This study was carried out to investigate the experiences of breast milk feeding information and education, breast milk feeding knowledge and attitude and needs for breast milk feeding nutrition education of high school students to encourage breast milk feeding. The subjects were 565 (male: 250, female: 315) high school students from first to third grade. The results obtained were as follows: In this survey, only 30.0% of subjects experienced breast milk feeding information and only 6.1% of subjects had breast milk feeding education. And the subjects showed the average scores of knowledge of breast milk feeding were 0.29 points of 1 point. Subjects knew well about ingredients of breast milk but they didn't know well about the physiology and method of breast milk feeding and benefits of breast milk feeding for mothers. The average scores of attitude of breast milk feeding were 3.03 points of 4 points, showed slight positive attitudes of breast milk feeding, but they had negative attitudes of emotional and practical aspects. The future plan of feeding practices was breast milk feeding 35.9% and 60.0% of formula milk feeding. A concern was that the students showed high ratio of formula milk feeding plan and they decided by incorrect knowledge of breast milk feeding. The 33.5% of students answered high school students will need breast milk feeding nutrition education, and they thought hospital faculties were the proper educators of breast milk feeding education, but dietitians were recomended as educators because of easy access at school and good knowledge of life-cycle nutrition. Therefore, to encourage breast milk feeding by mothers and supporters of breast milk feeding, breast milk feeding nutrition education is needed urgently among high school male and female students. And nutrition education programs will have to contain benefits of breast milk for babies and mothers and physiology and practical methods of breast milk feeding to improve emotional and practical attitudes for breast milk feeding. Nationwide campaign to promote breast milk feeding at public areas will be needed.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate middle school students' knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding. Methods: The knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding were measured by structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation, using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program. Results: The level of knowledge of breast feeding was 9.02 points out of 25 points, in average. Attitudes towards breast feeding was 3.77 points out of 5 points, in average. There were significant differences in the knowledge of breast feeding according to grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There were significant differences in attitudes towards breast feeding according to gender, grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, timing of breast feeding education, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge of breast feeding and attitudes towards breast feeding. Conclusion: Middle school students should be provided with various education programs to improve their knowledge of and attitudes toward breast feeding.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of knowledge and attitude level of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers. The subjects were mothers of 65 infants 1-6 months of age. Data were collected by a questionnaire on knowledge of breast feeding developed by Jung et al.(l994) and on attitude of breast feeding developed by Shin and Jeon(l996). The data was statistically analyzed according to Frequency, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients. The results are as follows. 1) Degree of knowledge of breast feeding was significantly different according to child number(F=3.72, P<0.05) and delivery pattern(T=2.28, P<0.05) in breast feeding mothers. 2) There was a Significant difference on knowledge of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers(t=2.34, p<.05). 3) There was a statistical Significant difference on attitude of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers(t=3.05, p<.01). 4) The correlation between the mother's knowledge and attitude level of breast feeding was not found. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that systematic and supportive breast feeding program including knowledge and attitude of breast feeding have to be provided by nurse to mothers of infants to take an important role in breast feeding.
This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and educational needs regarding breast feeding of women's mothers and mother-in-laws with a grandchild aged less than 24 months. The degree of knowledge regarding breast feeding was 14.84 points out of 25 points, while the attitude toward breast feeding was 83.88 points. Additionally, 16.4% of the respondents reported that education regarding breast feeding was unnecessary. There were significant differences in knowledge regarding breast feeding among individuals of different age (p<0.05), economic status (p<0.05), and with different aged grandchildren (p<0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in attitude toward breast feeding based on the type of feeding (p<0.05), the practice of breast feeding (p<0.01), and reasons for low breast feeding rate (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge regarding breast feeding and attitude toward breast feeding. The factors affecting knowledge regarding breast feeding were attitude toward breast feeding and middleclass economic status. In addition, the factors affecting attitude toward breast feeding included knowledge of breast feeding and the practice of breast feeding. Overall, the subjects had high educational needs regarding breast feeding; therefore, women's mothers and mother-in-laws should be given the opportunity for various types of education to improve their breast feeding knowledge.
