Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.
Purpose: This study was to develop a breastfeeding promotion program and to test effects of the program on levels of breast discomfort, breast size, sodium in breast milk, and type of feeding in mothers with breast engorgement following cesarean birth. Methods: A non-synchronized non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The participants were 70 postpartum mothers who were admitted to a postpartum care center and experienced breast engorgement following cesarean birth. The planned nursing intervention was the breastfeeding promotion program consisting of breast massage and 1:1 breastfeeding education, counseling, and support focusing on individualized problem solving provided for 10 days. Fifty-three women completed the program (experimental group 26, control group, 27). Measurements were level of breast discomfort, breast size, sodium in breast milk and type of feeding at pre and posttest. Results: Women who participated in the program experienced lower scores for breast discomfort, greater decrease in breast size, lower levels of sodium in breast milk, and practiced breastfeeding more than those in the control group. Conclusion: Results indicate that this breastfeeding promotion program is effective in reducing breast engorgement and improving breastfeeding practices, and is therefore recommended to enhance breastfeeding promotion practice in postpartum care centers.
Objectives: Compared with Western countries, the incidence rates for breast cancer in China are still low. However, breast cancer appears to be hitting Chinese women at a much younger age, with a peak between 40 and 50 years. Furthermore, breast tumors of Asian women have molecular and genetic characteristics that are different from those of Caucasian women. Methods: A community-based study was designed to evaluate the relationship between lifestyles and breast cancer risk in Chinese women residing in Guangzhou. 16,314 subjects completed the questionnaire. Potential confounding factors included sociodemographic characteristics. Results: 33 individuals reported a history of breast cancer, yielding a prevalence rate of 202.3/100000. Associations between subjects' demographic and breast cancer risk factors were assessed. Breast cancer is associated with family history of breast cancer, X-rays received, benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia with elevated odds ratios. Conclusions: Family history of breast cancer, X-ray received benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer and may havepotential for breast cancer risk assessment.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
Breast cancer surgery result in changes in clothing style due to changes in the size of the breast as well as body shape. This study provides basic data as a fashion therapy to improve the quality of life for breast cancer patients who have to change clothing habits after surgery. The regression results found that the most important factor are pain and the amount of breast loss for clothes style changes after breast cancer surgery. Breast cancer patients suffer pain relative to the proximity to the date of surgery and regardless of the breast cancer resection range. However, the changes in clothes style relates to the amount of pain and breast reduction range. The t-test results on the change of the clothing styles for before and after breast cancer surgery showed that women significantly prefer comfortable clothes with sleeves and consider a closure style on clothes to put on and take off instead of clothes that are tight-fitting, have thin fabric or deep neck lines. Painful breast cancer results in women who prefer closure style on clothes, front closure clothes and garments that hide body shape. However, the larger reduction range of breast cancer patients and those with painful breast cancer prefer garments that hide body shape and are looser size clothes with sleeves.
This study to study and analyze the current state of infancy breast-feeding ＆ practice and related factors and to provide basic data for the effective practice of breast-feeding and breast-feeding percentage improvement. For the object, 474 mothers of the infants who were born between Jan. 1, 1998 and Dec. 31, 1998 were selected, and the survey period ＆ method were from Oct. 15, 1999 through Nov. 14, 1999 (1 month period) and telephone interview, respectively. To examine by month breast-feeding type, the average breast-feeding percentage in 1 month after a child's birth was 42.4%, but after 6 month it decreased to 23.0%. To see breast-feeding percentage by academic background, the breast-feeding of elementary school graduated mothers was 33.3%, which was highest, and it decreased as the academic background of mothers went better (p〈0.01). By employment state, the percentage for the mothers who were not employed was higher (24.6%) than that of those who were employed at the time, which was 8.0% (p〈0.001). There was no meaningful difference found in breast-feeding percentage by infant mothers age, delivery place, infant sex, child order in family, weight at the time of birth. To examine breast-feeding percentage by delivery method, natural delivery was 27.0% which was higher than 13.1% of Caesarean section (p〈0.01), and by breast-feeding experience before leaving the hospital, 35.6% of those who have breast-fed were breast-feeding while it was 16.4% for those who never did it while in the hospital (p〈0.001). After conducting logistics multi return analysis having breast-feeding percentage as a variable at the time of 6 months after babys birth, I found that infant mothers employment state, delivery method, and breast-feeding experience before leaving the hospital become meaningful variables. As unemployed mothers (p〈0.05), as chose natural delivery (p〈0.05), as experienced breast-feeding before leaving the hospital (p〈0.001), there was more tendency to do breast-feeding. Summing the above results, I would like to suggest the following to raise breast-feeding percentage. Firstly, systematic education about the importance and advantages of breast-feeding and correct breast-feeding method should be practised for women. Secondly, vacation before and after childbirth for working women should be practised and the support of systems for working womens breast-feeding such as installation of nursery in work place are needed. Thirdly, continuous publicity and education for natural delivery inducement is necessary, and for the ones who chose Caesarean section, recommendation of breast-feeding is also needed. Fourth, for breast-feeding within fastest time after delivery, rooming-in required and legal and systematic support is also needed. Lastly, in the governmental level, publicity for breast-feeding and breast-feeding recommending programs that promotes 10 rules for successful breast-feeding bringing-up, provided by UNISEF and WHO, are to be provided.
