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Effects of season and breed on the reproductive performance of sheep

  • Zaher, Hany A.;Alawaash, Saeed A.;Swelum, Ayman A.
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2020
  • The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of season and breed on the reproductive performance of male and female sheep using 12 rams and 318 ewes of Assaf and Awassi breeds under the seasonal environmental condition of United Arab Emirates for two years. The blood level of testosterone hormone was measured monthly. Semen was collected twice a month from each male using artificial vagina and evaluated for volume, motility, livability, abnormality and concentration. The scrotal circumference and thickness as well as the left testicular length, width, height and volume were measured at one-month intervals. The level of testosterone in Assaf breed was significantly higher in autumn than winter and summer. The scrotal circumference and thickness as well as the left testicular length were significantly higher in Assaf breed than Awassi breed. While, left testicular width and volume were significantly higher in Awassi breed than Assaf breed. Scrotal circumference which was higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter season in both breeds. The SCC of semen was significantly higher in autumn than in other seasons in both breeds. The sperm abnormality was significantly higher in summer than other seasons in both breeds. The livability was significantly lower in summer in both breeds. Fecundity and prolificacy were significantly higher in Assaf than Awassi breed during autumn season. Assaf breed showed the superior reproductive performance in the autumn season when compared with Awassi breed in the same season and other seasons. The Assaf breed tolerated the climatic conditions in UAE and kept the litter size of 1.72 in comparison to Awassi breed which showed litter size of 1.09. in conclusion, the results showed the superiority of Assaf over Awassi breed and offer a good model of breeding with increased fecundity and prolificacy specially in autumn season.

CARCASS QUALITY TRAITS AMONG CROSSES OF ANGUS, SANTA GERTRUDIS AND GELBVIEH BEEF CATTLE

  • Khan, R.N.;Benyshek, L.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 1993
  • A total of 333 calves were evaluated for carcass quality traits including: dressing percentage (DP), yield grade (YG), marbling score (MS), fat thickness (FT) and percent body fat (PF). Mating types included straightbred Angus (A) and Santa Gertrudis (S), the reciprocal crosses of these two breeds and Gelbvieh (G) ${\times}$ Angus. The year of birth, slaughter group and dam breed were found to have greatly influenced DP. Mating types had no effect on DP. For YG, sire breed, sire within sire breed and slaughter group were important. Crossbreds of A ${\times}$ S had the highest YG followed by A purebreds. Crossbreds of G ${\times}$ A had the lowest YG. Sire breed, dam breed and the slaughter group has significantly affected the MS. Sire breed, sire nested within sire breed and slaughter group were found to have greatly influenced the FT. Sires and dams of A produced the greatest FT while sires of G produced the lowest. Slaughter group 2 (slaughtered at 433 days of age) had a greater FT than group 1 (slaughtered at 393 days of age). For PF, sire breed, sire within sire breed, dam breed and slaughter group had significant effects. A purebreds had the largest PF while S purebreds and G ${\times}$ A crosses had the least.

Gait analysis in clinically healthy small to toy breed dogs using a pressure plate

  • Hwang, Yawon;Kim, Dongwook;Kim, Gonhyung
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.93-96
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    • 2017
  • Locomotion can be investigated using visual locomotion scoring or computer-assisted techniques such as force plates or pressure plates. Although visual locomotion scoring is inexpensive, it is subjective and depends on observers. Conversely, computer-assisted techniques are objective and more sensitive than visual assessment. Many studies of gait in large breed dogs have been conducted using these techniques; however, there have been few investigations of small to toy breed dogs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to conduct gait analysis in small to toy breed dogs and to suggest normal reference ranges for clinical application. Twenty healthy dogs with no lameness or orthopedic pain weighing from 2 kg to 12 kg were used. The dogs were divided into two groups according to their weight, after which gait analysis was conducted using a pressure plate. The pressure force ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb was significantly lower in group 2 (mean 4.2 kg) than group 1 (mean 10.4 kg), while the stance time ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb tended to increase in group 2, but there was no significant difference. Other numerical values in group 2 tended to decrease, with some significant differences being observed. Overall, the results suggest that there are different gait features in small to toy breed dogs when compared with middle and large breed dogs.

