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Analysis On the Classification of Breast Types and the Breast Volume of Women in Their Twenties (20대 여성의 유방 유형 분류와 유방의 볼륨 분석)

  • Kim, Yeo-Won;Kweon, Soo-Ae;Sohn, Boo-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1267-1276
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to classify breast types and to inquire about characteristics depending on breast types of women subjects in their twenties. We researched size items affecting breast volume and regression equations for the prediction of breast volume, and thereby, we will be able to provide some basic data, useful to the development of the brassiere depending on breast types. As a result of categorizing the types of three breast types, "type 1" was characterized by big and greatest protrusion of the breast with large breast volume and a large bust, while "type 2" was characterized by flat breasts with the least breast volume and least bust, and "type 3" was characterized by breast location apart from the center front line. Breast volume is significant in establishment of the brassiere cup depending on breast type. Five items such as, the circumference of the breast, the length of the upper breast, the depth of the breast point, the length of the shoulder point-breast point, and the length of the inferior breast were extracted through regression equations for breast volume.

A Study on Breast Type Classification & Discrimination Using Manual Measurement- Focusing on Korean Women in Their 20s -

  • Sohn, Boo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2020
  • The manual measurements of 182 unmarried women subjects in their 20s was classified 4-breast types. For the breast type classification, 4 factors were identified, such as overall breast factor, upper breast internal shape factor, breast volume factor, and lower breast external shape factor. The breast shapes were 'breast with well-grown upper part', 'flat breast', 'breast with well-grown lower part', and 'protruded breast'. The breast types can be differentiated in 10 items of actual anthropometric dimension the length between frontal neck point and nipple point, length between lateral neck point and nipple point, length between the breast inner points, nipple to nipple breadth, diameter below the breast, inner depth of breast, outer length of breast, length below the breast, length between breast outer point and upper breast point, and contour line length below the breast.

A Study on Knowledges and Attitudes about Breast Milk Feeding and Needs for Breast Milk Feeding Education among High School Students (고교생의 모유영양 지식과 태도 및 모유수유 영양교육 요구)

  • Choi Kyung-Suk;Lee Hee-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the experiences of breast milk feeding information and education, breast milk feeding knowledge and attitude and needs for breast milk feeding nutrition education of high school students to encourage breast milk feeding. The subjects were 565 (male: 250, female: 315) high school students from first to third grade. The results obtained were as follows: In this survey, only 30.0% of subjects experienced breast milk feeding information and only 6.1% of subjects had breast milk feeding education. And the subjects showed the average scores of knowledge of breast milk feeding were 0.29 points of 1 point. Subjects knew well about ingredients of breast milk but they didn't know well about the physiology and method of breast milk feeding and benefits of breast milk feeding for mothers. The average scores of attitude of breast milk feeding were 3.03 points of 4 points, showed slight positive attitudes of breast milk feeding, but they had negative attitudes of emotional and practical aspects. The future plan of feeding practices was breast milk feeding 35.9% and 60.0% of formula milk feeding. A concern was that the students showed high ratio of formula milk feeding plan and they decided by incorrect knowledge of breast milk feeding. The 33.5% of students answered high school students will need breast milk feeding nutrition education, and they thought hospital faculties were the proper educators of breast milk feeding education, but dietitians were recomended as educators because of easy access at school and good knowledge of life-cycle nutrition. Therefore, to encourage breast milk feeding by mothers and supporters of breast milk feeding, breast milk feeding nutrition education is needed urgently among high school male and female students. And nutrition education programs will have to contain benefits of breast milk for babies and mothers and physiology and practical methods of breast milk feeding to improve emotional and practical attitudes for breast milk feeding. Nationwide campaign to promote breast milk feeding at public areas will be needed.

