The purpose of this study is to classify breast types and to inquire about characteristics depending on breast types of women subjects in their twenties. We researched size items affecting breast volume and regression equations for the prediction of breast volume, and thereby, we will be able to provide some basic data, useful to the development of the brassiere depending on breast types. As a result of categorizing the types of three breast types, "type 1" was characterized by big and greatest protrusion of the breast with large breast volume and a large bust, while "type 2" was characterized by flat breasts with the least breast volume and least bust, and "type 3" was characterized by breast location apart from the center front line. Breast volume is significant in establishment of the brassiere cup depending on breast type. Five items such as, the circumference of the breast, the length of the upper breast, the depth of the breast point, the length of the shoulder point-breast point, and the length of the inferior breast were extracted through regression equations for breast volume.
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
The manual measurements of 182 unmarried women subjects in their 20s was classified 4-breast types. For the breast type classification, 4 factors were identified, such as overall breast factor, upper breast internal shape factor, breast volume factor, and lower breast external shape factor. The breast shapes were 'breast with well-grown upper part', 'flat breast', 'breast with well-grown lower part', and 'protruded breast'. The breast types can be differentiated in 10 items of actual anthropometric dimension the length between frontal neck point and nipple point, length between lateral neck point and nipple point, length between the breast inner points, nipple to nipple breadth, diameter below the breast, inner depth of breast, outer length of breast, length below the breast, length between breast outer point and upper breast point, and contour line length below the breast.
This study was carried out to investigate the experiences of breast milk feeding information and education, breast milk feeding knowledge and attitude and needs for breast milk feeding nutrition education of high school students to encourage breast milk feeding. The subjects were 565 (male: 250, female: 315) high school students from first to third grade. The results obtained were as follows: In this survey, only 30.0% of subjects experienced breast milk feeding information and only 6.1% of subjects had breast milk feeding education. And the subjects showed the average scores of knowledge of breast milk feeding were 0.29 points of 1 point. Subjects knew well about ingredients of breast milk but they didn't know well about the physiology and method of breast milk feeding and benefits of breast milk feeding for mothers. The average scores of attitude of breast milk feeding were 3.03 points of 4 points, showed slight positive attitudes of breast milk feeding, but they had negative attitudes of emotional and practical aspects. The future plan of feeding practices was breast milk feeding 35.9% and 60.0% of formula milk feeding. A concern was that the students showed high ratio of formula milk feeding plan and they decided by incorrect knowledge of breast milk feeding. The 33.5% of students answered high school students will need breast milk feeding nutrition education, and they thought hospital faculties were the proper educators of breast milk feeding education, but dietitians were recomended as educators because of easy access at school and good knowledge of life-cycle nutrition. Therefore, to encourage breast milk feeding by mothers and supporters of breast milk feeding, breast milk feeding nutrition education is needed urgently among high school male and female students. And nutrition education programs will have to contain benefits of breast milk for babies and mothers and physiology and practical methods of breast milk feeding to improve emotional and practical attitudes for breast milk feeding. Nationwide campaign to promote breast milk feeding at public areas will be needed.
To provide the basic data to manufacture superior brassiere, this study was analyzed the evaluation of wear sensation of brassiere and the satisfaction of breast type by breast circumference and volume of 182 twenties-aged women. The results were as follows: First, it was reliable to set up the cup size of brassiere by using the breast circumference. Hemispherical breast was the same as cone-shaped breast in breast classification by breast circumference and volume. Second, the breast sizes were able to classify into under 200cc, 200~300cc, 300~400cc, and over 400cc by volume, but measuring the volume was more difficult than measuring the breast circumference. Last, there were correlations between breast circumference and breast volume by breast type. And there were differences on improvement, brassiere size, and the satisfaction of breast type by breast circumference and volume. This results will give basic informations for brassiere design that reflects breast type according to breast circumference and volume for functional brassiere.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate middle school students' knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding. Methods: The knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding were measured by structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation, using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program. Results: The level of knowledge of breast feeding was 9.02 points out of 25 points, in average. Attitudes towards breast feeding was 3.77 points out of 5 points, in average. There were significant differences in the knowledge of breast feeding according to grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There were significant differences in attitudes towards breast feeding according to gender, grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, timing of breast feeding education, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge of breast feeding and attitudes towards breast feeding. Conclusion: Middle school students should be provided with various education programs to improve their knowledge of and attitudes toward breast feeding.
