• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brand Positioning

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A Study on the Color Scheme of Workstation Based on the Color Image Types (색채이미지유형에 따른 워크스테이션의 색채배색에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Hye-Sun;Park, Hyo-Chul
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to suggest the color scheme based on the color image types through the color analysis of workstation furniture which is on the market. This color scheme of the workstation furniture is expected to be give the comfort to office environment when planning office. For this study, It is selected the three furniture firms that have a brand of office furniture and their web site that is showed color sample of furniture. The following researches are drawn based upon the purpose. First, the color image types of interior space is classified and the color image words that are suitable for each types is extracted based on the results of existing literature. Second, the distribution of its hue and tone is analysed after collecting the each firm's color sample of desk top, panel and chair. Third, the color image appearing in each furniture color is analysed by color image scale positioning. Forth, the color scheme of desk top, panel and chair is suggested by its color scheme palette. The result of this study is expected to help comfortable environment by providing the color scheme for selection of furniture color in work space. Not all color of each furniture is sufficient to be combined color scheme, the result is indicated that the color scheme of workstation by color image types is possible for color planning in office environment.

The Effect on Selective Attribute and Satisfaction by Customer's Characteristics, Use and Reference Group for Hotel Restaurants (호텔 레스토랑 고객의 특성, 이용 목적 및 준거 집단에 따른 선택 속성과 만족도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jun, Hwa-Jin;Park, Kwang-Yong;Kim, Jong-Phil
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.220-238
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    • 2007
  • This study investigates the importance of customers who use hotel restaurants on the basis of literature and actual data, establishes positioning strategies to stimulate hotel restaurants amidst an intensely competitive market, and sets up marketing strategies that can be applied to hotel restaurant business from the analysis results. Determinant factors for hotel restaurants were service quality, food, atmosphere and cleanness, brand and reputation, the attitude and appearance of attendants, and variety of menu, in the order of importance. As for the analysis results for satisfaction, the higher the customers regarded on the attitude and appearance of attendants and the food of the restaurant, the higher the overall satisfaction, the intention of revisiting, and the intention of recommendation of the customers became. Therefore, the marketing and promotion staffs of hotel restaurants should search for the ways to meet these needs of customers as much as possible, and identify the usage inclinations and satisfaction level of customers when carrying out marketing activities and establishing customer relationship marketing strategies.

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Intelligent Brand Positioning Visualization System Based on Web Search Traffic Information : Focusing on Tablet PC (웹검색 트래픽 정보를 활용한 지능형 브랜드 포지셔닝 시스템 : 태블릿 PC 사례를 중심으로)

  • Jun, Seung-Pyo;Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.93-111
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    • 2013
  • As Internet and information technology (IT) continues to develop and evolve, the issue of big data has emerged at the foreground of scholarly and industrial attention. Big data is generally defined as data that exceed the range that can be collected, stored, managed and analyzed by existing conventional information systems and it also refers to the new technologies designed to effectively extract values from such data. With the widespread dissemination of IT systems, continual efforts have been made in various fields of industry such as R&D, manufacturing, and finance to collect and analyze immense quantities of data in order to extract meaningful information and to use this information to solve various problems. Since IT has converged with various industries in many aspects, digital data are now being generated at a remarkably accelerating rate while developments in state-of-the-art technology have led to continual enhancements in system performance. The types of big data that are currently receiving the most attention include information available within companies, such as information on consumer characteristics, information on purchase records, logistics information and log information indicating the usage of products and services by consumers, as well as information accumulated outside companies, such as information on the web search traffic of online users, social network information, and patent information. Among these various types of big data, web searches performed by online users constitute one of the most effective and important sources of information for marketing purposes because consumers search for information on the internet in order to make efficient and rational choices. Recently, Google has provided public access to its information on the web search traffic of online users through a service named Google Trends. Research that uses this web search traffic information to analyze the information search behavior of online users is now receiving much attention in academia and in fields of industry. Studies using web search traffic information can be broadly classified into two fields. The first field consists of empirical demonstrations that show how web search information can be used to forecast social phenomena, the purchasing power of consumers, the outcomes of political elections, etc. The other field focuses on using web search traffic information to observe consumer behavior, identifying the attributes of a product that consumers regard as important or tracking changes on consumers' expectations, for example, but relatively less research has been completed in this field. In particular, to the extent of our knowledge, hardly any studies related to brands have yet attempted to use web search traffic information to analyze the factors that influence consumers' purchasing activities. This study aims to demonstrate that consumers' web search traffic information can be used to derive the relations among brands and the relations between an individual brand and product attributes. When consumers input their search words on the web, they may use a single keyword for the search, but they also often input multiple keywords to seek related information (this is referred to as simultaneous searching). A consumer performs a simultaneous search either to simultaneously compare two product brands to obtain information on their similarities and differences, or to acquire more in-depth information about a specific attribute in a specific brand. Web search traffic information shows that the quantity of simultaneous searches using certain keywords increases when the relation is closer in the consumer's mind and it will be possible to derive the relations between each of the keywords by collecting this relational data and subjecting it to network analysis. Accordingly, this study proposes a method of analyzing how brands are positioned by consumers and what relationships exist between product attributes and an individual brand, using simultaneous search traffic information. It also presents case studies demonstrating the actual application of this method, with a focus on tablets, belonging to innovative product groups.