A Study on Cup Size of Brassiere and Classification of Breast Type according to Breast Circumference and Volume (유방원주와 볼륨에 따른 브래지어 컵 치수 및 유방유형 분류에 관한 연구)

  • Kweon, Soo-Ae;Sohn, Boo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • To provide the basic data to manufacture superior brassiere, this study was analyzed the evaluation of wear sensation of brassiere and the satisfaction of breast type by breast circumference and volume of 182 twenties-aged women. The results were as follows: First, it was reliable to set up the cup size of brassiere by using the breast circumference. Hemispherical breast was the same as cone-shaped breast in breast classification by breast circumference and volume. Second, the breast sizes were able to classify into under 200cc, 200~300cc, 300~400cc, and over 400cc by volume, but measuring the volume was more difficult than measuring the breast circumference. Last, there were correlations between breast circumference and breast volume by breast type. And there were differences on improvement, brassiere size, and the satisfaction of breast type by breast circumference and volume. This results will give basic informations for brassiere design that reflects breast type according to breast circumference and volume for functional brassiere.

Knowledge and Attitude for Breast Feeding of Middle School Students (중학생의 모유수유에 대한 지식 및 태도)

  • Cho, Eun A
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate middle school students' knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding. Methods: The knowledge and attitudes related to breast feeding were measured by structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation, using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program. Results: The level of knowledge of breast feeding was 9.02 points out of 25 points, in average. Attitudes towards breast feeding was 3.77 points out of 5 points, in average. There were significant differences in the knowledge of breast feeding according to grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There were significant differences in attitudes towards breast feeding according to gender, grade, feeding type, family type, experiences of observing breast feeding, experiences of obtaining breast feeding information, timing of breast feeding education, will to practice breast feeding, and the reasons for low breast feeding rate. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge of breast feeding and attitudes towards breast feeding. Conclusion: Middle school students should be provided with various education programs to improve their knowledge of and attitudes toward breast feeding.

Knowledge, Attitude and Educational Needs Regarding Breast Feeding of Women's Mothers and Mother-in-laws (친정어머니와 시어머니의 모유수유에 대한 지식, 태도 및 교육요구)

  • Kim, KyeHa;Cho, EunA
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and educational needs regarding breast feeding of women's mothers and mother-in-laws with a grandchild aged less than 24 months. The degree of knowledge regarding breast feeding was 14.84 points out of 25 points, while the attitude toward breast feeding was 83.88 points. Additionally, 16.4% of the respondents reported that education regarding breast feeding was unnecessary. There were significant differences in knowledge regarding breast feeding among individuals of different age (p<0.05), economic status (p<0.05), and with different aged grandchildren (p<0.05). Additionally, there were significant differences in attitude toward breast feeding based on the type of feeding (p<0.05), the practice of breast feeding (p<0.01), and reasons for low breast feeding rate (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge regarding breast feeding and attitude toward breast feeding. The factors affecting knowledge regarding breast feeding were attitude toward breast feeding and middleclass economic status. In addition, the factors affecting attitude toward breast feeding included knowledge of breast feeding and the practice of breast feeding. Overall, the subjects had high educational needs regarding breast feeding; therefore, women's mothers and mother-in-laws should be given the opportunity for various types of education to improve their breast feeding knowledge.

The Role of Breast Care Center in the Breast Reconstruction (유방재건에서의 유방센터의 역할)

  • Minn, Kyung Won;Park, Jin Hong;Park, Gul Gyoo
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.617-621
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: With the necessity of comprehensive care for the breast cancer patients, Breast Care Center of our hospital started to work in March 2004. This study examined the 3-year execution of Breast Care Center. The role of Breast Care Center was evaluated in aspect of clinical activities in quality and quantity. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out from 2001 to 2007 with breast cancer patients. The number and type of breast cancer surgery and breast reconstruction procedure were compared before and after Breast Care Center's foundation. Time required for the diagnosis and treatment was also compared. Regression analysis and T-test were used to identify the statistical significance. Results: The number of breast cancer surgery did not statistically increase compared with progressive increase of breast cancer. QUART(quadrantectomy, axillary dissection, radiotherapy) procedure statistically significantly increased and MRM(Modified Radical Mastectomy) procedure decreased for breast cancer surgery after foundation of Breast Care Center. The number of breast reconstruction procedures statistically significantly increased. The number of immediate TRAM free flap (Transverse Rectus Abdominal muscle free flap) procedures has grown 3.8 times after foundation of Breast Care Center. The time required for diagnosis and treatment was also shortened. Conclusion: After foundation of Breast Care Center, the number of breast reconstruction surgery increased, while the counselling time in breast reconstruction was reduced. Breast Care Center provided a prompt and comprehensive care to the breast cancer patients through the multidisciplinary therapeutic approaches.

