• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brassica rapa

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Variation in Agronomic Traits and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Seed Oil in Germplasm Collection of Brassica spp.

  • Ko, Ho-Cheol;Sung, Jung-Sook;Hur, On-Sook;Baek, Hyung-Jin;Lee, Myung-Chul;Luitel, Binod Prasad;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul;Rhee, Ju-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.590-600
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    • 2017
  • A total of 447 accessions consisting of seven Brassica spp.; Brassica carinata (34), B. juncea (199), B. rapa subsp. dichotoma (18), B. rapa. subsp. oleifera (14), B. rapa subsp. rapa (36), B. rapa subsp. trilocularis (56) and B. alba subsp. alba (90) were studied for their morphological characters and fatty acid compositions. There was a wide variation for morphological traits, oil content and fatty acid composition among Brassica species. Seed number/silique and yield/plant were varied from 4.2 (B. alba) to 25.1 (B. rapa subsp. trilocularis) and from 170.7 g (B. rapa subsp. oleifera) to 351.9 g (B. juncea L. Czern.), respectively. Among Brassica species, B. rapa subsp. trilocularis exhibited the highest oil (29.2%), stearic (20.4%) and erucic acid (45.3%) content. B. carinata had the highest content of palmitic (5.2%), oleic (21.2%) and linolenic acid (11.1%). B. rapa subsp. dichotoma and B. rapa subsp. oleifera exhibited the highest content of linoleic (8.1%) and behenic (26.9%) acid, respectively. B. rapa subsp. trilocularis exhibited the highest (45.3%) erucic acid content and significant positive relationship was observed between oleic acid and linoleic acid. This variation of agronomic and fatty acid compositions in Brassica species can be utilized to develop new varieties.

The strategy and current status of Brassica rapa genome project (배추 유전체 염기서열 해독 전략과 현황)

  • Mun, Jeong-Hwan;Kwon, Soo-Jin;Park, Beom-Seok
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.153-165
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    • 2010
  • Brassica rapa is considered an ideal candidate to act as a reference species for Brassica genomic studies. Among the three basic Brassica species, B. rapa (AA genome) has the smallest genome (529 Mbp), compared to B. nigra (BB genome, 632 Mbp) and B. oleracea (CC genome, 696 Mbp). There is also a large collection of available cultivars of B. rapa, as well as a broad array of B. rapa genomic resources available. Under international consensus, various genomic studies on B. rapa have been conducted, including the construction of a physical map based on 22.5X genome coverage, end sequencing of 146,000 BACs, sequencing of >150,000 expressed sequence tags, and successful phase 2 shotgun sequencing of 589 euchromatic region-tiling BACs based on comparative positioning with the Arabidopsis genome. These sequenced BACs mapped onto the B. rapa genome provide beginning points for genome sequencing of each chromosome. Applying this strategy, all of the 10 chromosomes of B. rapa have been assigned to the sequencing centers in seven countries, Korea, UK, China, India, Canada, Australia, and Japan. The two longest chromosomes, A3 and A9, have been sequenced except for several gaps, by NAAS in Korea. Meanwhile a China group, including IVF and BGI, performed whole genome sequencing with Illumina system. These Sanger and NGS sequence data will be integrated to assemble a draft sequence of B. rapa. The imminent B. rapa genome sequence offers novel insights into the organization and evolution of the Brassica genome. In parallel, the transfer of knowledge from B. rapa to other Brassica crops would be expected.

Identification and characterization of the phytocystatin family from Brassica rapa

  • Hong, Joon-Ki;Hwang, Jung-Eun;Park, Tae-Ho;Zang, Yun-Xiang;Lee, Sang-Choon;Kwon, Soo-Jin;Mun, Jeong-Hwan;Kim, Hyun-Uk;Kim, Jin-A;Jin, Mi-Na;Kim, Jung-Sun;Lee, Soo-In;Lim, Myung-Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.317-327
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    • 2008
  • Phytocystatins, which are inhibitors of plant cysteine peptidases, are involved in the regulation of protein turnover and in the defense against insect pests and pathogens. Extensive searches in the Brassica rapa genome allowed the prediction of at least eight different phytocystatin genes on seven chromosomes in the B. rapa genome. Structure comparisons based on alignments of the all BrCYS ($\underline{B}$. $\underline{r}apa$ $phyto{\underline{cys}}tatin$) proteins using the CLUSTALW program revealed conservation of the three consensus motifs known to interact with the active site of cysteine peptidases. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences, the eight BrCYS proteins were divided into several clusters related to the orthologous phytocystatin. The predicted three-dimensional structure models of the eight BrCYS proteins demonstrate that all of these proteins are similar to the reported crystal structure of oryzacystatin-I (OC-I). Digital northern and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the eight BrCYS genes exhibit different expression patterns in B. rapa tissues and respond differently to abiotic stimuli. The differences in gene structure and expression between the eight BrCYS genes suggest that these proteins may play diverse physiological roles in B. rapa and may interact with cysteine peptidases through different mechanisms.