A Study on the Visual Evaluation for the Combination of 'Clothing and ground' (의복, 배경의 조합에 따른 시각적 이미지 연구(제1보))

  • 주소현;이경희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.78-89
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    • 1999
  • Clothes enhance visual images through the interaction between space and background of the wearer. The influence of background is important as that of the clothes when the observer understands the images. We look at fashion pictures used as important as that various backgrounds are presented depending on the image of the clothes. The clothing the model wears in the pictures takes on shape and space which supports the clothes. The background interact to from the whole image. The background has an important influence on the delivery of image for the clothes. However when the clothes are presented in the background there are some cases that all or parts of clothes can be shown. We must consider the composition ratio of the clothes and background which influences the whole image of the clothing. These interactions and influences on the whole image in regards to clothing background and the ratio will be the focus of this study. clothing was Modern Mannish Casual, Feminine, Ground was decided artificial setting 1 natural setting 1, indoor setting 1, artificial setting 2, natural setting 2, indoor setting 2, Percentage of Clothing was 80% , 140%, 200%,. Thus visual stimulus were 72 pictures that were combined Clothing Ground and Percentage of Clothing, the main survey of questionary consisted of their evaluation of the Picture image combined Clothing and Ground by 30 semantic differential bi-polar scales and the subjects were 50 students majoring in clothing and textile. The data analyzed by factor analysis MCA, MDS, The major finding were as follows : 1) As a result of factor analysis, 5 factors -Attractiveness Hardness and softness Cuteness Attention Cool and Warm factor were found out as constructing factors the Picture image combined Clothing and Ground 2) According to multidimensional positioning map were presented in a stimulus position the perceptive image differed in degree of similarity as a ground construction of stimulus in spite of same clothing image. It will aid in choosing the most beneficial background for any clothing brand. It will enhance the picture images to their full potential in any advertising medium.

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Trends of fashion journalism - An analysis under fashion article in magazines of korea - (우리나라 잡지의 패션기사를 통해 패션저널리즘의 동향)

  • 김영숙
    • Archives of design research
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    • no.16
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 1996
  • In an attempt to teace trands in fashion journalism based on the examination of recent fashion magazines in korea, this study has dealt with the followings: the number of articles on fashion, image of fashion, characteristics of articles, change in "coordinate" and titles, and length of time of publication. The results of this study follow: 1. Among the general magazines for ladies whose titles have been changed, those dedicated to the "Ms class" have increased the pages on fashion and coverage of casual brand: those for housewives have shown no change in contents despite the change in titles, 2. The length of time of publication does not affect the change in the number of articles on fashion. General magazines for ladies have shown the greater "coordinate" in articles on fashion. 3. In terms of the contents of articles on fashion, those devoted to fashion and clothing are specialized and innovation-oriented, whereas general magaines stress the provision of more practical information. 4. The emergence of the X-generation and the newer generation has resulted in positioning of clothing crand, making them chief tarhet readers.ing them chief tarhet readers.