The purpose of this study is to analyze breast shape by age, to classify breast types and then to suggest brassiere size chart. The subject of anthropometric measurement were 232 women in 20's and 40's. The direct anthropmetric measurement were analyzed by mean, standard deviation, duncan test, T-test, ANOVA, factor & cluster analysis The results are as follows; 1) as a result of analysis for the measurements, according to the increase of age, the items of height were decreased and the items of width, depth, cir- cumference, length were increased, being obesity and breast points were dropped. So the volume and bottom area of 40's women's breast were lager than 20's women's. The width of breast points was bide by increasing of intereior. 2) as a result of factor analyxis, 5 factors were extracted as important factor of breast shapes(obesity of breast and location of breast point, breast height and volume, upper dimensions of breast/lower dimensions of breast, interior dimensions of breast/exterior dimensions of breast, volume of the lower part and drop of breast) 3) as a reslut of cluster analysis, the breast shape were classified into 4 types. namely, typel has the smallest volume, bottom area of breast and the slenderest breast, type2 was the second obesity type. type3 was middle sized type. type4 has much dropped, wide bottom area of breast and the biggest form. 4) To establish brassiere sizing system, the loss funtion was used to decide interval of under bust girth and cup size of size chart. 20 brassiere sizes were established and the size chart covers 92.2% of all subject.
This study was attempted to identify the knowledge to breast-feeding and the performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding and to test 'how does the degree of knowledge to breast-feeding influence the nursing activities for breast-feeding?' The subjects were 180 nurses working in delivery rooms, nursery, obstetrics & pediatrics wards or OPD of obstetrics & gynecology of 8 general hospitals in Pusan as of August 3 through 13, 1996. The results are abstracted as follows. 1) Subject nurses' age, 25-29 was 45.6%(the major), education levels graduates from junior college were 95.0%, unmarried status was 62.2%, 76.5% of married nurses had children, 39.7% in-service education for Breast-Feeding, 33.7% did nursing activities for breast-feeding actively, the reason for inadequate activities for breast-feeding was 'too much other tasks.' 2) The degree of knowledge to breast-feeding ; mean score was 13.54, the degree of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding : 92.38±20.93 points out of possible 145 points (3.19±.74 out of possible 5 points) moaned that it was a low level. 3) The hypothesis 'the nurses who have higher degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding will show higher degrees of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding than the nurses who have lower degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding' was tested by t-test(t=-.01, P=.9888), but rejected because it turned out statistically not significant at the level of P<.05. Above results suggested the degrees of knowledge to breast-feeding and the degrees of performance of nursing activities for breast-feeding were generally low and the degree of knowledge didn't influence the nursing activities. Researchers believe that the education for breast-feeding by the nurses need to be performed systemically & practically and new method of breast-feeding education program need to include hospital managers as well as nurses related mothers and their family. In audition, researchers propose the introduction of &lactation specialist system&, for the specialist can change the attitude of feeding-mothers positively with their specialty and authority.
Objective: While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Results: The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer. Conclusions: Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore especial attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.
Background: Breast cancer accounted for almost 25% of all cancers in women globally in 2012. Although breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in India, there is no organised national breast cancer screening programme. Local studies on the burden of breast cancer are essential to develop effective context-specific strategies for an early detection breast cancer programme, considering the cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in India. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about breast cancer in rural women in Central India. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Wardha district, located in Maharashtra state in Central India in 2013. The sample included 1000 women (609 rural, 391 urban) aged 13-50 years, selected as representative from each of the eight development blocks in the district, using stratified cluster sampling. Trained social workers interviewed women and collected demographic and socio-economic data. The instrument also assessed respondents' knowledge about breast cancer and its symptoms, risks, methods of screening, diagnosis and treatment, as well as their attitudes towards breast cancer and selfreported practices of breast cancer screening. Chi-square and t-test were applied to assess differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice (the outcome variables) between urban and rural respondents. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to analyse the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the outcome variables. Results: While about two-thirds of rural and urban women were aware of breast cancer, less than 7% in rural and urban areas had heard about breast self-examination. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, and treatment was similarly poor in both rural and urban women. Urban women demonstrated more positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening practices than their rural counterparts. Better knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and being office workers or in business. Conclusions: Women in rural Central India have poor knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms and risk factors. Breast self-examination is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn is high. Positive attitudes towards screening provide an opportunity to promote breast self-examination.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
This study presents results of surveys conducted Incheon area using structured questionaire developed by researcher to determine the degree of knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding of mothers of infant. The suvjects were mothers of 84 Childs, 1-6 months of age. Results were as follows : 1. More than half of the subjects started breast feeding and breast-bottle feeding(61.9%) 2. Duration of breast feeding was under one month (9.6%), 1-2months(13.7%), 3-4months(5.5%), 5-6months(23.3%) and had continued breast feeding until they were questioned. 3. The 40.5% of mothers'never got information of breast feeding and 21.4% of mother got information of breart feeding through T. V. or radio. 4. Degree of mothers' knowledge of breast feeding was significantly correlated with mothers' attitude of breast feeding (r=.47, p<0.01) and degree of mothers' attitude of breast feeding was significantly correlated with mothers' practice of breast feeding(r=.34, p<0.01).
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