This was a pre-experimental study to confirm the breast-feeding ability and effect of follow up care on the breast-feeding rate and the breast-feeding method by the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool for the mothers who got the breast-feeding education. The subjects were 46 mothers who experienced normal delivery of infants at a college hospital in K-city, Kyungsangbuk-do, from July 1 to October 21, 2000. The instrument for data obtainment were The Mother-Infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool of Johnson et al. (1999), and The Breast- Feeding Method Measurement Tool of Jeong, Geum-hee(1997). This instrument was reliable, showing Cronbach $\alpha$.751. This study classified them into 3 groups: at high risk for breast-feeding failure, at risk for breast-feeding problems, and at low risk for breast-feeding failure by the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool on the day of discharge from the hospital after delivering individual breast-feeding education to the subjects. This study investigated the breast-feeding rate and the breast-feeding method through mail questionnaire at the four week after childbirth, and through the phone counselling and the home visit for follow up care at the first week and the second week after childbirth. The sixth week after childbirth, this study investigated the breast-feeding rate by phone. The data analyzed the hypothesizes by $x^2$-test, paired t-test, ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and trend analysis using SPSS/PC+ WIN 10.0 program. The results were as follows : 1) Hypothesis 1-1, "there won't be any difference the breast-feeding rate of a group at risk for breast-feeding failure by the time elapsed" was supported through constant the breast-feeding rate, because changes in the breast-feeding rate by the time elapsed after childbirth wasn't statistically significant(t= -1.501, p=.270). Hypothesis 1-2, "there won't be any difference the breast-feeding rate of group at low risk for breast-feeding failure by the time elapsed" was supported through constant the breast-feeding rate, because changes in the breast-feeding rate by the time elapsed after childbirth wasn't statistically significant(t=-1.732, p=.225). 2) Hypothesis 2-1, "there won't be any difference between the breast-feeding method of group at risk for breast-feeding failure for four weeks after childbirth and just after childbirth” was rejected, because the mean point of post test appeared to be higher than that of pre test(t=-7.267, p=.000). Hypothesis 2-2, "there won't be any difference between the breast-feeding method of the group at low risk for breast-feeding failure for four weeks after childbirth and just after childbirth" was rejected, because the mean point of post test appeared to be higher than that of pre test(t=-2.501, p=.012). 3)The 3rd hypothesis, "there won't be any difference between breast-feeding method of groups at risk for breast-feeding problems and at low risk for breast-feeding failure at the 4th week after childbirth and just after childbirth" didn't show any difference between the breast-feeding method of groups at risk for breast-feeding problems and at low risk for breast-feeding failure in the advance test(t=-1.521, p=.130) but there was difference between them in post test (t=-2.012, p=.044). As a result, the 3rd hypothesis was supported by pre test, but it was rejected by post test. In conclusion, this study confirmed breast- feeding education and follow up care just after childbirth were effective for the breast-feeding rate and method. Accordingly, it is proposed that successful nursing intervention of breast-feeding to be necessary by continuously providing follow up care through the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool as well as to execute individual breast-feeding education to mothers just after childbirth.
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the current breast feeding rates in Jeju Province and to identify factors which influence breast feeding duration after birth. Method: The subjects were 189 women with a child between 12 months and 24 months old. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire from October 2003 to January 2004. Measures used in this study included general characteristics, delivery related characteristics, breast feeding related characteristics and the feeding type over a 12-month period after birth. Result: The study showed that the breast feeding rate in the first month was 63.1%, later dropping to 30.9% in the sixth month. In addition, only 14.2% of subjects were still breast feeding the baby at twelve months of age. The mean of breast feeding duration was 4.77 months. The factors which influenced breast feeding duration were wanted pregnancy, breast feeding education, planning of breast feeding and breast feeding experience. Conclusion: Considering the low rate of long-term breast feeding, the importance of breast feeding should be emphasized to promote and support the continuation of breast feeding in addition to at its initial stage. Based on the results, programs on breast feeding promotion and continuation need to be developed.
This study was to investigate the relationship between hospital nurses 'knowledge of breast-feeding and their ability to provide care to breast-feeding mothers and their children. From Nov. 1 to 30, 1999, 105 nurses of the obstetric ward, delivery room, OPDs of obstetrics and gynecology, and nurseries of three general hospitals from Seoul and Pusan were evaluated. The results are as follows: 1.Mean score of nurse's knowledge to breast-feeding was 12.76. Mean score of performance of nursing activities was 109.80. 2.General characteristics and feeding characteristics were significantly related to nurse's knowledge to breast-feeding and performance of nursing activities related to breast-feeding. Nurse's knowledge about breast-feeding was significantly related to age, working ward, clinical experience, rank of position, experience of breast-feeding and experience education on breast-feeding. Performance of nursing activities for breast- feeding was significantly related to age, working ward, experience in other ward, marital status, and education on breast-feeding. 3.A positive correlation between nurse's know-ledge to breast-feeding and performance of nursing activities related to breast-feeding was statistically significant(r=.381, P<0.05).
