• Title, Summary, Keyword: Branched-chain Amino Acid Metabolism

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Modulation of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metaolism by Exercise in Rats

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.892-900
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    • 1994
  • A variety of important roles for branched-chain amino acids in metabolic regulation has been suggested. Branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase(BCKAD) complex is a rate limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on the activity and activity state of branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase in rat hert and liver thssues. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three experimental groups : sedentary control, exercised, or exercised-rested. Submaximal exercise(running) for two hours significantly increased basal activity without a change in total activity in both tissues, with a concomitiant increase in activity state of the enzyme complex. At 10 min post-exercise, heart enzyme activity significantly decreased, though not to the control level, while liver enzyme activity remained unchanged. These data suggested that the exercise-induced increase in branched-chain $\alpha$-keto acid decarboxylation in rat tissues may not be the result of enzyme synthesis, but rather is due to increased activity of the BCKAD.

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Regulation of Branched-Chain, and Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Metabolism by Glutathione during Ultradian Metabolic Oscillation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Sohn Ho- Yong;Kum Eun-Joo;Kwon Gi-Seok;Jin Ingnyol;Kuriyama Hiroshi
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2005
  • Autonomous ultradian metabolic oscillation (T$\simeq$50 min) was detected in an aerobic chemostat culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A pulse injection of GSH (a reduced form of glutathione) into the culture induced a perturbation in metabolic oscillation, with respiratory inhibition caused by $H_2S$ burst pro-duction. As the production of $H_2S$ in the culture was controlled by different amino acids, we attempted to characterize the effects of GSH on amino acid metabolism, particularly with regard to branched chain and sulfur-containing amino acids. During stable metabolic oscillation, concentrations of intra-cellular glutamate, aspartate, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and cysteine were observed to oscil-late with the same periods of dissolved $O_2$ oscillation, although the oscillation amplitudes and maximal phases were shown to differ. The methionine concentration was stably maintained at 0.05 mM. When GSH (100 $\mu$M) was injected into the culture, cellular levels of branched chain amino acids increased dramatically with continuous $H_2S$production, whereas the cysteine and methionine concentrations were noticeably reduced. These results indicate that GSH-dependent perturbation occurs as the result of the promotion of branched chain amino acid synthesis and an attenuation of cysteine and methionine synthesis, both of which activate the generation of $H_2S$. In a low sulfate medium containing 2.5 mM sulfate, the GSH injections did not result in perturbations of dissolved $O_2$ NAD(P)H redox oscillations without burst $H_2S$ production. This suggests that GSH-dependent perturbation is intimately linked with the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and $H_2S$ generation, rather than with direct GSH-GSSG redox control.

Effects of dietary valine:lysine ratio on the performance, amino acid composition of tissues and mRNA expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism of weaned piglets

  • Xu, Ye Tong;Ma, Xiao Kang;Wang, Chun Lin;Yuan, Ming Feng;Piao, Xiang Shu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Large White) weaned at $28{\pm}4days$ of age ($8.79{\pm}0.02kg$ body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine:lysine ratios of 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80%. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 6 pigs per pen (3 gilts and 3 barrows) for 28 days. Results: Average daily gain increased quadratically (p<0.05), the villous height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum increased linearly (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. The concentrations of plasma ${\alpha}-keto$ isovaleric and valine increased linearly (p<0.05), plasma aspartate, asparagine and cysteine decreased (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. An increase in SID lysine:valine levels increased mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and branched-chain ${\alpha}-keto$ acid dehydrogenase in the longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Conclusion: Using a quadratic model, a SID valine:lysine ratio of 68% was shown to maximize the growth of weaned pigs which is slightly higher than the level recommended by the National Research Council.

Identification of Two Novel BCKDHB Mutations in Korean Siblings with Maple Syrup Urine Disease Showing Mild Clinical Presentation

  • Ko, Jung Min;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won;Cheong, Hae Il;Song, Junghan
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2014
  • Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder that involves the metabolism of branched chain amino acids, arising from a defect in branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Mutations have been identified in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT genes, which encode different subunits of the BCKDH complex. Although encephalopathy and progressive neurodegeneration are its major manifestations, the severity of the disease may range from the severe classic type to milder intermediate variants. We report two Korean siblings with the milder intermediate MSUD who were diagnosed with MSUD by a combination of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry and family genetic screening for MSUD. At diagnosis, the patients' plasma levels were elevated for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine, and branched-chain ${\alpha}$-keto acids and branched-chain ${\alpha}$-hydroxy acids were detected in their urine. BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT analysis was performed, and two novel mutations were identified in BCKDHB. Our patients were thought to have the milder intermediate variant of MSUD, rather than the classic form. Although MSUD is a typical metabolic disease with poor prognosis, better outcomes can be expected if early diagnosis and prompt management are provided, particularly for milder forms of the disease.

