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Aboveground biomass estimation of Quercus glauca in evergreen forest, Kotzawal wetland, Cheju Island, Korea (제주도 곶자왈 상록활엽수 종가시나무의 생물량 추정을 위한 상대생장식)

  • Jeong, Heon-Mo;Kim, Hae-Ran;Cho, Kyu-Tae;Lee, Seung-Hyuk;Han, Young-Sub;You, Young-Han
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2014
  • This study developed allometry equation and estimated the aboveground-biomass of Quercus glauca, a warm-temperature, evergreen broad-leaved tree, growing in Kotzawal wetland located on Jeju Island. The allometric equations between DBH(diameter at breast height) and dry weights of stems (Ws), branches (Wb), leaves (Wl) and aboveground biomass (Wab) of Q. glauca were as follows: logWs=2.4042logDBH-1.3045, logWb=2.6436logDBH-1.6232, logWl =1.5428logDBH-1.3692 and logWab=2.3324logDBH-0.9181. The allometric equations between $D^2H$ and Ws, Wb, Wl, and Wab of Q.glauca were as follows : logWs=$0.853logD^2H-1.4252$, logWb=$0.8453logD^2H-1.5834$, logWl=$0.5328logD^2H-1.4073$ and logWab=$0.8453logD^2H-1.0327$. The $R^2$ between DBH and Ws, Wb, Wl and Wab were 0.9873, 0.9711, 0.7979 and 0.993, respectively. The $R^2$ between $D^2H$ and Ws,Wb,Wl and Wab were 0.9841, 0.9174, 0.7537 and 0.9876, respectively. There was no significant difference between observed and calculated values of the allomatric equations from DBH and $D^2H$(p>0.05, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). Thus, to estimate the aboveground biomass of Q. glauca, use of DBH and $D^2H$ as an independent variables in the allometric equation is recommended.

The Usability Evaluation of the Usefulness of Bismuth Shields in PET/CT Examination (PET/CT 검사에서 비스무스(bismuth) 차폐체의 적용에 따른 유용성 평가)

  • Park, Hoon-Hee;Lee, Juyoung;Kim, Ji-Hyeon;Nam, Kun-Sik;Lyu, Kwang-Yeul;Lee, Tae Soo
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2014
  • Recently with CT developed, various studies for reduction of exposure dose is underway. Study of bismuth shields in these studies is actively underway, and has already been applied in the clinical. However, the application of the PET/CT examination was not activated. Therefore, through this study, depending on the application of bismuth shields in the PET/CT examination, we identify the quality of the image and the impact on the Standard Uptake Value (SUV). In this study, to apply to the shielding of the breast, by using the bismuth shields that contains 0.06 mm Pb ingredients, was applied to the PET/CT GEMINI TF 64 (Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, USA). Phantom experiments using the NEMA IEC Body Phantom, images were acquired according to the presence or absence of bismuth shields apply. Also, When applying, images were obtained by varying the spacing 0, 1, 2 cm each image set to the interest range in the depth of the phantom by using EBW-NM ver.1.0. When image of the PET Emission acquires, the SUV was in increased depending on the use of bismuth shields, difference in the depth to the surface from deep in the phantom increasingly SUV increased (P<0.005). Also, when using shields, as the more gab decreased, SUV is more increased (P<0.005). Through this study, PET/CT examination by using of bismuth shields which is used as purpose of reduction dose. When using shields, the difference of SUV resulting from the application of bismuth shields exist and that difference when gab is decrease and surface is wider. Therefore, setting spacing of shield should be considered, if considering the reduction of the variation of SUV and image quality, disease of deep organs should be a priority rather than superficial organ disease. Use of bismuth shielding factor considering the standard clinical examination, decrease unnecessary exposure can be expected to be considered.