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the breast feeding process of mothers and to develop a grounded theory about experiences of breast feeding women. Methods: Data was collected by means of an in-depth interview from 8 participants who were breast feeding their baby. The data was analyzed using the grounded theory methodology proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Results: The core category was discovered to be 'becoming a mother'. This process was categorized into 5 stages; 'facing difficulties of breast feeding', 'having the will to continue to breast feed', 'doing one's best to breast feed', 'feeling satisfaction with one's breast feeding', and 'retaining a lingering desire for one's breast feeding'. Mothers began breast feeding without preparation. They faced difficult problems during breast feeding such as getting a lay-person's or professional person's support. They made various efforts for continuing to breast feed and solve the problems. They got pleasure from breast feeding, their baby is fine, and they have a bond with their baby. Finally, when they finished breast feeding, they still felt attached to it and had regrets. Conclusion: This study provided the information about mothers' experiences in the breast feeding process. Therefore, nurses will be able to utilize successful adaptation skills for helping breast feeding mothers.
This study was done to compare the breast-feeding primiparas' perceptions of their babies with bottle-feeding primiparas' at 2-3 days after delivery. The subjects of this study included 42 breast-feeding mothers and 56 bottle-feeding mothers. Data were collected by using the Neonatal Perception Inventory(NPI) devised by Broussard (1963) and added by Lee, Ja Hyung(1986) from December, 1996 to June, 1997. The results of this study are as follows, 1. Primiparas' perceptions of their babies according to their general characteristics. 1) There was no significant difference in mothers' perceptions according to mothers' age and whether they have a job or not. 2) There was a difference in mothers' perceptions according to their educational level (P<0.1). 2. The comparisons of breast-feeding mothers' perceptions of their babies with bottle-feeding mothers'. 1) There was no significant difference in the two groups' perceptions of other babies 2) There was no significant difference in the two groups' perceptions of their own babies. (1) Breast-feeding mothes' general perceptions of their own babies were better than bottle-feeding mothers', but there was no significant difference between the two groups. (2) Breast-feeding mothers' perceptions about the basic needs of their own babies were better than bottle-feeding mothers', and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). (3) Breast-feeding mothers'perceptions about the sense and motor abilities of their own babies were better than bottle-feeding mothers', but there was no significant difference between the two groups. (4) Breast-feeding mothers' perceptions about the necessary care of their own babies were lower than bottle-feeding mothers', but there was no significant difference between the two groups. 3) There was no significant difference between the two groups' positive-negative perceptions of their babies (1) 69% of breast-feeding mothers and 69.9% of bottle-feeding mothers had positive perceptions about general conditions, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (2) 57.1% of breast-feeding mothers and 46.4% of bottle-feeding mothers had positive perceptions about the needs of babies, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. (3) 50% of breast -feeding mothers and 48.2% of bottle-feeding mothers had positive perceptions about the sense and motor abilities of babies, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. (4) 57.1% of breast-feeding mothers and 60.7% of bottle-feeding mothers had positive perceptions about the necessary care for babies, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. 3. 54.8% of breast-feeding mothers tried to feed their own babies on the 1st day after delivery. 83.3% of breast-feeding mothers chose the feeding method for themselves. Only 9.5% of breast-feeding mothers took recomendations for breast-feeding from nurses. 78.6% of breast-feeding mothers had no chance to learn about breast-feeding. 69% of breast-feeding mothers complained about the difficulties of breast-feeding. The most serious problems were : 'insufficient milk supply', 'lack of knowledge about feeding technique' and 'problems with nipples'.
This study was attempted to identify the knowledge to breast-feeding and the performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding and to test 'how does the degree of knowledge to breast-feeding influence the nursing activities for breast-feeding?' The subjects were 180 nurses working in delivery rooms, nursery, obstetrics & pediatrics wards or OPD of obstetrics & gynecology of 8 general hospitals in Pusan as of August 3 through 13, 1996. The results are abstracted as follows. 1) Subject nurses' age, 25-29 was 45.6%(the major), education levels graduates from junior college were 95.0%, unmarried status was 62.2%, 76.5% of married nurses had children, 39.7% in-service education for Breast-Feeding, 33.7% did nursing activities for breast-feeding actively, the reason for inadequate activities for breast-feeding was 'too much other tasks.' 2) The degree of knowledge to breast-feeding ; mean score was 13.54, the degree of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding : 92.38±20.93 points out of possible 145 points (3.19±.74 out of possible 5 points) moaned that it was a low level. 3) The hypothesis 'the nurses who have higher degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding will show higher degrees of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding than the nurses who have lower degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding' was tested by t-test(t=-.01, P=.9888), but rejected because it turned out statistically not significant at the level of P<.05. Above results suggested the degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding and the degrees of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding were generally low and the degree of knowledge didn't influence the nursing activities. Researchers believe that the education for breast-feeding by the nurses need to be performed systemically & practically and new method of breast-feeding education program need to include hospital managers as well as nurses related mothers and their family. In audition, researchers propose the introduction of &lactation specialist system&, for the specialist can change the attitude of feeding-mothers positively with their specialty and authority.
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