds had higher bone percent than other breeds (p<0.05). Lowest bone percent (p<0.05) was seen in K and Sa lambs. The carcass moisture percent was not significantly (p>0.05) different in S, G, A, M, L and C breeds. M lambs showed the lowest crude protein percentage and S breed the highest (p<0.05). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences among other lamb breeds for this trait. Chemical fat percentage was the same in S, G, A, C and M breeds, but significantly (p<0.05) lower from LB, K, Sa and B. Ash percent in S, G and A had no significant (p>0.05) difference. According to higher lean meat and lower fat percentages in the carcass, the ranking of breeds would be S, G, A, M and C.

Genetic diversity analysis of fourteen geese breeds based on microsatellite genotyping technique

  • Moniem, Hebatallah Abdel;Zong, Yang Yao;Abdallah, Alwasella;Chen, Guo-hong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1664-1672
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study aimed to measure genetic diversity and to determine the relationships among fourteen goose breeds. Methods: Microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of geese based on previous literature. The DNA segments, including short tandem repeats, were tested for their diversity among fourteen populations of geese. The diversity was tested on both breeds and loci level and by mean of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and structure program, phylogenetic tree and population structure were tested. Results: A total of 108 distinct alleles (1%) were observed across the fourteen breeds, with 36 out of the 108 alleles (33.2%) being unique to only one breed. Genetic parameters were measured per the 14 breeds and the 9 loci. Medium to high heterozygosity was reported with high effective numbers of alleles (Ne). Polymorphic information contents (PIC) of the screened loci was found to be highly polymorphic for eleven breeds; while 3 breeds were reported moderately polymorphic. Breeding coefficient ($F_{IS}$) ranged from -0.033 to 0.358, and the pair wise genetic differentiation ($F_{ST}$) ranged from 0.01 to 0.36 across the fourteen breeds; for the 9 loci observed and expected heterozygosity, and Ne were same as the breeds parameters, PIC of the screened loci reported 6 loci highly polymorphic and 3 loci to be medium polymorphic, and $F_{IS}$ ranged from -0.113 to 0.368. In addition, genetic distance estimate revealed a close genetic distance between Canada goose and Hortobagy goose breeds by 0.04, and the highest distance was between Taihu goose and Graylag goose (anser anser) breed by 0.54. Conclusion: Cluster analyses were made, and they revealed that goose breeds had hybridized frequently, resulting in a loss of genetic distinctiveness for some breeds.

Identification of Breeding Resource Material for the Development of Therms-Tolerant Breeds in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

  • Begum, A.Naseema;Basavaraja, H.K.;Rekha, M.;Ahsan, M.M.;Datta, R.K.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2001
  • Screening of fifteen bivoltine silkworm breeds of Bombyx mori Linn at a temperature of $31{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and relative humidity of 85${\pm}$5% resulted in the identification of eight thermo-tolerant breeds. The survival and cocoon shell ratio of the tolerant breeds ranged from 72.7 to 78.7% and 20.0 to 20.1% respectively. The tolerant breeds comprised of four oval breeds and four dumb-bell breeds. Eight foundation crosses prepared by crossing the oval and dumb-bell parents among themselves were screened at a temperature of $31{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and relative humidity of 85{\pm}5%. The performance of the foundation crosses on 11 economic characters were analysed by employing Multipie Trait Evaluation Index method. Four foundation crosses which scored average index value > 50 were selected as breeding parents and breeding initiated for the evolution of thermo-tolerant bivoltine silkworm breeds. The methodology and the results of the foundation crosses reared both at 31{\pm}1$^{\circ}C$ and at $25{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ temperatures, are discussed.

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Evaluation and Identification of Promising Bivoltine Breeds in the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

  • Begum, Azeezur Rehman Naseema;Basavaraja, Hadikere Kallappa;Joge, Punjab Govindrai;Palit, Aditya Kumar
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2008
  • Under the all India programme of evaluation of mulberry and silkworm genotypes, twelve bivoltine silkworm breeds obtained from Central Silkworm Germplasm Resource Centre, Hosur (CSGRC) were evaluated at the bivoltine silkworm breeding laboratory, Central Sericultural Research & Training Institute, Mysore (CSR&TI). These breeds were tested during September-October 2003, August-September 2004 and February-March 2005. The average temperature and humidity during September-October 2003 was $26.5^{\circ}C$ and 72.6% RH, while during August-September 2004, it was $26.5^{\circ}C$ and 75.2% RH and during February-March 2005 it was $24^{\circ}C$ and 48% RH respectively. The performance of the breeds in respect of 21 traits was studied and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (Singh and Choudhary, 1985). Silkworm breeds were short-listed using multiple trait evaluation index method as suggested by Mano et at., (1993). Evaluation Index values were calculated for all the 11 traits of economic importance and six breeds were short-listed based on average index value 50 and above 50. Two breed viz., BV 183 (SMGS-1) have recorded average E.I. >50 in 10 traits (except in neatness) and ranked first and the breed BV 262 (SMGS9) with E.I. value >50 in nine traits except in cocoon weight and neatness ranked second, in the order of merit. These two breeds may be selected as resource material for evolving region specific silkworm breeds.