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Managerial Implications for Competitiveness Enhancement based on Perceptual Analysis of National Natural Heritages (자연유산 경쟁구조 분석과 관리적 시사점 -대학생 인식을 중심으로-)

  • Cho, Kyoung-shin;Um, Seo-ho
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.78-93
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze college students' perception of national natural heritages, including natural monumentsand scenic sites, in comparison with the similar concepts of national parks and eco-landscape preservation areas, to suggest managerial implications to enhance competitiveness. The first objective of this study is to measure their attitude toward traveling each type of natural heritage and to rate the relative importance of the four types of heritages in terms of preservation. Natural monuments were perceived as the most strongly preserved type, while scenic sites were perceived as the least strongly preserved type. The second objective is to conduct a correspondence analysis to match the concepts of four types of natural heritages with 10 tourist attractions representing the types. It was found that college students have difficulty appropriately identifying the types of 10 tourist attractions. In addition, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was implemented to identify the similarities and differences of the four types of natural heritages and to produce a positioning map matching the four types of natural heritages with the six attributes representing each type as a tourist attraction. Natural monuments were perceived very differently from scenic sites and not very differently from eco-landscape preservation areas. There were a few associations between the four types of natural heritages and the six tourism attributes, implying that little effort is made to promote and position each type of natural heritage in terms of tourism. In conclusion, a public awareness program is required to enhance the brand image of natural monuments and scenic sites in comparison to national parks and eco-landscape preservation areas. In addition, local residents who live near the natural heritages should be bolstered to play a managerial role as supporters and contents providers for sustainability.

The Study of Characteristics of Consumer Purchasing Private Brand Products at Large-Scale Mart (국내 대형마트의 유통업체 브랜드 상품 구매 소비자의 특성 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Seong-Huyk;Lee, Jung-Hee;Roh, Eun-Jung
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2010
  • As having the movement of developing private brand (PB) goods, domestic big retailers are facing up with new problems. Thus, it is required studies of PB products, and how consumers recognize PB products as a consideration commodity set. Also, it is worthy in order that it gives us the important meaning on the marketing strategy with focusing on evaluating the differences between customers buying PB grocery goods with respect to demographic characteristics and purchasing behaviors. PB has some advantages for customers and retailers. However, according to AC Nielson's report (2005), Asian and emerging market has 1/5 sales relatively to Western countries. But we can assume that the emerging market has the most potential growth through this result. As a result from several other studies, it becomes necessary to not only increase the rate of selling composition of PB product temporarily, but also analyze the characteristics of customers using big retailers and segmenting customer groups to make PB product as a consideration commodity set for them. In addition, it is needed to have a variety of acts of marketing. From studies related to PB, there is a prejudice - cheap products have low quality - but, evaluation by customers who have used those products shows neutral stand, and there is a study representing that it is the most important to accumulate the belief between the retailers selling PB products and consumers using those for the accurate evaluation and intention on purchasing. Also, by the result from analyzing the characteristics of customers buying PB products, we could assume that higher income and higher education level, more preference on PB products. Especially, according to TNS's research, the primary targets of PB product are 30's who seeks value for money and planned spending habits, and 40's who have teenager children, and are interested in encouraging themselves. This paper used Probit model to analyze the characteristics of consumers. This model helps us to analyze with the variables representing the demographic characteristics of consumers (gender, age, educational level, occupation, income level, living area), and variables related to purchasing behavior (visiting frequency on big retailers, the average amount that they pay for goods in there, and check-up which brand made those goods). The method we used in this study is by man to man interview and survey on-line with the rate of 89% and 11% in Seoul and Gyunggi Province, respectively, for about one month from the beginning of February, 2008. As a result of this, under the assumption that people buy PB products more as long as they go shopping more, it was not meaningful for target groups which we pointed out as frequently visiting customers to be. Although, we have expected women buy more PB products than men do, gender doesn't mean anything for the result. And, it has inferred that married people buy more PB goods than singles do. It was also meaningless with variables related to occupation. Because housewives are often exposed to any kind of supermarket than workers are, we could not get any relatives. Moreover, we couldn't proof that younger generation prefer big retailers more than older people who 50~60's. Education levels doesn't affect on the purchase of PB product as well. Related to living area, the result is statistically not similar as we expected whether living in Seoul or not. It shows there is no relationship with the preference on retail brands and PB products, and it is similar with the study researched by TNS(2008) that customers tend to buy PB product impulsively no matter which brand it is and where they are even though their shopping place is the big market where customers are often using. Variables on which we had meaningful results are income level and living place. That is, customers who have 3,000,000~6,000,000 WON every month on average are more willing to buy PB products than other customers whose income is over 6,000,000 WON, and residents not living in Seoul prefer PB goods than those who are living in Seoul. To explain more about what we got, if there is only one condition about customer's visiting frequency on big retails, we could come up with this result that more exposed to PB products, more purchasing frequency. Consequently, it brings the important insight that large retailers have to prepare something to make customers visit them often to increase selling rate of PB products. To demonstrate the result of analyzing more, what is more efficient variables are demographically including marital status, income level, and residential area to buy items that affect the PB products and could include the frequency of visiting large markets by the purchase habits. Specifically, then, married couples rather than singles, middle-income customers than high-income customers, and local residents not living in Seoul than customers in Seoul are more likely to purchase PB goods. In addition, as long as a customer visits two times more, then the purchasing rate of PB products is to increase over 5.3%. Therefore, it seems that retailers are better to make a shopping place as fun and comfortable places. With overwhelming the idea that PB products are just cheap, one-time purchase goods, it is needed to increase the loyalty on those goods like NB products, try to make PB products as a consideration products set, and occur to sustainable sales. Especially, as suggested by this paper, it seems like it strongly needs to identify the characteristics of customers who prefer PB, to segment those customers, and to select the main target, and to do positioning with well-planned marketing strategies. Then, it is able to give us a meaningful point on marketing strategy by developing the field of PB study, identifying the difference of life style and shopping habits of customers.