Effect of Short-term Water Restriction on Body Weight, Egg Production, and Immune Response of Local and Commercial Layers in the Late Phase of Production

  • Ahmed, A.S.;Alamer, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.825-833
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    • 2011
  • Forty-five Hisex commercial layers and forty-five local Saudi breed layers were used to determine the acceptable limit of short-term water restriction in the late phase of production, when the problem of high feed and water consumption is expected. The experiment was performed under hot and arid environmental conditions when the layers were at fifty weeks of age. Layers from each breed were randomly assigned in groups of five into nine floor pens. The average environmental temperature was 37.2-$38.6^{\circ}C$, and the relative humidity was between 20 to 37%. The trial was divided into 3 periods; control (1 week), water restriction (2 weeks) and rehydration (1 week). During the restriction period, layers from each breed were divided into three groups that received 20, 40, and 0% restriction of drinking water relative to their consumed water during the control period. During the study, feed and water consumption, body weight, changes in body weight, egg production, primary antibody response to SRBC, and rectal temperature were evaluated. Water restriction did not result in any clear effect on feed intake in either breed, however, commercial layers tended to consume less feed compared to the local breed. Body weight declined with water restriction during the first week of restriction in the commercial breed regardless of rate of restriction, but it was delayed until the second week in the local breed. Water restriction of 40% decreased egg production in both breeds but with a delay of 1 week in the local breed. Antibody level to SRBC was not affected by water restriction in the commercial line while it was highly affected in the local breed. A water restriction of 20% is considered to be an acceptable limit under the current experimental conditions without a negative effect on egg production in both breeds and considering the immune status of the local breed. Whereas, 40% restriction had a negative effect on egg production, and varied effects in the other traits in both breeds.

Evaluation of an arthroscopic stifle lever for stifle joint distraction in toy breed dogs

  • Park, Ji Yong;Jeong, Bum Soo;Roh, Yoon Seok;Jeong, Seong Mok;Lee, Hae Beom
    • Journal of Veterinary Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.693-698
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    • 2018
  • Arthroscopy has become an attractive modality in the diagnosis and treatment of joint diseases in toy breed dogs. However, the application of arthroscopy is limited by small joint space. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a stifle lever for joint distraction during stifle arthroscopy in toy breed dogs. Paired stifles (n = 32 each) collected from 16 cadavers of toy breed dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the stifle lever group or the external manipulation group. All stifles underwent arthroscopic cranial cruciate ligament transection, and the visualization of the medial meniscus was evaluated. Medial meniscal release (MMR) was then performed. Following arthroscopic examination, the success rates of MMR and damages of tibial and femoral cartilages were evaluated. Visualization of the medial meniscus was significantly better, and meniscal probing was significantly easier, in the stifle lever group than in the external manipulation group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for MMR success or articular cartilage damage. Using the stifle lever on arthroscopic examination improved visualization and probing on the medial meniscus in toy breed dogs. The stifle lever can be used as a good modality in assessing medial meniscal pathology in toy breed dogs.

ADDITIVE AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS ON MILK YIELD AND BIRTH WEIGHT FROM CROSSBREEDING EXPERIMENTS BETWEEN HOLSTEIN AND THE LOCAL BREED IN BANGLADESH

  • Hirooka, H.;Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 1995
  • Data from purebred and crossbred cattle involving Holstein and the Local breed in Bangladesh were used to estimate the genetic effects on average daily milk yield and birth weight A total of 877 records on average daily milk yield for 4 types of breed groups and a total of 418 records on birth weight for 5 breed groups were analyzed. Two different methods were applied in this study; the least squares analysis of variance approach and the linear regression approach. Breed group effects were highly significant for both average daily milk yield and birth weight. The result showed that straightbred Holstein produced the highest milk yield and the 7/8 crosses ranked highest in birth weight For the two traits, the additive breed effect was highly significant, whereas the individual heterosis effect was not significant. Furthermore, this study showed a negative maternal heterosis for average daily milk yields and a positive maternal heterosis for birth weight Comparing the breed least squares means obtained from the linear regression approach revealed that straightbred Holstein produced the highest average milk yield and the 3/4 crosses were predicted to have the largest birth weight. It is indicated that the linear regression approach can adequately separate the genetic component of performance, estimate unknown crossbreeding parameters and predict unknown performance of crosses which are not include in the original data.

