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A Study on the Breast Shapes of Adult Women according to the Age (성인여성의 연령집단별 유방형태 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김영숙;손희순
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.25-40
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to provide for the basic data useful to the development of the quality of brassiere featuring a good wearing feeling and an effect of reinstating and correcting breast shape. For this purpose, 220 adult women aged between 20 and 59 were sampled to survey their actual breast shapes. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; 1 According to the increase of age, the items of height were decreased and items of width, depth, circumference and length were increased, being obeser and breast point were drooped. So volume and bottom are3 of breast of 40.50′s women′s age group were larger than 20.30′s women′s age group and breast point width of 40.50′s women was being wider by increase of interior dimensions of breast. 2. The components of adult women′s breast shape can be categorized into "obesity of breast", "upper dimensions of breast and drop", "lower dimensions of breast and drop", "location of breast point and vertical size of breast", "interior dimensions of breast", "exterior dimensions of breast" Such components of breast shape very in terms of weight or apparence depending on ages. Older women tend to have more droopy and widen breasts.

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Comparative study on differences of knowledge and attitude level of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers (일부 농촌지역 영아모의 수유형태에 따른 모유수유에 대한 지식과 태도 비교 연구)

  • Sim, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Mi-Jong
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.82-97
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of knowledge and attitude level of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers. The subjects were mothers of 65 infants 1-6 months of age. Data were collected by a questionnaire on knowledge of breast feeding developed by Jung et al.(l994) and on attitude of breast feeding developed by Shin and Jeon(l996). The data was statistically analyzed according to Frequency, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients. The results are as follows. 1) Degree of knowledge of breast feeding was significantly different according to child number(F=3.72, P<0.05) and delivery pattern(T=2.28, P<0.05) in breast feeding mothers. 2) There was a Significant difference on knowledge of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers(t=2.34, p<.05). 3) There was a statistical Significant difference on attitude of breast feeding between breast feeding mothers and bottle feeding mothers(t=3.05, p<.01). 4) The correlation between the mother's knowledge and attitude level of breast feeding was not found. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that systematic and supportive breast feeding program including knowledge and attitude of breast feeding have to be provided by nurse to mothers of infants to take an important role in breast feeding.

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Korean Immigrant Women's Meanings of Breast, Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Screenings

  • Suh Eun-Young Eunice
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.604-611
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    • 2006
  • Purpose. Koreans are one of the fastest growing Asian populations in the U.S. since 1960s. In Korean immigrant women (KIW), breast cancer was reported as the most frequently diagnosed cancer. However, their screening rates for breast cancer are lower than national guidelines; it is assumed that underlying cultural schemas of breast, breast cancer, and its screening modalities exist and need to be studied. This study was aimed to investigate cultural meanings of breast, breast cancer, and breast cancer screenings in KIW. Methods. Using cultural models theory from cognitive anthropology, naturalistic qualitative methodology was utilized. Three focus group interviews with fifteen KIW were conducted. Thematic analysis with constant comparison technique was performed eliciting units of meaning, categories, and themes. Results. The cultural schema of the meaning of breast is 'mother who is breast-feeding her baby,' with two themes of 'balance in size,' and 'shyness.' Regarding breast cancer, three themes, i.e., 'indifference,' 'fear,' and 'uncertainty' are emerged. 'Lack of information about screening modalities' is the overarching schema with reference to breast cancer screenings. Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrate unique cultural models of KIW related to breast cancer and its screenings, which are critical to understand and penetrate their barriers to breast cancer screening.

Clinicopathological and Prognostic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) in Chinese Patients: A Retrospective Study

  • Li, Chun-Yan;Zhang, Sheng;Zhang, Xiao-Bei;Wang, Pei;Hou, Guo-Fang;Zhang, Jin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3779-3784
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    • 2013
  • Aims: To determine the clinical, pathological and prognostic features associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods: Clinical and histologic data of 21,749 breast cancer patients who were treated at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between July 2002 and December 2011 were collected. Patients were divided into two groups: those with TNBC and those with other types of breast cancer. Patients and tumor characteristics were compared between the two groups using the Chi-square test. The prognostic results of 9,823 patients in the study population were also analyzed to determine long-term survival rates in the two groups of breast cancer patients. Results: Among the breast cancer patients treated in our hospital between 2003 and 2011, 10.4%-13.5% of them had triple-negative breast cancers. Data analyses revealed significant differences in disease onset age, family history of breast cancer, tumor size, tumor histologic grade, lymph note positivity and metastatic status between TNBC and non-TNBC patients. There were also significant differences in 5-year, 7-year and 9-year disease-free and 7-year and 9-year overall survival probability between the groups. Conclusions:TNBC are associated with younger disease onset age, larger tumor size, higher rate of axillary lymph node positivity, and higher tumor histologic grade. TNBC is also related to family history of breast cancer, increased metastatic risk and poor prognosis.

Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma in Axillary Ectopic Breast and Synchronous Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in the Contralateral Breast

  • Oh, Seung Won;Lim, Hyo Soon;Lee, Ji Shin;Moon, Sung Min;Park, Min Ho
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 2017
  • The development of ectopic breast tissue is attributable to the failure of primitive mammary tissue to regress after the development of the mammary ridge, except at pectoral breast sites, and is most often evident in the axillae. Several benign and malignant breast diseases have been reported in ectopic axillary breast tissues. The most common cancerous pathology of ectopic breast tissue is invasive ductal carcinoma. Ectopic breast cancer presenting with simultaneous primary cancer of the pectoral breast is extremely rare. Herein, we report an invasive micropapillary carcinoma of an axillary ectopic breast, combined with a synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ in the contralateral pectoral breast of a 61-year-old woman.

Effect of Breast-feeding Education and Follow-up care on the Breast-feeding Rate and the Breast-feeding Method - Focused on Home Visit and Phone Counselling - (모유수유교육과 추후간호방법이 산모의 모유수유실천율과 모유수유방법에 미치는 효과 - 가정방문과 전화상담을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Sook-Hee;Koh, Hyo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.30-43
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    • 2001
  • This was a pre-experimental study to confirm the breast-feeding ability and effect of follow up care on the breast-feeding rate and the breast-feeding method by the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool for the mothers who got the breast-feeding education. The subjects were 46 mothers who experienced normal delivery of infants at a college hospital in K-city, Kyungsangbuk-do, from July 1 to October 21, 2000. The instrument for data obtainment were The Mother-Infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool of Johnson et al. (1999), and The Breast- Feeding Method Measurement Tool of Jeong, Geum-hee(1997). This instrument was reliable, showing Cronbach $\alpha$.751. This study classified them into 3 groups: at high risk for breast-feeding failure, at risk for breast-feeding problems, and at low risk for breast-feeding failure by the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool on the day of discharge from the hospital after delivering individual breast-feeding education to the subjects. This study investigated the breast-feeding rate and the breast-feeding method through mail questionnaire at the four week after childbirth, and through the phone counselling and the home visit for follow up care at the first week and the second week after childbirth. The sixth week after childbirth, this study investigated the breast-feeding rate by phone. The data analyzed the hypothesizes by $x^2$-test, paired t-test, ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and trend analysis using SPSS/PC+ WIN 10.0 program. The results were as follows : 1) Hypothesis 1-1, "there won't be any difference the breast-feeding rate of a group at risk for breast-feeding failure by the time elapsed" was supported through constant the breast-feeding rate, because changes in the breast-feeding rate by the time elapsed after childbirth wasn't statistically significant(t= -1.501, p=.270). Hypothesis 1-2, "there won't be any difference the breast-feeding rate of group at low risk for breast-feeding failure by the time elapsed" was supported through constant the breast-feeding rate, because changes in the breast-feeding rate by the time elapsed after childbirth wasn't statistically significant(t=-1.732, p=.225). 2) Hypothesis 2-1, "there won't be any difference between the breast-feeding method of group at risk for breast-feeding failure for four weeks after childbirth and just after childbirth” was rejected, because the mean point of post test appeared to be higher than that of pre test(t=-7.267, p=.000). Hypothesis 2-2, "there won't be any difference between the breast-feeding method of the group at low risk for breast-feeding failure for four weeks after childbirth and just after childbirth" was rejected, because the mean point of post test appeared to be higher than that of pre test(t=-2.501, p=.012). 3)The 3rd hypothesis, "there won't be any difference between breast-feeding method of groups at risk for breast-feeding problems and at low risk for breast-feeding failure at the 4th week after childbirth and just after childbirth" didn't show any difference between the breast-feeding method of groups at risk for breast-feeding problems and at low risk for breast-feeding failure in the advance test(t=-1.521, p=.130) but there was difference between them in post test (t=-2.012, p=.044). As a result, the 3rd hypothesis was supported by pre test, but it was rejected by post test. In conclusion, this study confirmed breast- feeding education and follow up care just after childbirth were effective for the breast-feeding rate and method. Accordingly, it is proposed that successful nursing intervention of breast-feeding to be necessary by continuously providing follow up care through the mother-infant breast-feeding assessment tool as well as to execute individual breast-feeding education to mothers just after childbirth.