Effect of Brassica rapa L. extracts and ${\beta}-sitosterol$ on hyperlipidemic rats (순무와 ${\beta}-sitosterol$의 고지혈증 억제에 대한 연구)

  • Rhee Yun-Hee;Lee Eun-Ok;Park Soo-Young;Lee Hyo-Jung;Yoon Byong-Su;Kim Jung-Hyo;Kim Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1528-1533
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    • 2005
  • To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Brassica rapa L. and its major compound, $\beta$-sitosterol, the present study was undertaken, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats with poloxamer-407, Triton WR-1339, 30% corn oil high cholesterol diet. The ethanol extract of Brassica rapa L. significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid, triglyceride at doses of 200 mg/kg, and $\beta$-sitosterol significantly exerted anti-hyperlipidemic activity at a dose of 15 mg/kg in rats with hyperlipidemia. Taken together, Brassica rapa L. and $\beta$-sitosterol can be useful agents for the prevention or treatment of hyperlipidemia.

A Survey of the Brassica rapa Genome by BAC-End Sequence Analysis and Comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Hong, Chang Pyo;Plaha, Prikshit;Koo, Dal-Hoe;Yang, Tae-Jin;Choi, Su Ryun;Lee, Young Ki;Uhm, Taesik;Bang, Jae-Wook;Edwards, David;Bancroft, Ian;Park, Beom-Seok;Lee, Jungho;Lim, Yong Pyo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.300-307
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    • 2006
  • Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) is an economically important crop and a model plant for studies on polyploidization and phenotypic evolution. To gain an insight into the structure of the B. rapa genome we analyzed 12,017 BAC-end sequences for the presence of transposable elements (TEs), SSRs, centromeric satellite repeats and genes, and similarity to the closely related genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. TEs were estimated to occupy 14% of the genome, with 12.3% of the genome represented by retrotransposons. It was estimated that the B. rapa genome contains 43,000 genes, 1.6 times greater than the genome of A. thaliana. A number of centromeric satellite sequences, representing variations of a 176-bp consensus sequence, were identified. This sequence has undergone rapid evolution within the B. rapa genome and has diverged among the related species of Brassicaceae. A study of SSRs demonstrated a non-random distribution with a greater abundance within predicted intergenic regions. Our results provide an initial characterization of the genome of B. rapa and provide the basis for detailed analysis through whole-genome sequencing.

Isolation and Expression Analysis of Brassica rapa WRKY 7

  • Kim, Seon-Seol;Ko, Yu-Jin;Jang, Ji-Young;Lee, Theresa;Lim, Myung-Ho;Park, Sang-Yeol;Bae, Shin-Chul;Yun, Choong-Hyo;Park, Beom-Seok;Hwang, Duk-Ju
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.478-481
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    • 2008
  • The cDNA clone of Brassica rapa WRKY7 (BrWRKY7) was obtained from EST collection in Brassica genomics team and its DNA sequence was determined. The cDNA clone is 1,037 bp long in nucleotides and encodes an open reading frame of 307 amino acids. Based on a phylogenetic tree, BrWRKY7 belongs to group IId. BrWRKY7 was induced by wound and SA. It was also induced by pathogen attack such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), suggesting that this BrWRKY may play an essential role in defense response of chinese cabbages.

Chemical Constituents from the Root of Brassica campestris ssp rapa (순무(Brassica campestris ssp rapa) 뿌리의 화학성분)

  • Kim, Jung-Sook;Choi, Yeon-Hee;Seo, Jee-Hee;Lee, Jung-Won;Kim, Young-Sup;Ryu, Shi-Yong;Kang, Jong-Seong;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Sung-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.259-263
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    • 2004
  • Twelve constituents were isolated from the MeOH extract of the root of Brassica campestris L. ssp rapa. They were identified as linoleic acid methylester (1), palmitic acid (2), ${\beta}-sitosterol$ (3), 1-methoxyindole-3-acetonitrile (4), indole-3-acetonitrile (5), linolenic acid (6), goitrin (7),4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (8), coniferyl alcohol (9), p-coumaroylglucose (11) and feruloylglucose (12), on the basis of spectral data respectively.