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Marketing Standardization and Firm Performance in International E.Commerce (국제전자상무중적영소표준화화공사표현(国际电子商务中的营销标准化和公司表现))

  • Fritz, Wolfgang;Dees, Heiko
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2009
  • The standardization of marketing has been one of the most focused research topics in international marketing. The term "global marketing" was often used to mean an internationally standardized marketing strategy based on similarities between foreign markets. Marketing standardization was discussed only within the context of traditional physical marketplaces. Since then, the digital "marketspace" of the Internet had emerged in the 90's, and it became one of the most important drivers of the globalization process opening new opportunities for the standardization of global marketing activities. On the other hand, the opinion that a greater adoption of the Internet by customers may lead to a higher degree of customization and differentiation of products rather than standardization is also quite popular. Considering this disagreement, it is notable that comprehensive studies which focus upon the marketing standardization especially in the context of global e-commerce are missing to a high degree. On this background, the two basic research questions being addressed in this study are: (1) To what extent do companies standardize their marketing in international e-commerce? (2) Is there an impact of marketing standardization on the performance (or success) of these companies? Following research hypotheses were generated based upon literature review: H 1: Internationally engaged e-commerce firms show a growing readiness for marketing standardization. H 2: Marketing standardization exerts positive effects on the success of companies in international e-commerce. H 3: In international e-commerce, marketing mix standardization exerts a stronger positive effect on the economic as well as the non-economic success of companies than marketing process standardization. H 4: The higher the non-economic success in international e-commerce firms, the higher the economic success. The data for this research were obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted from February to April 2005. The international e-commerce companies of various industries in Germany and all subsidiaries or headquarters of foreign e-commerce companies based in Germany were included in the survey. 118 out of 801 companies responded to the questionnaire. For structural equation modelling (SEM), the Partial-Least. Squares (PLS) approach in the version PLS-Graph 3.0 was applied (Chin 1998a; 2001). All of four research hypotheses were supported by result of data analysis. The results show that companies engaged in international e-commerce standardize in particular brand name, web page design, product positioning, and the product program to a high degree. The companies intend to intensify their efforts for marketing mix standardization in the future. In addition they want to standardize their marketing processes also to a higher degree, especially within the range of information systems, corporate language and online marketing control procedures. In this study, marketing standardization exerts a positive overall impact on company performance in international e-commerce. Standardization of marketing mix exerts a stronger positive impact on the non-economic success than standardization of marketing processes, which in turn contributes slightly stronger to the economic success. Furthermore, our findings give clear support to the assumption that the non-economic success is highly relevant to the economic success of the firm in international e-commerce. The empirical findings indicate that marketing standardization is relevant to the companies' success in international e-commerce. But marketing mix and marketing process standardization contribute to the firms' economic and non-economic success in different ways. The findings indicate that companies do standardize numerous elements of their marketing mix on the Internet. This practice is in part contrary to the popular concept of a "differentiated standardization" which argues that some elements of the marketing mix should be adapted locally and others should be standardized internationally. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the overall standardization of marketing -rather than the standardization of one particular marketing mix element - is what brings about a positive overall impact on success.