Comparison of Breast Measurement Ratios Before and After Breast Augmentation Using Photogrammetric Ratio Measurements (PRM)

  • Yi, Kyong-Hwa;Sohn, Boo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.305-323
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine breast shape and ratio of breast enlargement women prior to development of breast enlargement patient's bra. Background: Although there are many previous studies on women's breast that did not undergo breast augmentation surgery, no studies have examined the breast type and proportion of women with breast augmentation. Method: In this study, we analyzed ratios and angles with photographs taken before and after breast augmentation on the frontal and lateral views of the breast, UPF and projection were analyzed too. We also compared the pre-operative and post-operative rates with those of previous breast studies, as well as the post-operative breast types for the desirable breast types. Results: The length and width of the breast base and the height of the breast projection increased after the operation. The rate of increase in width is larger than the vertical distance in the breast base, and the rate of increase in height of the projection is larger than the increase in the width. Specifically, in the vertical distance, the rate of increase in the lower portion is larger than that in the upper portion. In the width, the rate of increase on the inside is larger than that on the outside. Conclusion: The angles of the static relationship with the projection increased and the angles of the minor relation decreased. The changes in the size of the breast were visually observed in the overlapping of the triangle shape before and after the surgery. The changes were composed of the line connecting the angle and the measurement points. The pre-operative upper pole fullness (UPF) was mostly 0 and - 1, but after the surgery, +1, 0, -1, +2 were distributed, while post-operative levels of projection were distributed in the order of level 3> level 1> level 2. In comparison with the desirable breast type, it was found that the anatomical type was a more natural breast type than the round type of implant. Application: These results can be useful as basic data for the breast analysis of breast enlargement patients and their bra patterns.

Korean Immigrant Women's Meanings of Breast, Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Screenings

  • Suh Eun-Young Eunice
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.604-611
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    • 2006
  • Purpose. Koreans are one of the fastest growing Asian populations in the U.S. since 1960s. In Korean immigrant women (KIW), breast cancer was reported as the most frequently diagnosed cancer. However, their screening rates for breast cancer are lower than national guidelines; it is assumed that underlying cultural schemas of breast, breast cancer, and its screening modalities exist and need to be studied. This study was aimed to investigate cultural meanings of breast, breast cancer, and breast cancer screenings in KIW. Methods. Using cultural models theory from cognitive anthropology, naturalistic qualitative methodology was utilized. Three focus group interviews with fifteen KIW were conducted. Thematic analysis with constant comparison technique was performed eliciting units of meaning, categories, and themes. Results. The cultural schema of the meaning of breast is 'mother who is breast-feeding her baby,' with two themes of 'balance in size,' and 'shyness.' Regarding breast cancer, three themes, i.e., 'indifference,' 'fear,' and 'uncertainty' are emerged. 'Lack of information about screening modalities' is the overarching schema with reference to breast cancer screenings. Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrate unique cultural models of KIW related to breast cancer and its screenings, which are critical to understand and penetrate their barriers to breast cancer screening.

A Study on the Breast Shapes of Adult Women according to the Age (성인여성의 연령집단별 유방형태 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김영숙;손희순
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.25-40
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to provide for the basic data useful to the development of the quality of brassiere featuring a good wearing feeling and an effect of reinstating and correcting breast shape. For this purpose, 220 adult women aged between 20 and 59 were sampled to survey their actual breast shapes. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; 1 According to the increase of age, the items of height were decreased and items of width, depth, circumference and length were increased, being obeser and breast point were drooped. So volume and bottom are3 of breast of 40.50′s women′s age group were larger than 20.30′s women′s age group and breast point width of 40.50′s women was being wider by increase of interior dimensions of breast. 2. The components of adult women′s breast shape can be categorized into "obesity of breast", "upper dimensions of breast and drop", "lower dimensions of breast and drop", "location of breast point and vertical size of breast", "interior dimensions of breast", "exterior dimensions of breast" Such components of breast shape very in terms of weight or apparence depending on ages. Older women tend to have more droopy and widen breasts.

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