Lack of Cytotoxicity of the Colorant in Conjugated Linoleic Acid against Human Cancer and Normal Cells (Conjugated linoleic acid 황갈색의 인체암세포와 인체정상세포에 대한 세포독성)

  • Ji, Yu-Chul;Ahn, Chae-Rin;Seo, Yang-Gon;Suh, Jeong-Se;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Ha, Yeong-Lae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1099-1106
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    • 2012
  • The cytotoxicity of the colorant in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated in human cancer cell lines and a normal human cell line. Commercially-available CLA with a brown color (designate crude CLA; c-CLA) was distilled in a vacuum (10 mmHg-$220^{\circ}C$, 10 mmHg-$235^{\circ}C$, 10 mmHg-$240^{\circ}C$, and 20 mmHg-$260^{\circ}C$) for 30 min to obtain pure CLA (distilled CLA; d-CLA) and dark brown-colored CLA (residual CLA; r-CLA) samples. No color intensity was shown in the d-CLA sample obtained under 10 mmHg-$220^{\circ}C$ conditions of distillation when the L (brightness), a (red/blue), and b (yellow/green) parameters were analyzed, whereas the r-CLA sample showed a dark brown color. The composition of CLA isomers in both the d- and r-CLA samples, as compared to that of the c-CLA sample, was not significantly different when analyzed by gas chromatography. When the cytotoxicity of the r-CLA and d-CLA samples obtained under 10 mmHg-$220^{\circ}C$ conditions were compared against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human lung cancer cells (A-549), human colon cancer cells (HT-29), human prostate cancer cells (PC-3), and human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH), no significant cytotoxicity was seen in the cell lines. These results suggest that the color or colorant in the CLA samples did not have any effects on the proliferation of human cancer and normal cells and imply that the colorant in commercially available CLA samples is safe for human consumption.

Effects of Dietary Sources Containing ω-3 Fatty Acids on the Fatty Acid Composition of Meats in Korean Native Chickens (오메가 3계열 지방산을 함유하는 사료의 급여가 육용 토종닭 계육 내 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향 탐색)

  • Oh, Sung-Taek;Jhun, Heung-Kyu;Park, Jung-Min;Kim, Jin-Man;Kang, Chang-Won;An, Byoung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.476-482
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    • 2012
  • Estimations were made of oxidative susceptibility and fatty acid composition of edible meats of native chickens fed various dietary sources containing ${\omega}-3$ polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). A total of 240 Korean native chickens were divided into 4 groups, placed into 3 replicates per group, and were fed a commercial diet (Control) or one of the three experimental diets containing 10% perilla meal (PM group), 10% perilla meal-5% full fat flaxseed (PM+FS group), or 10% perilla meal-5% full fat flaxseed-1% fish oil (PM+FS+FO group) for 20 days. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate among the groups were not significantly different. Dietary treatments did not affect the relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle. The leg weight was increased from the feeding of ${\omega}-3$ PUFA sources. The TBA reactive substance in the edible meat was not different with the dietary treatments. The total ${\omega}-3$ PUFA in chickens that were fed diets containing ${\omega}-3$ PUFA sources increased compared to that of the control. The level of longer chain ${\omega}-3$ PUFAs, such as C20:5 ${\omega}3$ and C22:6 ${\omega}3$ in the PM+FS+FO group, was much higher than that of the others. The addition of local ingredients, such as perilla meal with conventional sources, could be used to obtain value-enhanced meat by enhancing ${\omega}-3$ PUFA.

Combined Treatment of Sodium Salicylate and Genistein Induces Incomplete Apoptosis and Necrosis in MCF-7 Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MCF-7 MTS에서 sodium salicylate과 genistein 복합처리는 불완전한 세포사멸과 세포괴사를 유도한다)

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Kim, Cho-Hee;Jeon, Hyun-Min;Ju, Min-Kyung;Kim, Min-Young;Jeong, Eui-Kyong;Park, Hye-Gyeong;Kang, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1145-1151
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    • 2012
  • Aspirin and its deacetylated form, sodium salicylate (NaSal), have been shown to exert chemopreventive activities against many human cancers including those of the colon, lung, and breast. Previously, we showed that combined treatment of NaSal and genistein synergistically induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, indicating that these two natural chemicals could be used in combination for cancer therapy. In this study, we examined effects of NaSal/genistein combined treatment on other cancer cells and in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) and in an in vitro solid tumor model. We found that the combined treatment induces apoptosis in the HCT116 cells and the A549 cells, but not in the MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, the MCF-7 cells responded to the NaSal/genistein combined treatment by undergoing cell death when they were cultivated as MTS. The combined treatment induced apoptosis at an earlier stage in the MCF-7 MTS culture. However, when the MCF-7 MTS was cultivated for a longer period, it induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. We further found that the apoptotic pattern observed in MCF-7 MTS was incomplete: the chromatins were condensed and fragmented, but the nuclear membrane was still intact. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NaSal/genistein combined treatment induces incomplete apoptosis and necrosis in the MCF-7 MTS culture system.

Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Two Different Broiler Strains by Different Levels of Metabolizable Energy (사료 내 대사 에너지 수준 차이가 계통이 다른 육계의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Seol;Kwon, Jung-Taek;Kim, Je-Hun;Oh, Sung-Taek;Lee, Bo-Keun;Zheng, Lan;Jung, Moon-Sung;An, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary ME on growth performance and carcass characteristics in two different strains of broiler chicken. A total of one thousand, 1-day-old A strain and R strain male chicks were randomly assigned into 8 treatments in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement. They were fed iso-nitrogenic (CP 21%) crumbled diets formulated to contain metabolizable energy (ME) 2,950 to 3,250 kcal/kg in increment of 100 kcal/kg in the starter phase (1 to 21d) and iso-nitrogenic (CP 19%) pelleted diets containing same ME levels as in the finishing phase (22 to 38d). The body weight (BW) gain of chicks fed the lower ME diets (2,950 or 3,050 kcal/kg) were higher than those of the higher ME groups. The dietary energy level showed significant effects on feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) from 1 to 38 days of age (p<0.05). With the increment of dietary energy, feed intake tended to be reduced, whereas FCR was improved in the two strains of broiler chickens. The lowest FCR was observed at 3,250 kcal/kg diet groups in both of the two strains from 1 to 38 days of age. Feed intake and BW gain during 38 days were significantly affected by the strain factor. Increasing dietary energy up to 3,250 kcal/kg had no effect on the relative weights of breast meat and abdominal fat. The dietary energy and strains showed significant effects on the dressing percentage. There were no significant differences in various blood profiles except for GPT activity.

Comparison of Biomass by Forest Fire Type and Recovery at Samcheuk-si, Gangwon-do, Korea (산불 유형별 식생회복정도에 따른 현존생물량 비교)

  • Lim, Seok-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Sup;Shin, Jin-Ho;Bang, Je-Yong;Yang, Keum-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.528-536
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    • 2012
  • This study has compared the different types of forest fires(unburned, crown fire, ground fire) and the degree of vegetation recovery at Samcheuk-si, Gangwon-do by assessing the biomass and net primary production from July 2007 through July 2010. The research showed that the average biomass of unburned site(Un), crown fire site(C-1), crown fire site(C-3), ground fire site(G-2) were $181.20{\pm}5.39$, $62.04{\pm}4.38$, $131.09{\pm}14.38$, $63.39{\pm}2.72ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, respectively. And the research showed that the average net primary production of unburned site(Un), crown fire site(C-1), crown fire site(C-3), ground fire site(G-2) were $4.17{\pm}0.56$, $3.27{\pm}1.56$, $11.51{\pm}0.53$, $2.10{\pm}0.31ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}{\cdot}yr^{-1}$, respectively. Quercus mongolica $DH_{10}$(Diameter at the 10cm tree height) growth rate at each plot was compared to the crown fire site(C-1) in the annual average $1.21{\pm}0.55mm{\cdot}yr^{-1}$ at the speed of the fastest growth follows; showed crown fire site(C-3), ground fire site(G-2), unburned site(Un) appeared in the order. And that showed the growth rate of height was highest in the $15.43{\pm}4.57cm{\cdot}yr^{-1}$ at crown fire site(C-3), then the crown fire site(C-1), and ground fire site(G-2), and lowest in the unburned site(Un).