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Accuracy Improvement of Breast Volume Estimation Using Length Parameters of Breast (유방에 대한 길이 파라미터를 이용한 3차원 유방 부피의 예측 개선)

  • Lee, Hyun-Young;Hong, Kyung-Hi
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.840-849
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    • 2006
  • Breast volume has been approximately estimated under the assumption that the shape of breast is a corn. However, women's breast is more like a bulged bag in reality. In this paper, three methods of breast volume estimation were compared to find out the more accurate method. The shape of the breast is assumed as a hemisphere in the first estimation method and a corn in the second one. In the third method, arc along the cross sectional shape of breast was utilized in the calculation. Comparisons among the methods were made using the actual 3D volume measurement of thirty seven women's breast. As results, the third method was the best one for the normal breast type, especially for the lower part of the breast ($R^2=0.74$) which is the crucial design parameter of the brassiere. Assumption of the shape of breast as a corn was reasonably acceptable when the breast is sagged. It was expected that when women wore brassiere, the accuracy of the third method would increase more, since the shape of breast becomes more symmetrical.

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Process of Breast Feeding Mother's Adaptation (모유수유하는 여성의 어머니 되어가기 과정)

  • Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.186-195
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study aimed to explore the breast feeding process of mothers and to develop a grounded theory about experiences of breast feeding women. Methods: Data was collected by means of an in-depth interview from 8 participants who were breast feeding their baby. The data was analyzed using the grounded theory methodology proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Results: The core category was discovered to be 'becoming a mother'. This process was categorized into 5 stages; 'facing difficulties of breast feeding', 'having the will to continue to breast feed', 'doing one's best to breast feed', 'feeling satisfaction with one's breast feeding', and 'retaining a lingering desire for one's breast feeding'. Mothers began breast feeding without preparation. They faced difficult problems during breast feeding such as getting a lay-person's or professional person's support. They made various efforts for continuing to breast feed and solve the problems. They got pleasure from breast feeding, their baby is fine, and they have a bond with their baby. Finally, when they finished breast feeding, they still felt attached to it and had regrets. Conclusion: This study provided the information about mothers' experiences in the breast feeding process. Therefore, nurses will be able to utilize successful adaptation skills for helping breast feeding mothers.

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Management based on grading of animation deformity following implant-based subpectoral breast reconstruction

  • Vidya, Raghavan;Tafazal, Habib;Salem, Fathi;Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba;Sircar, Tapan
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 2018
  • Subpectoral breast reconstruction using implants and meshes have been used widely in Europe, the United States and the United Kingdom. Although this technique has several advantages, animation deformity is a well-documented problem. We propose a new grading system to classify breast animation in patients undergoing subpectoral implant based breast reconstruction. We also discuss different techniques to avoid and correct animation deformity.

A Study on Breast Shapes for Developing Elderly Women's Brassiere (노년 여성용 브레지어 개발을 위한 흉부 형태 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 이경화;최혜선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.995-1007
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study is to examine on breast shapes of elderly women and provide fundamental data for developing brassiere. Numerous anthropometric measurements and other related data from 398 subjects were analyzed by various statistical methods such as ANOVA, Correlation analysis, Factor analysis and Cluster analysis. 1. Analysis of Breast Measurements The subjects were categorized into three groups(Group I; aged 55 to 64, Group II; aged 65 to 74, Group III; aged more than 75). 1) The results of the comparative analysis of anthropometric data from three groups show that by getting older: - $\circled1$ Breast lengths, widths, heights and bust girths are decreased significantly $\circled2$ Various length measurements related to the drooping degree of breast are increased $\circled3$ Some measurements related to the volume of breast are decreased. 2) The results of the correlation analysis among measurement show that there are no directs linear relationships between under bust girth and bust drooping. Further it turned out that the cup size could be used as a factor explaining the volume of breast due to large subject variation, Thus it is required to have more specific information about the breast volume. 2. Analysis of Breast Shapes 1) From 17 measurements, 5 factor were selected as key factors for the factor analysis of breast analysis of breast shapes. The 5 factors are: $\circled1$ Drooping degree of breast $\circled2$ slope between breast and chest, width of bust point $\circled3$ Contours and prominence of breast at the point of front and side $\circled4$ Breast volume $\circled5$ Breast width. 2) We categorized the breast shapes into three types by Cluster analysis. Type 1 is the most common breast shape in elderly women. $\circled1$ Type L: Not too droopy and large breast $\circled2$ Type 2: A little droopy and small breast $\circled3$ Type 3; Very droopy and wide breast

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