Metabolomic approach to key metabolites characterizing postmortem aged loin muscle of Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle

  • Muroya, Susumu;Oe, Mika;Ojima, Koichi;Watanabe, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1172-1185
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Meat quality attributes in postmortem muscle tissues depend on skeletal muscle metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine the key metabolic compounds and pathways that are associated with postmortem aging and beef quality in Japanese Black cattle (JB; a Japanese Wagyu breed with highly marbled beef). Methods: Lean portions of Longissimus thoracis (LT: loin) muscle in 3 JB steers were collected at 0, 1, and 14 days after slaughter. The metabolomic profiles of the samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by statistical and multivariate analyses with bioinformatics resources. Results: Among the total 171 annotated compounds, the contents of gluconic acid, gluconolactone, spermidine, and the nutritionally vital substances (choline, thiamine, and nicotinamide) were elevated through the course of postmortem aging. The contents of glycolytic compounds increased along with the generation of lactic acid as the beef aging progressed. Moreover, the contents of several dipeptides and 16 amino acids, including glutamate and aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, were elevated over time, suggesting postmortem protein degradation in the muscle. Adenosine triphosphate degradation also progressed, resulting in the generation of inosine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine via the temporal increase in inosine 5'-monophosphate. Cysteine-glutathione disulfide, thiamine, and choline increased over time during the postmortem muscle aging. In the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, a bioinformatics resource, the postmortem metabolomic changes in LT muscle were characterized as pathways mainly related to protein digestion, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism, pentose phosphate metabolism, nicotinamide metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, purine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: The compounds accumulating in aged beef were shown to be nutritionally vital substances and flavor components, as well as potential useful biomarkers of aging. The present metabolomic data during postmortem aging contribute to further understanding of the beef quality of JB and other breeds.

Altered Amino Acid Metabolic Patterns in the Plasma of Rat Models with Adenovirus Infection

  • Paik, Man-Jeong;Shim, Woo-Young;Moon, Seung-Min;Kim, Yeon-Mi;Kim, Dong-Wan;Kim, Kyoung-Rae;Kim, Sun-A;Shim, Jeom-Soon;Choi, Sang-Dun;Lee, Gwang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1569-1574
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    • 2011
  • The presence of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) subpopulations in adenoviral vector products raises a variety of safety issues for development of therapies based on gene therapy. To analyze the differing effects of adenoviral vector and RCA in vivo, we examined alterations in amino acids (AAs) using rat plasma following injection of ${\beta}$-galactosidase expressing recombinant adenovirus (designated rAdLacZ) or RCA. Plasma AAs were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 16 AAs were positively measured. In the rAdLacZ group compared to the control group, the level of aspartic acid was significantly increased (Student's t-test), while the level of glutamic acid was significantly reduced. Additionally, in the RCA group compared to the control group, the level of four AAs, valine, leucine, and isoleucine as branched-chain amino acids, and proline were significantly increased, whereas the levels of three AAs, glycine, threonine, and glutamic acid were significantly reduced. Altered plasma free AA metabolic patterns in rAdLacZ and RCA groups, compared with the control group, may explain the disturbance of AA metabolism related to viral infection.

1 Case of Liver Transplantation in Methylmalonic Acidemia (메칠말로닌산혈증 환아에서 시행한 간이식 1례)

  • Jeon, Pil Keun;Lee, Dong Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.85-88
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    • 2002
  • Methylmalonic acidemia is an inborn error of branched chain amino acid metabolism, clinically characterized by lethargy, vomiting, and hypertonia with abnormal movements, and biochemically characterized by ketoacidosis, hyperammonemia, and sometimes hyperglycinemia. Conventional treatment of methylmalonic acidemia incluides dietary protein restriction, bicarbonate, carnitine, and metronidazole. However, most patient have recurrent episodes of acidosis, and a significant number have neurologic deficits and renal impairment. We report the successful treatment of a patient with methylmalonic acidemia by liver transplantation.