The Structure of the Plant Community in Seonamsagol(Valley), Jogyesan(Mt.) Provincial Park, Suncheon City (순천시 조계산도립공원 선암사골 계곡부 식물군집구조)

  • Kim, Jong-Yup
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.593-603
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the ecological succession sere and conservative value, and to provide the basic data for the planning of the Provincial Park Management in Seonamsagol(Valley), Jogyesan(Mt.) Provincial Park(altitude 884m), Suncheon City, Korea by analysing the structure of the plant community. Twenty plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up at an altitude of range from 315m to 480m. As a result of analysis of TWINSPAN which is one of the ordination technique, the plant communities were divided into four groups which are community I(Quercus variabilis community), community II(Q. serrata community), community III(Decideous broad-leaved plant community), and community IV(Carpinus tschonoskii community). The warmth index is $104^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$ based on the data of monthly mean temperature during the past thirty years(1981~2010), so we found out that the vegetation of the study site located in the South Temperate Climate Zone. We supposed that the ecological succession sere of the study site is in the early stage of developing from Q. serrata community to Carpinus tshonoskii community, however we should do a long-term monitoring to investigate the changes of the ecological succession each plant community, meanwhile Sasa borealis was dominant species in the shrub layer. The diameter at breast height of specimen tree is range from 20 to 55cm(average 36cm) and the height of that is range from 14 to 35m(average 23cm). The age of community I was 64 years old, that of community II was from 59 to 64 years old, that of community III was from 51 to 62 years old, and that of community IV was from 41 to 68 years old, thus the age of the study site is about from 38 to 72 years old. According to the index of Shnnon's diversity(unit: $400m^2$), community IV was ranged from 0.8452 to 1.2312, community III was ranged from 0.8044 to 1.1404, community II was ranged from 0.8221 to 0.9971, and community I was 0.8324.

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Amino Acid Contents on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Korean Native Ducks (사료의 조단백질 및 아미노산 함량이 토종오리의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyung Joo;Choo, Yun Kyung;Oh, Sung Taek;Kim, Hak Kyu;Kang, Chang Won;An, Byoung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2013
  • This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) concentrations for growth performance and carcass characteristics in Korean native ducks. In a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement, 1-d-old Korean native male ducks were allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets contained 23 or 21% CP with 1.31/1.09, 1.21/1.00, 1.11/0.91 and 1.11/0.91, 1.02/0.83, 0.92/0.75 AA (Lysine/Total sulfur amino acid, Lysine/TSAA), respectively, from 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, experimental diets had 19 or 17% of diet; each contained 1.00/0.79, 0.94/0.75, 0.88/0.71 and 0.88/0.71, 0.82/0.67, 0.76/0.63 AA (Lysine/TSAA), respectively. Each dietary treatment has 6 replicates and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight (BW), feed intake and uniformity were measured at 3 wk and 8 wk and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 8 wk of age. As CP increased from 21 to 23%, the BW and BW gain significantly increased (P<0.05) during 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, BW, feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion rations (FCR) and uniformity were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. Carcass yield and relative weights of liver, spleen, right breast and leg per 100 of BW were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. The meat color, shear force value, cooking loss and pH were not affected by dietary treatments (P<0.05). Korean native ducks require relatively low levels of dietary CP and AA for late growth and carcass yield due to low daily weight gain. This suggests the possible differences in CP and AA needs between Korean native ducks and commercial breeds from foreign breeding companies, especially late growth stage.

The Study on Productivity of Commercial Korea Chickens for Crossbred Korean Native Chickens (한국 재래닭 및 토착종을 활용한 토종 실용계의 생산성 연구)

  • Lee, Myeong-Ji;Kim, Sang-Ho;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Kim, Hak-Kyu;Choi, Hee-Cheol;Hong, Eui-Chul;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Kim, Chong-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the productivity of Korean native chicken (KNC) 2 strains crossbred. The number of chicks analyzed in this study was 300. Crossbreds used in this studywere A) KNC R strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type S strains, B) KNC egg-meat D strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type H strains, C) KNC egg-meat D strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type S strains, D) KNC egg-meat C strains ${\times}$ KNC native Y strains, and E) KNC native Y strains ${\times}$ KNC meat type H strains. The crossbreds C had the highest performance on body weight gains at 7~10 weeks but crossbreds D showed the lowest (p<0.05). The feed conversion ratio of crossbreds D was the highest value at every weeks (p<0.05). But the carcass weight and carcass ratio of crossbreds D was the lowest value at every weeks (p<0.05). For the percentage of cutted meat, the ranges of mean were 30.60~33.75% in breast, 21.48~24.72% in leg, 11.95~14.33% in wing, 21.91~25.83% in back and of 7.38~8.72% in neck. The percentage of cutted meat for leg was the highest value at every weeks (p<0.05). These results suggested that the development of new crossbreds should be necessary for better performance.