• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breast

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A Comparison of Meat Characteristics between Duck and Chicken Breast

  • Ali, Md. Shawkat;Kang, Geun-Ho;Yang, Han-Sul;Jeong, Jin-Yeon;Hwang, Young-Hwa;Park, Gu-Boo;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1002-1006
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    • 2007
  • Twenty four broilers (Ross) and 24 ducklings (Cherry berry) aged 45days were stunned and killed by conventional neck cut to evaluate the meat characteristics and fatty acid composition of breast meat. Breast meats were removed from each carcass at different post-mortem times. After complete processing, the breast meats were then placed in a polythene bag and kept in a cold storage room at $4^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The pH of meat samples at different post-mortem times, and meat characteristics and fatty composition at different storage times were evaluated. No significant differences were found in pH at different post-mortem times except at 30 min postmortem, where duck breast showed significantly lower pH than chicken breast. As expected, duck breast meat had significantly higher redness (a*), but lower lightness (L*) value compared to chicken breast. During whole storage time, the a* value remained constant in duck breast. Cooking loss (%) was higher in duck breast compared to chicken breast during the whole storage time. Shear force decreased with increasing storage time in both chicken and duck breast meat, moreover, it decreased rapidly in duck breast compared to chicken breast. The TBARS values increased with increasing storage time in both duck breast and chicken breast meat and was significantly higher in duck breast. The fatty acids (%) C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were significantly higher while C18:0 was significantly lower in duck breast compared to chicken. SFA was increased, while USFA and MUSFA decreased only in duck breast during the 7 day storage time.

Interactions of Family History of Breast Cancer with Radiotherapy in Relation to the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence

  • Li, Danmeng;Mai, Volker;Gerke, Travis;Pinney, Susan Mengel;Yaghjyan, Lusine
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: We examined associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence in women who received or did not receive radiotherapy. Methods: Our study included 2,440 women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Registry of Greater Cincinnati. Information on breast cancer risk factors, including detailed family history of breast cancer, characteristics of the primary tumor, treatment received, and recurrence status was collected at baseline and via updates. Associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence were examined separately in women treated with and without radiotherapy using survival analysis. Results: Over an average follow-up time of 8.78 years, we found no associations between a family history of breast cancer and the risk of breast cancer recurrence among women with a history of radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.23). Among women who did not receive radiotherapy, the total number of relatives with breast cancer was positively associated with the risk of breast cancer recurrence (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). We found no interactions of radiotherapy with family history (p-interaction >0.05). Conclusion: Radiotherapy for a primary breast cancer in women with a family history of breast cancer does not increase risk of breast cancer recurrence. If these findings are replicated in future studies, the results may translate into an important health message for breast cancer survivors with a family history of breast cancer.

A Study on Desirable Breast Type of Women in Their Twenties Based on the Ratio of Breast in Works of Art and Cup Design According to Breast Type (미술작품의 유방 실루엣 비율에 근거한 20대 여성의 바람직한 유방형태와 유형별 컵 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Boo Hyun;Kweon, Soo Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.280-291
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    • 2013
  • This paper analyzes desirable breast types using measurements from 31 selected female subjects based on the ratio of breast in works of art and to design a brassiere cup design according to the breast type of 182 female subjects in their 20s. The subjects selected for this paper are somewhat larger than a previous study on aesthetically perfect breasts of foreigners according to chest breadth, center neck point to breast point, breast circumference, and breast volume. However, the aesthetic breasts of foreigners are larger than the subjects selected for this study according to chest depth, under-bust circumference, and bust point to bust point. Comparing various breasts types and aesthetic breasts, padding is necessary to complement the form of flat breasts to increase the volume and diameter. Brassiere cups for cone-shaped breasts should be designed to increase breast volume through an increase in nipple height. Hemisphere breasts should be designed to increase the overall volume-leaving diameter. Protrusion breasts should enhance the functions of aggregating and supporting without any increase or decrease of the breast volume. Drooping breasts require the ability to support a large volume to stabilize the breast. Subjects were selected depending on the ratio of breast silhouette as works of art and who have large breasts in disproportional to a slender trunk. Three items, the circumferential length of breast, height of the nipple, and the depth of inner breast using the anthropomorphic measurements of 182 subjects were measured through regression equations for breast volume. Breast volume = -394.86 + 27.52 ${\times}$ (the circumferential length of breast) + 18.73 ${\times}$ (height of the nipple) + 12.85 ${\times}$ (the depth of inner breast). Regression equations to extract the aesthetic breast volume in measurements irrelevant to breasts using the anthropomorphic measurements of 31 subjects were as follows. Aesthetic breast volume = -611.30 + 17.67 ${\times}$ (bust circumference) -24.29 ${\times}$ (under-bust circumference) + 16.31 ${\times}$ (neck point to breast point to waistline) + 22.83 ${\times}$ (bust breadth) + 12.22 ${\times}$ (waist depth) -8.34 ${\times}$ (interscye- front). This prediction equation is useful to develop a breast type brassiere pattern, complement breast enhancement surgery, or minimize the effect a mastectomy.