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Sodium Salt of Isobutyric Acid on Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Utilization in a Wheat Straw Based Low Protein Diet Fed to Crossbred Cattle

  • Misra, A.K.;Thakur, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.479-484
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    • 2001
  • The effect of dietary supplementation of sodium salt of isobutyric acid in low protein (10% CP) wheat straw based diet on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation was studied in ruminally fistulated male crossbred cattle. The study included a 7 day metabolism and a 3 day rumen fermentation trials. The cattle were distributed into two equal groups of 4 each. The animals of control group were fed a basal diet consisting of wheat straw, concentrate mixture and green maize fodder in 40:40:20 proportion whereas branched chain volatile fatty acid (BCFA) supplemented group received a basal diet + isobutyric acid at 0.75 percent of basal diet. The duration of study was 36 days. The feed intake between experimental groups did not differ significantly and the average total DMI (% BW) was 2.01 and $2.28kg\;day^{-1}$ in control and BCFA supplemented diets. The dietary supplementation of BCFA improved (p<0.05) the DM, OM, NDF and cellulose digestibility by 4.46, 6.63, 10.57 and 11.31 per cent over those fed control diet. The total N retention on BCFA supplementation was improved (p<0.01) due to decreased (p<0.05) urinary N excretion. The concentrations of ruminal total N was 37.07 and $34.77mg\;100ml^{-1}$ in control and BCFA fed groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation BCFA significantly (p<0.01) reduced the ruminal ammonia N concentration as compared to control and the mean values ($mg\;100ml^{-1}$) were 13.18 and 9.42 in control and BCFA fed groups. The total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA supplemented group (101.14 mM) than the control (93.05 mM). Among the VFAs, the molar proportion of acetate was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA supplemented group (71.07 mM) as compared to control (64.98 mM). However, the concentration of propionate and butyrate remained unchanged. Amino acids composition of bacterial hydrolysates was similar in both the groups. Ruminal outflow rate of liquid digesta was higher (p<0.01) in BCFA fed group ($67.56l\;day^{-1}$) than control ($52.73l\;day^{-1}$). It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of Na-salt of isobutyric acid in low protein diet improved the nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

Comparative Genomic and Genetic Functional Analysis of Industrial L-Leucine- and L-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

  • Ma, Yuechao;Chen, Qixin;Cui, Yi;Du, Lihong;Shi, Tuo;Xu, Qingyang;Ma, Qian;Xie, Xixian;Chen, Ning
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1916-1927
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    • 2018
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum is an excellent platform for the production of amino acids, and is widely used in the fermentation industry. Most industrial strains are traditionally obtained by repeated processes of random mutation and selection, but the genotype of these strains is often unclear owing to the absence of genomic information. As such, it is difficult to improve the growth and amino acid production of these strains via metabolic engineering. In this study, we generated a complete genome map of an industrial L-valine-producing strain, C. glutamicum XV. In order to establish the relationship between genotypes and physiological characteristics, a comparative genomic analysis was performed to explore the core genome, structural variations, and gene mutations referring to an industrial L-leucine-producing strain, C. glutamicum CP, and the widely used C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. The results indicate that a 36,349 bp repeat sequence in the CP genome contained an additional copy each of lrp and brnFE genes, which benefited the export of L-leucine. However, in XV, the kgd and panB genes were disrupted by nucleotide insertion, which increase the availability of precursors to synthesize L-valine. Moreover, the specific amino acid substitutions in key enzymes increased their activities. Additionally, a novel strategy is proposed to remodel central carbon metabolism and reduce pyruvate consumption without having a negative impact on cell growth by introducing the CP-derived mutant $H^+$/citrate symporter. These results further our understanding regarding the metabolic networks in these strains and help to elucidate the influence of different genotypes on these processes.

Profiling of glucose-induced transcription in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639

  • Park, Jungwook;Lee, Areum;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Park, Inmyoung;Seo, Young-Su;Cha, Jaeho
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.1157-1167
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    • 2018
  • Sulfolobus species can grow on a variety of organic compounds as carbon and energy sources. These species degrade glucose to pyruvate by the modified branched Entner-Doudoroff pathway. We attempted to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under sugar-limited and sugar-rich conditions. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to quantify the expression of the genes and identify those DEGs between the S. acidocaldarius cells grown under sugar-rich (YT with glucose) and sugar-limited (YT only) conditions. The functions and pathways of the DEGs were examined using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the DEGs. Transcriptome analysis of the DSM 639 strain grown on sugar-limited and sugar-rich media revealed that 853 genes were differentially expressed, among which 481 were upregulated and 372 were downregulated under the glucose-supplemented condition. In particular, 70 genes showed significant changes in expression levels of ${\geq}$ twofold. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that the genes encoding components of central carbon metabolism, the respiratory chain, and protein and amino acid biosynthetic machinery were upregulated under the glucose condition. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the sulfur assimilation genes (Saci_2197-2204) including phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and sulfite reductase were significantly upregulated in the presence of glucose. The present study revealed metabolic networks in S. acidocaldarius that are induced in a glucose-dependent manner, improving our understanding of biomass production under sugar-rich conditions.