This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and educational needs regarding breast feeding of women's mothers and mother-in-laws with a grandchild aged less than 24 months. The degree of knowledge regarding breast feeding was 14.84 points out of 25 points, while the attitude toward breast feeding was 83.88 points. Additionally, 16.4% of the respondents reported that education regarding breast feeding was unnecessary. There were significant differences in knowledge regarding breast feeding among individuals of different age (p<0.05), economic status (p<0.05), and with different aged grandchildren (p<0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in attitude toward breast feeding based on the type of feeding (p<0.05), the practice of breast feeding (p<0.01), and reasons for low breast feeding rate (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge regarding breast feeding and attitude toward breast feeding. The factors affecting knowledge regarding breast feeding were attitude toward breast feeding and middleclass economic status. In addition, the factors affecting attitude toward breast feeding included knowledge of breast feeding and the practice of breast feeding. Overall, the subjects had high educational needs regarding breast feeding; therefore, women's mothers and mother-in-laws should be given the opportunity for various types of education to improve their breast feeding knowledge.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine breast shape and ratio of breast enlargement women prior to development of breast enlargement patient's bra. Background: Although there are many previous studies on women's breast that did not undergo breast augmentation surgery, no studies have examined the breast type and proportion of women with breast augmentation. Method: In this study, we analyzed ratios and angles with photographs taken before and after breast augmentation on the frontal and lateral views of the breast, UPF and projection were analyzed too. We also compared the pre-operative and post-operative rates with those of previous breast studies, as well as the post-operative breast types for the desirable breast types. Results: The length and width of the breast base and the height of the breast projection increased after the operation. The rate of increase in width is larger than the vertical distance in the breast base, and the rate of increase in height of the projection is larger than the increase in the width. Specifically, in the vertical distance, the rate of increase in the lower portion is larger than that in the upper portion. In the width, the rate of increase on the inside is larger than that on the outside. Conclusion: The angles of the static relationship with the projection increased and the angles of the minor relation decreased. The changes in the size of the breast were visually observed in the overlapping of the triangle shape before and after the surgery. The changes were composed of the line connecting the angle and the measurement points. The pre-operative upper pole fullness (UPF) was mostly 0 and - 1, but after the surgery, +1, 0, -1, +2 were distributed, while post-operative levels of projection were distributed in the order of level 3> level 1> level 2. In comparison with the desirable breast type, it was found that the anatomical type was a more natural breast type than the round type of implant. Application: These results can be useful as basic data for the breast analysis of breast enlargement patients and their bra patterns.
Purpose: With the necessity of comprehensive care for the breast cancer patients, Breast Care Center of our hospital started to work in March 2004. This study examined the 3-year execution of Breast Care Center. The role of Breast Care Center was evaluated in aspect of clinical activities in quality and quantity. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out from 2001 to 2007 with breast cancer patients. The number and type of breast cancer surgery and breast reconstruction procedure were compared before and after Breast Care Center's foundation. Time required for the diagnosis and treatment was also compared. Regression analysis and T-test were used to identify the statistical significance. Results: The number of breast cancer surgery did not statistically increase compared with progressive increase of breast cancer. QUART(quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, radiotherapy) procedure statistically significantly increased and MRM(Modified Radical Mastectomy) procedure decreased for breast cancer surgery after foundation of Breast Care Center. The number of breast reconstruction procedures statistically significantly increased. The number of immediate TRAM free flap (Transverse Rectus Abdominal muscle free flap) procedures has grown 3.8 times after foundation of Breast Care Center. The time required for diagnosis and treatment was also shortened. Conclusion: After foundation of Breast Care Center, the number of breast reconstruction surgery increased, while the counselling time in breast reconstruction was reduced. Breast Care Center provided a prompt and comprehensive care to the breast cancer patients through the multidisciplinary therapeutic approaches.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of breast shapes by age, to classify breast types, and to investigate the characteristics of breast shapes by type and the distributions of types by age group, using comparative analysis for women in 20's and 40's. The subjects of anthropometry were 323 women in 20's and 40's. The anthropometric measurements were analyzed by mean, standard deviation, frequency, T-test, F-test, Duncan test, factor and cluster analysis. The results are as follws : 1) According to the increase of age, the items of height were decreased and the items of width, depth, circumference and length were increased, being obeser and breast points were dropped. So the volume and bottom area of 40's women's breast were larger than 20's women's and the breast point to breast point width of 40's women was being wider by the increase of the intereior of breast. 2) 6 factor were extracted from factor analysis by age group. There was no significant difference in consist of factor between age group. There was no significant difference in consist of facotr between age group, but were differences in the connection of factor extracted items and factor loading. Through factor analysis of all age froup, 5 factors were extracted as important factor of breast shapes (obesity of breast and location of breast point ; breast height and volume ; upper dimensions of breast/lower dimensions of breast ; interior dimensions of breast/exterior dimensions of breast ; volume of the lower part and drop of breast). 3) The breast shapes were classified into 4 types by cluster analysis. The frequency of 20's women's breast types appeared in order of type1(53.0%), type3(32.0%), type2(11.0%), type4(4.0%), but that of breast types of 40's women appeared in order of type2(37.9%), type3(31.1%), type4(26.5%), type1(4.5%). Namely, there was few type4 in 20's women and few type1 in 40's women. 20's women's breast types were characterized as type1·3 and type2·3·4 in 40's women. So 40's women had more various breast types than 20's women's.
Lee, Dong-Gwan;Seul, Jung-Hyun;Lim, Young Bin;Shin, Hea-Kyeong;Choi, Jun
Archives of Plastic Surgery
Purpose: Unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy confront the challenges of recreating a natural appearing breast mound and achieving symmetricalness of the breasts. If the patient's remaining breast is large compared to reconstructed breast, the most common procedure is reduction mammoplasty of the large breast side. The authors experienced a new method of breast reconstruction using the excess breast tissue from the contralateral breast after breast reduction. Methods: The excess tissue from the contralateral breast after vertical reduction mammoplasty with superior pedicle and remaining lower breast tissue were transferred to the mastectomy site breast through the subcutaneous tunnel on the chest wall. The main blood supplies of the flap are perforator branches of the 4th, 5th and 6th anterior intercostal artery. After elevating and detaching the flap on the lower lateral area of the breast, the turn overed flap is fixed on the upper portion of the chest wall of the mastectomy site. Results: On two cases of the breast reconstructions, remaining excess breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty was transferred to the contralateral breast side as pedicles. Both patient and operator were satisfied with the outcome of the reconstruction as the breasts were symmetrical and natural shape. Conclusion: We have performed unilateral breast reconstruction using the excess breast tissue after reduction mammoplasty of the contralateral breast. As Oriental women's breasts are relatively smaller than that of Caucasian women, delayed breast reconstruction cases of Oriental women with large breasts(macromastia) seem to be ideal for this procedure.
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