• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breast neoplasms

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The Epigenetics of Triple-Negative and Basal-Like Breast Cancer: Current Knowledge

  • Temian, Daiana Cosmina;Pop, Laura Ancuta;Irimie, Alexandra Iulia;Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 2018
  • Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all malignancies diagnosed in women. Therapies have significantly improved over the years due to extensive molecular and clinical research; in a large number of cases, targeted therapies have provided better prognosis. However, one specific subtype remains elusive to targeted therapies - the triple-negative breast cancer. This immunohistochemically defined subtype is resistant to both endocrine and targeted therapies, leading to its poor prognosis. A field that is of great promise in current cancer research is epigenetics. By studying the epigenetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis - DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs - advances in cancer treatment, diagnosis, and prevention are possible. This review aims to synthesize the epigenetic discoveries that have been made related to the triple-negative breast cancer.

Incidence of Female Breast Cancer in a Defined Area in Korea (한국인 여성 유방암 발생률 추정에 관한 역학적 연구 -충북지역을 대상으로-)

  • Yoo, Keun-Young;Park, Sue-Kyung;Sung, Joo-Hun;Noh, Dong-Young;Choe, Kuk-Jin
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.592-603
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to estimate incidence rate of female breast cancer in a defined area of Chungchongbuk-do in Korea. The presumptive breast cancer cases were selected from two different sources, i.e., medical utilization database of the National Health Insurance Corporation and the database from the National Cancer Registry. Medical students visited each hospital where the presumptive cases had been treated as a breast cancer patient, and made a dictation of medical record of each patient based on the claims stored in the Insurance Corporation from January to December 1995. The diagnoses in the claims included one of the following diagnostic codes; ICD-9 174-175(malignant neoplasms of the breast), 233(carcinoma in situ of the breast and genito-urinary system)or ICD-10 C50(malignant neoplasms of the breast), D05(carcinoma in situ of the breast and genito-urinary system). Each case has been confirmed as having a breast cancer by a breast surgeon through a medical record review. Age-standardized incidence rate of female breast cancer to the Korean population was estimated to be 10.5(95%confidence interval : 8.1-12.9)per 100,000 persons in 1995. Age-standardized rate to the world population was 9.8 per 100,000 persons, and the truncated rate for ages 35-64 was 27.2 per 100,000 persons. Validity of these estimates is discussing in comparison with previous methods of incidence estimation in Korea.

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Extraocular Muscles Involvement as the Initial Presentation in Metastatic Breast Cancer

  • Coutinho, Ines;Marques, Marco;Almeida, Rui;Custodio, Sofia;Silva, Teresa Simoes;Aguas, Fernanda
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.339-342
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    • 2018
  • Orbital metastasis is a rare event, and metastatic disease affecting the extraocular muscles is an even less frequent complication of solid tumors. Herein, we report an unusual case of ptosis as the initial presentation of an invasive breast cancer. A 68-year-old woman presented with III and VI partial nerve paresis, secondary to a compressive retrobulbar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative lesion involving the extraocular muscles. Tissue biopsy yielded a result compatible with metastasis to the orbit, with immunohistochemistry analysis suggesting breast as the primary organ. Mammography identified an area of architectural distortion; stereotactic wire-guided biopsy confirmed the result of the previous orbital biopsy. A positron emission tomography scan demonstrated disseminated disease. Palliative chemotherapy with bone-modulating agents and subsequent hormonal therapy was proposed. Unfortunately, the patient did not respond to therapy and died 38 months after diagnosis.

Synchronous Bilateral Breast Carcinoma in a Patient with Cowden Syndrome with PTEN Mutation: A Case Report

  • Kwon, Sun Young;Yeo, Soo Hyun;Ha, Jung Sook;Kang, Sun Hee
    • Journal of Breast Disease
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2018
  • Cowden syndrome (CS), also known as multiple hamartomas syndrome, is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant disorder caused by a germline mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mapped on chromosome 10. The clinical features of CS are variable, primarily presenting as mucocutaneous lesions (99%). A mucocutaneous lesion, such as trichilemmoma of the face or keratosis of the extremities, is an important diagnostic marker for CS. CS has been reported to increase the incidence of benign and malignant neoplasms in the breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The risk of developing malignancy in individuals with CS is up to 10 times higher than general population throughout an entire life time.

A Case of a Huge Mass Due to Pleural Metastasis and Management of Dyspnea in a Patient with Terminal Breast Cancer (말기 유방암 환자에서 발생한 흉막 전이에 의한 거대 종양 1예와 호흡곤란의 치료)

  • Lee, Na Ri
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2014
  • Pleural metastasis from breast cancer is a common manifestation. While pleural effusion is the most frequent finding, it is relatively rare for pleural nodularity and plaque that do not accompany pleural effusion. We report a patient with a rapidly growing huge pleural mass without pleural effusion caused by breast cancer. The patient was treated for severe dyspnea caused by the pleural mass. Along with the case report, we performed a systematic review of management of dyspnea in terminal cancer patients.