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An Exploratory Study on Channel Equity of Electronic Goods (가전제품 소비자의 Channel Equity에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Suh, Yong-Gu;Lee, Eun-Kyung
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2008
  • Ⅰ. Introduction Retailers in the 21st century are being told that future retailers are those who can execute seamless multi-channel access. The reason is that retailers should be where shoppers want them, when they want them anytime, anywhere and in multiple formats. Multi-channel access is considered one of the top 10 trends of all business in the next decade (Patricia T. Warrington, et al., 2007) And most firms use both direct and indirect channels in their markets. Given this trend, we need to evaluate a channel equity more systematically than before as this issue is expected to get more attention to consumers as well as to brand managers. Consumers are becoming very much confused concerning the choice of place where they shop for durable goods as there are at least 6-7 retail options. On the other hand, manufacturers have to deal with category killers, their dealers network, Internet shopping malls, and other avenue of distribution channels and they hope their retail channel behave like extensions of their own companies. They would like their products to be foremost in the retailer's mind-the first to be proposed and effectively communicated to potential customers. To enable this hope to come reality, they should know each channel's advantages and disadvantages from consumer perspectives. In addition, customer satisfaction is the key determinant of retail customer loyalty. However, there are only a few researches regarding the effects of shopping satisfaction and perceptions on consumers' channel choices and channels. The purpose of this study was to assess Korean consumers' channel choice and satisfaction towards channels they prefer to use in the case of electronic goods shopping. Korean electronic goods retail market is one of good example of multi-channel shopping environments. As the Korea retail market has been undergoing significant structural changes since it had opened to global retailers in 1996, new formats such as hypermarkets, Internet shopping malls and category killers have arrived for the last decade. Korean electronic goods shoppers have seven major channels : (1)category killers (2) hypermarket (3) manufacturer dealer shop (4) Internet shopping malls (5) department store (6) TV home-shopping (7) speciality shopping arcade. Korean retail sector has been modernized with amazing speed for the last decade. Overall summary of major retail channels is as follows: Hypermarket has been number 1 retailer type in sales volume from 2003 ; non-store retailing has been number 2 from 2007 ; department store is now number 3 ; small scale category killers are growing rapidly in the area of electronics and office products in particular. We try to evaluate each channel's equity using a consumer survey. The survey was done by telephone interview with 1000 housewife who lives nationwide. Sampling was done according to 2005 national census and average interview time was 10 to 15 minutes. Ⅱ. Research Summary We have found that seven major retail channels compete with each other within Korean consumers' minds in terms of price and service. Each channel seem to have its unique selling points. Department stores were perceived as the best electronic goods shopping destinations due to after service. Internet shopping malls were perceived as the convenient channel owing to price checking. Category killers and hypermarkets were more attractive in both price merits and location conveniences. On the other hand, manufacturers dealer networks were pulling customers mainly by location and after service. Category killers and hypermarkets were most beloved retail channel for Korean consumers. However category killers compete mainly with department stores and shopping arcades while hypermarkets tend to compete with Internet and TV home shopping channels. Regarding channel satisfaction, the top 3 channels were service-driven retailers: department stores (4.27); dealer shop (4.21); and Internet shopping malls (4.21). Speciality shopping arcade(3.98) were the least satisfied channels among Korean consumers. Ⅲ. Implications We try to identify the whole picture of multi-channel retail shopping environments and its implications in the context of Korean electronic goods. From manufacturers' perspectives, multi-channel may cause channel conflicts. Furthermore, inter-channel competition draws much more attention as hypermarkets and category killers have grown rapidly in recent years. At the same time, from consumers' perspectives, 'buy where' is becoming an important buying decision as it would decide the level of shopping satisfaction. We need to develop the concept of 'channel equity' to manage multi-channel distribution effectively. Firms should measure and monitor their prime channel equity in regular basis to maximize their channel potentials. Prototype channel equity positioning map has been developed as follows. We expect more studies to develop the concept of 'channel equity' in the future.

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