Screening and classification of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori based on thermotolerance

  • Chandrakanth, Nalavadi;Moorthy, Shunmugam M.;Ponnuvel, Kangayam M.;Sivaprasad, Vankadara
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 2015
  • The tropical climate prevailing in India adversely affects temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and causes crop loss especially during summer. Identification of high temperature tolerant bivoltine breeds by screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant bivoltine breeds / hybrids. Therefore, in this study, 20 silkworm breeds were reared at different temperatures (25 ± 1℃,32 ± 1℃, 34 ± 1℃ and 36 ± 1℃) for 6 h every day from 3rd d of 5th instar to till spinning. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found among all the rearing traits over temperature. Based on pupation percentage, SK4C and BHR3 were identified as thermotolerant bivoltine breeds. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on rearing traits at tested temperatures grouped 20 silkworm breeds in four clusters which included one cluster each of susceptible and tolerant, and two clusters of moderately tolerant silkworm breeds. This suggests that clustering based on rearing data at high temperatures by using Euclidean distance can be an effective approach in classifying the silkworm breeds on their thermotolerance capacity. The identified breeds would be used for development of thermo tolerant bivoltine silkworm breeds / hybrids.

Genetic Diversity of Chinese Indigenous Pig Breeds in Shandong Province Using Microsatellite Markers

  • Wang, J.Y.;Guo, J.F.;Zhang, Q.;Hu, H.M.;Lin, H.C.;Wang, Cheng;Zhang, Yin;Wu, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the genetic diversity of six Chinese indigenous pig breeds in Shandong province (Laiwu Black, Dapulian Black, Licha Black, Yantai Black, Yimeng Black and Wulian Black), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture with three Western commercial breeds (Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc), 303 individuals from these breeds were genotyped for 26 microsatellite markers. In general, high genetic diversity (observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.5495 to 0.7746) and large breed differentiation ($F_{ST}$ = 0.188) were observed. The indigenous pig breeds in Shandong exhibited consistently higher levels of genetic diversity than the three Western breeds. However, compared with the Western breeds, which have an $F_{ST}$ value of 0.252, the indigenous breeds in Shandong have smaller $F_{ST}$ value of 0.145. The analysis of breed relationship indicated that the six indigenous breeds are classified into two groups. One includes four breeds, Licha, Yantai, Yimeng and Wulian, which have experienced large gene introgression of the Western breeds through progressive crossbreeding as well as gene flow among themselves. The other includes Laiwu and Dapulian, which are less influenced by the Western breeds and other indigenous breeds in Shandong in the recent past. The results show that some measures must be taken to effectively protect these indigenous pig breeds in Shandong.

Genetic Relationships among Different Breeds of Chinese Gamecocks Revealed by mtDNA Variation

  • Qu, L.J.;Li, X.Y.;Yang, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1085-1090
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    • 2009
  • There are currently five primary breeds of Chinese gamecock, the Henan, Luxi, Tulufan, Xishuangbanna andZhangzhou. Though there is historical evidence of cockfighting in China dating as far back as 2,800 years, the origin and genetic relationships of these breeds are not well understood. We used sequence variation from the mtDNA cytb gene and control region (1,697 bp) to examine the domestication history and genetic relationship of the Chinese gamecock. From 75 samples (14-16 per breed) we found 34 haplotypes, and 45 variable nucleotides. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated multiple origins of the gamecock breeds. The breeds in the north and center of China, Tulufan, Luxi and Henan, clustered together in a haplogroup and may have the same ancestor. However the southern breeds, Zhangzhou and Xishuangbanna clustered into two isolated haplogroups, suggesting another two origins of Chinese gamecock. Meanwhile, extensive admixture was also found because samples from different breeds, more or less, were always grouped together in the same clades. Based on these results, we discuss the possibilities of multiple origins of gamecock breeds, from both ancestral gamecocks as well as other domestic chickens and red jungle fowl.

CORRELATION BETWEEN TESTICLE MEASUREMENTS AND LIBIDO AND SEMEN QUALITY IN RAMS

  • Wahid, S.A.;Yunus, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.175-178
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    • 1994
  • A study was conducted at Ijok, Malaysia, to determine the relationship of testicular measurements with libido and semen quality in tropical and imported temperate breeds of sheep. Ten rams each of Malin (M), Siamese Longtail (L), Cross of Merino with Border Leicester (C), Dorset (D) and Suffolk (S) were used for the study. Libido, semen volume and semen quality were recorded monthly for a year together with testicular length, width and circumference. The results showed that there were breed differences in volume and quality of semen where the tropical breeds had better semen compared to the temperate breeds. There was positive and significant correlation between testicle length and semen volume in all the breeds. Testicular length was found to be positively and significantly correlated with motility and sperm concentration in the tropical breeds (L and M). The relationship between libido and testicle measurements in the tropical breeds was not significant (p<0.05). There was variable relationship between the testicular measurements and libido in the temperate breeds where the relationship was significant and negative in breeds C and D and highly significant and positive in S. It was evident that the long testicles influenced the quality of the semen whereas testicles with greater circumference influenced the libido of the rams.