Comparison of Brassiere Pattern according to breast shape on China Adult Females (중국 성인여성의 유방유형에 따른 브래지어 패턴 비교)

  • Cha, Su-Joung;Sohn, Hee-Soon
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.63-79
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    • 2011
  • This study examines the relationship between breast shape and brassiere construction through the comparative analysis of brassiere pattern on the breast shape. This researcher drew the brassiere pattern of developing a pre-study for Chinese female adults according to average size based on the four breast shapes. And then we measures brassiere pattern size and comparatively analyzes breast between size and shape. Comparative analysis results of brassiere patterns are verified differences of size and shape on the breast shape. Above all an angle of cup dart showed remarkable differences on the breast shape. An angle of cup dart isn't proportioned to breast size. An angle of cup dart for cone shape is bigger than dome shape. Because cone shape breast is protruded center part but dome shape breast have a shape of smooth curve like a half globe. So an angle of a cone shape breast cup dart is determined bigger than dome shape breast. For increasing the uplift effect of brassiere, brassiere pattern is different on the breast shape. And a brassiere pattern need different drawing methods about the angle of cup dart, breast inner side diameter, slope and so on. This study has an important significance that it established a mechanical relationship of breast shape and brassiere pattern.

Classification of Middle Aged Women's Breast Shapes Using 3D Body Measurement Data (3차원 인체 측정치들을 이용한 중년 여성의 유방 형태에 따른 유형)

  • Lee, Hyun-Young;Hong, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2010
  • The breast types of middle-aged women of 80A (formerly 80B) size were classified through a 3D scanned nude body. Thirty seven measurements including the radius of curvature, surface area, volume, surface length, and breast displacements were used as input variables. We extracted five main factors through the factor analysis of the measurements and classified 36 subjects into 3 clusters through the cluster analysis. As a result of the factor analysis, the size of the breast, breast sag, the curvature of the inner and the outer breast curve, the width of the breast, and the nipple direction were found as the main factors. For the results of the classification of breast types, Cluster 1 was characterized by narrow breast width and unsymmetrical under the breast curve, whereas Cluster 2 was a wide and sagged shape. Cluster 3 was classified into big breast volume and symmetrical under-breast curve. The results are useful to the product development of high quality brassieres which reflect the 3D characteristics of breast types of middle-aged women.

Influencing Factors in Breast Feeding Duration (모유수유 기간에 미치는 영향요인)

  • Yeo, Jung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.142-147
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the current breast feeding rates in Jeju Province and to identify factors which influence breast feeding duration after birth. Method: The subjects were 189 women with a child between 12 months and 24 months old. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire from October 2003 to January 2004. Measures used in this study included general characteristics, delivery related characteristics, breast feeding related characteristics and the feeding type over a 12-month period after birth. Result: The study showed that the breast feeding rate in the first month was 63.1%, later dropping to 30.9% in the sixth month. In addition, only 14.2% of subjects were still breast feeding the baby at twelve months of age. The mean of breast feeding duration was 4.77 months. The factors which influenced breast feeding duration were wanted pregnancy, breast feeding education, planning of breast feeding and breast feeding experience. Conclusion: Considering the low rate of long-term breast feeding, the importance of breast feeding should be emphasized to promote and support the continuation of breast feeding in addition to at its initial stage. Based on the results, programs on breast feeding promotion and continuation need to be developed.