Analysis of Community Level Physiological Profiles in the Rhizosphere of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis 근권 서식 미생물의 기질이용 활성 조사)

  • Jung, Se-Ra;Kim, Seung-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2008
  • The community size of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and community level physiological profiles (CLPP) in the rhizosphere of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) were analyzed in two different sites. The average community size of culturable heterotrophic bacteria ranged between $2.65\times10^6CFU\;g^{-1}$ soil (Suwon) and $3.75\times10^6CFU\;g^{-1}$ soil (Yesan), whereas those of bulk soils ranged between $2.45\times10^6CFU\;g^{-1}$ soil (Suwon) and $2.97\times10^6CFU\;g^{-1}$ soil (Yesan). The average functional richness of Suwon rhizoshpere was 90.8, whereas that of Yesan rhizosphere was 154.1. High level of correlation was found between the community size and functional richness. The most actively utilized substrates in both rhizospheres were adonitol, L-asparagine, D-gluconic acid, L-glutamic acid and D-galacturonic acid. Clear differences were seen in the utilization patterns between the two sites. Differences were also observed for the patterns of bulk soils between the two sites, although D-raffinose and D-mannose were found as the commonly utilized substrates.

Identification of Chinese Cabbage Sentrin as a Suppressor of Bax-Induced Cell Death in Yeast

  • Sawitri, Widhi Dyah;Slameto, Slameto;Sugiharto, Bambang;Kim, Kyung-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2012
  • Studies into the cell death program termed apoptosis have resulted in new information regarding how cells control and execute their own demise, including insights into the mechanism by which death-preventing factors can inhibit Bax-induced caspase activation. We investigated high temperature stress-induced cell death in Brassica rapa. Using a yeast functional screening from a Brassica rapa cDNA library, the BH5-127 EST clone encoding an apoptotic suppressor peptide was identified. However, a phylogenic tree showed that BH5-127 clusters within a clade containing SUMO-1 (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier-1). BH5-127 was confirmed similar to have function to SUMO-1 as Fas suppression. Expression of BH5-127 showed that substantial suppression of cell death survived on SD-galactose-$Leu^-$-$Ura^-$ medium. The results suggest that BrSE ($\underline{B}$rassica rapa $\underline{S}$entrin $\underline{E}$ST, BH5-127) is one of the important regulatory proteins in programming cell death, especially in the seedling stage of Chinese cabbage.

Identification of Different Species and Dultivars of Brassica by SDS-PAGE, Isozyme and Molecular Marker

  • Mukhlesur Rahman Md.;Hirata Yutaka
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2005
  • Eighty-five different cultivars of Brassica rapa, B. juncea, B. nap us, B. carinata, B. oleracea and hexaploid Brassica collected from Bangladesh, Japan, China and Denmark were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for seed and leaf protein variations, using esterase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase isozyme analysis. Ten polymorphic bands were identified from seed protein however no identifiable polymorphic band was found in the leaf protein. Polymorphic markers clearly distinguished the different Brassica species as well as yellow sarson (YS) and brown seeded (BS) cultivars of B. rapa. The $F_1$ cross between YS and brown seeded cultivars showed the existance of all poly-morphic bands of the respective parents. The Bangla-deshi and Japanese cultivars of B. rapa differed in the amount of seed protein. In the case of isozyme analysis, esterase showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (13) followed by acid phosphatase (9) and peroxidase (5). These polymorphic markers were very effec-tive for classification of all the species studied in this experiment. In parentage tests using isozymes, the hybridity of intra-and-interspecific crosses of almost all the seedlings could be identified from their respective cross combinations. Esterase polymorphism showed a clear differentiation between YS and BS types of B. rapa. In addition, two esterase polymorphic markers were iden ified to differentiate some cultivars of B. juncea. Segregation patterns in these two esterase bands showed a simple Mendelian monohybrid ratio of 3:1 in $F_2$, 1:1 in test cross and 1:0 in back cross progenies. No polymorphic band was identified to distinguish different cultivars of the same species by acid phosphatase or peroxidase. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out with seed coat color specific marker of B. juncea. The yellow seeded cultivars produced a strong band at 0.5 kb and weak band 1.2 kb. In the addition of these two specific bands, Japanese yellow-seeded cultivars expressed two more weak bands at 1.0 kb and 1.1 kb. Where the brown seeded cultivars generated a single strong band at 1.1 kb. In segregating population, the yellow seed coat color marker segregated at a ratio 15 (brown) : 1 (yellow), indicating the digenic inheritance pattern of the trait.