Development of second primary cancer in Korean breast cancer survivors

  • Jung, Hong Kyu;Park, Suyeon;Kim, Nam Won;Lee, Jong Eun;Kim, Zisun;Han, Sun Wook;Hur, Sung Mo;Kim, Sung Young;Lim, Cheol Wan;Lee, Min Hyuk;Lee, Jihyoun
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.93 no.6
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Breast cancer survivors have slightly increased the risk of second primary cancers. Breast, colon, uterine, and ovarian cancers are common secondary cancers in breast cancer survivors. In this study, we assessed the development of second primary cancers of breast cancer survivors in Korea. Methods: Medical records of patients with breast cancer in 3 tertiary medical institutions were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated secondary malignancy diagnosed at least 2 months after the breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the International Classification of Disease-9 codes of malignancies, secondary primary breast cancer records were evaluated with person-year adjustment. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was assessed using national cancer incidence. Results: A total of 3,444 treatment records were included from 3 medical centers. The cumulative incidence of overall second primary cancers was 2.8% (n = 93). The SIR was significantly higher in all sites (1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.91), endometrial cancer (5.65; 95% CI, 2.06-12.31), biliary tract cancer (3.96; 95% CI, 1.19-8.60), and thyroid cancer (2.29; 95% CI, 1.67-3.08). Conclusion: The incidence of cancer was higher in breast cancer survivors compared to general population. Surveillance of secondary cancer in this group should be recommended individually considering the benefit related to the prognosis of primary breast cancer.

Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma in Axillary Ectopic Breast and Synchronous Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in the Contralateral Breast

  • Oh, Seung Won;Lim, Hyo Soon;Lee, Ji Shin;Moon, Sung Min;Park, Min Ho
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 2017
  • The development of ectopic breast tissue is attributable to the failure of primitive mammary tissue to regress after the development of the mammary ridge, except at pectoral breast sites, and is most often evident in the axillae. Several benign and malignant breast diseases have been reported in ectopic axillary breast tissues. The most common cancerous pathology of ectopic breast tissue is invasive ductal carcinoma. Ectopic breast cancer presenting with simultaneous primary cancer of the pectoral breast is extremely rare. Herein, we report an invasive micropapillary carcinoma of an axillary ectopic breast, combined with a synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ in the contralateral pectoral breast of a 61-year-old woman.

Breast Lipofilling: A Review of Current Practice

  • Kasem, Abdul;Wazir, Umar;Headon, Hannah;Mokbel, Kefah
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2015
  • Lipofilling is a reconstructive and aesthetic technique that has recently grown in popularity and is increasingly being used in breast surgery. Previous concerns had been raised regarding its safety when used for remodelling and reconstruction of the breast; however, these concerns have since been dismissed. Over the subsequent two decades, little evidence has been found to support these early theoretical concerns, and growing numbers of proponents of the procedure are confident in its safety. Many developments and refinements in the technique have taken place in recent years, and several studies have been published regarding the safety of lipofilling in the breast. We reviewed the current literature regarding the use of different lipofilling techniques as well as the current evidence regarding the oncological safety of the procedure in patients seeking aesthetic breast enhancement and in patients requiring reconstruction after treatment for breast cancer.

Ectopic Male Breast Cancer in the Perineum: A Case Report

  • Eom, Hye-Joung;Ko, Beom Seok;Song, In Hye;Gong, Gyungyub;Kim, Hak Hee
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.404-407
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    • 2017
  • Ectopic breast tissue and male breast cancer are both very rare diseases with only a few reports in the literature. Here, we present the first case of ectopic male breast cancer in the perineum. The patient was a 70-year-old man with a palpable mass in the perineum. A wide local excision and inguinal lymph node dissection revealed invasive breast carcinoma of no special type involving the skin and subcutis, and inguinal lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Moreover, no p53 overexpression was observed. Herein, the clinical and pathologic features, as well as a review of ectopic male breast cancer are discussed.

Use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography to predict axillary metastasis in patients with triple-negative breast cancer

  • Youm, Jung Hyun;Chung, Yoona;Yang, You Jung;Han, Sang Ah;Song, Jeong Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are important for staging of patients with node-positive breast cancer. However, these can be avoided in select micrometastatic diseases, preventing postoperative complications. The present study evaluated the ability of axillary lymph node maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) to predict axillary metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: The records of invasive breast cancer patients who underwent pretreatment (surgery and/or chemotherapy) PET-CT between January 2006 and December 2014 were reviewed. ALNs were preoperatively evaluated by PET-CT. Lymph nodes were dissected by SLNB or ALND. SUVmax was measured in both the axillary lymph node and primary tumor. Student t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze sensitivity and specificity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analyses were performed. Results: SUV-tumor (SUV-T) and SUV-lymph node (SUV-LN) were significantly higher in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) group than in other groups (SUV-T: 5.99, P<0.01; SUV-LN: 1.29, P=0.014). The sensitivity (0.881) and accuracy (0.804) for initial ALN staging were higher in fine needle aspiration+PET-CT than in other methods. For PET-CT alone, the subtype with the highest sensitivity (0.870) and negative predictive value (0.917) was TNBC. The AUC for SUV-LN was greatest in TNBC (0.797). Conclusion: The characteristics of SUV-T and SUV-LN differed according to immunohistochemistry subtype. Compared to other subtypes, the true positivity of axillary metastasis on PET-CT was highest in TNBC. These findings could help tailor management for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.