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Evaluation of BreastLight as a Tool for Early Detection of Breast Lesions among Females Attending National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

  • Labib, Nargis Albert;Ghobashi, Maha Mohamed;Moneer, Manar Mohamed;Helal, Maha Hesien;Abdalgaleel, Shaimaa Abdalaleem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4647-4650
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast illumination was suggested as a simple method for breast cancer screening. BreastLight is a simple apparatus for this purpose. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of BreastLight as a screening tool of breast cancer in comparison to mammography and histopathology. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the mammography unit of the radiodiagnosis department at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. All participants were subjected to breast examination with the BreastLight tool, mammography and ultrasonography. Suspicious cases were biopsied for histopathological examination which is considered as a gold standard. Results: The mean age of the participants was $46.3{\pm}12.4$ years. Breast illumination method had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and total accuracy of 93.0%, 73.7%, 91.4%, 77.8% and 88.2%, respectively in detection of breast cancer. Conclusions: Breast illumination method with BreastLight apparatus is a promising easy-to-use tool to screen for breast cancer suitable for primary health care physician or at-home use. It needs further evaluation especially in asymptomatic women.

An Analysis of Junior High School Girls' Breast Shape by Plane Photogrammetry (평면사진계측에 의한 유방형태 분석)

  • 김경숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the fundamental data for a dummy design used I read-made clothing and underwear production I terms of a pattern of breast types based o their morphological characteristics in accordance with different pattern of breast types. The breast's side and frontal views of the breast were measured with 90 junior high school girls of age between 13 and 16 residing in the urban area of Seoul using the plan photogrammetry. 1. The correlation between the side view body measurement and the breast's side and front view were analyzed by using the canonical correlation analysis, whereby the side view body measurement is showing a 39% of the breast's side view and frontal view. 2. The breast's side and front view has been classified by cluster analysis. The results of custer analysis for the breast's side and front view would be turned out the four cluster. 1) The cluster Ⅰ, The most volumed breast's side view.(20%) 2) The cluster Ⅱ, The fastest growing breast's front view.(38%) 3) The cluster Ⅲ, the latest growing breast.(3%) 4) The cluster Ⅳ, the middle degree growing breast.(39%)

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Classification of Breast Shape of Women Aged 11~15 Using 3D Body Scan Data (3D 인체 스캔 데이터를 이용한 11~15세 성장기 여성의 유방형태에 따른 유형 분류)

  • Han, Tingting;Song, Hwa Kyung;Lee, Kyu Sun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.786-794
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze and classify breast shape of women aged 11~15 using 3D body scan data. In this study, 250 women's body scans were selected from the 6th Size Korea dataset, and 30 items from each of the scan were measured using RapidForm XOR 3 program. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted using statistical program SPSS 17.0. The five principal components were identified; breast drooping and breast capacity, size from chest to under bust area, breast protrusion, breast height, and under breast angle & outer distance of breast. As the results of cluster analysis, woman's breast types were classified into four types. The breast type 1 was protrusion type (25.1%) which is considered as the breast maturity stage. The breast type 2 had the most drooped breast covering a large area (20.2%). The breast type 3 had the least prominent breast with a highest nipple point, which was considered as the early breast development stage (38.9%). The breast type 4 had the obesity of the chest and breast circumferences with the slightly prominent and the least drooped breast (15.8%). This study can provide fundamental information to develop sizing system and brassiere pattern for junior girls.

Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

  • Kim, Sung-Eun;Jung, Dong-Woo;Chung, Kyu-Jin;Lee, Jun Ho;Kim, Tae Gon;Kim, Yong-Ha;Lee, Soo Jung;Kang, Su Hwan;Choi, Jung Eun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2014
  • Background In 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience. Methods From November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction. Results The mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL). The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL). Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen. Conclusions By using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.