Studies on the Serum Total Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) Activities and CPK Isosenzymes Fractions of Chicken (닭의 혈청 Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) 총 활성 및 CPK isoenzymes분획에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Bong-Sik;Hurh, In;Kim, Jong-Hyung;Jang, Myong-Whan;Kim, Won-Sun;Kim, Duk-Whan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 1993
  • Clinically healthy 66 female Maniker breed chicken(22 of 2-week-old : group A, 23 of 8-week-old: group B and 21 of 27-week-old: group C) and 66 female Manina breed chicken (21 of 2-week-old : group D, 22 of 8-week-old : group E and 23 of 27-week-old : group F) were examined to establish physiological basic data on serum total Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. Serum total CPK activities were $1,088{\pm}254.0\;IU\;/{\ell},$ $1,454{\pm}337.2\;IU\;/{\ell}$ and $1,440{\pm}526.3\;IU\;/{\ell}$ in gorup A, group B and group C of Maniker breed, respectively. Group B and group C showed higher values than that of group A (P<0.01) meaning high values nth aging. 2. Serum total CPK activities were $1,676{\pm}420.5\;IU\;/ {\ell},$ $1,007{\pm}283.1\;IU\;/{\ell}$ and $862{\pm}294.5\;IU/{\ell}$ in group D, group E and group F of Manina breed, respectively. Group D showed the highest value among groups (P<0.01) and Manina breed showed the low values of serum total CPK activities with aging. 3. Manina breed at 2-week-old and Maniker breed at 8-week-old and 27-week-old showed significant high values of total serum CPK activities in breed differance (P<0.01) 4. In the pattern of serum CPK isoenzyme fractions, group A and group B were high with decreasing order of $CK_3>CK_2>CK_1$ and group C was high with decreasing order of $CK_2> CK_3>CK_1$ Groihp D, E and F showed the same pattern with decreasing order of $CK_2>CK_3> CK_1.$ 5. Significance of CPK isoenzymes fractions in breed differance was only found at 8-week-old. $CK_1\;and \;CK_3$ in Maniker breed (P<0.05), and $CK_2$ in Manina breed were higher than that of the other breed (P < 0.01).

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Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

  • Seong, Pil Nam;Park, Kuyng Mi;Kang, Sun Moon;Kang, Geun Ho;Cho, Soo Hyun;Park, Beom Young;Ba, Hoa Van
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1164-1173
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    • 2014
  • The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace${\times}$YorkshireLandrace${\times}$Yorkshire)♀${\times}$Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm $NaNO_2$, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) $a^*$ value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher $L^*$, CIE $b^*$ and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

CARCASS QUANTITY TRAITS IN CROSSES OF ANGUS, SANTA GERTRUDIS AND GELBVIEH BEEF CATTLE

  • Khan, R.N.;Benyshek, L.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.225-234
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    • 1993
  • A total of 333 carcasses were evaluated for hindquarter traits: round weight, percent round, loin weight, percent loin, flank weight and percent flank. Other characteristics included: total retail, lean trim, fat trim, round steaks, rump, sirloin tip, loin steaks, percent loin steaks and flank steaks. Mating types included straightbred Angus and Santa Gertrudis, the reciprocal crosses of these two breeds and Gelbvieh ${\times}$ Angus. Breed of sire and breed of dam were significant for most of the traits evaluated. Calf year and slaughter group were also significant. This could be the result of environmental variations. Effect of sire within sire breed was non-significant for all the traits considered. Heterosis due to interaction between sire breed ${\times}$ dam breed was found significant for percent total retail cuts based on hindquarter weight. Generally, Santa Gertrudis purebreds were more desirable in cut out characteristics than all other breeding types followed by crossbreds of Angus ${\times}$ Santa Gertrudis.

GENETICAL STUDIES ON NATIVE CHICKENS IN INDONESIA

  • Yamamoto, Y.;Namikawa, T.;Okada, I.;Nishibori, M.;Mansjoer, S.S.;Martojo, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.405-410
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    • 1996
  • Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using four Indonesian native chicken breeds; Kampung, Bangkok, Pelung and Kedu. Gene frequencies of four blood group (A, B, D and E) and eight electrophoretic loci (akp, Akp-2, Es-1, Amy-1, Alb, Tf, Pas and Pa-1) were examined. Geographical and breed specific trends in the gene frequencies were not found in the local population of Kampung breed or in four native breeds. The values of average heterozygosity were estimated as 0.35-0.45. Genetic distances among the local populations of Kampung breed and other native breeds were comparatively small. In a cluster analysis, the Bangkok breed and Kampung E population showed distance from another cluster. The coefficient of gene differentiation for local populations of Kampung breed was estimated as 0.099.