• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bovine Leptin

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Development of Bovine Specific Leptin Radioimmunoassay and Relationship of Plasma Leptin with Vitamin A and Age of Wagyu

  • Yang, S.H.;Kawachi, H.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, S.Y.;Kim, H.S.;Ha, Jong K.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Ki, K.S.;Kim, S.B.;Sakaguchi, S.;Maruyama, S.;Yano, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1286-1295
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    • 2008
  • Leptin is produced by adipocytes and its role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, feed intake, productive and reproductive performance of domestic animal species has been greatly stressed and extensively investigated in recent years. This study was conducted to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the estimation of plasma bovine leptin and to determine plasma leptin concentration in fattening Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) and its crossbreds at commercial farms. Relationships of plasma leptin with plasma vitamin A and age of crossbred cattle were also determined. Recombinant bovine leptin (rbleptin) was produced by the E. coli overexpressed leptin as a GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fusion protein. Then antiserum against bovine leptin was obtained by its immunization in rabbits. Using this antiserum, a bovine specific RIA was developed and plasma leptin level was determined in 120 crossbred fattening cattle (WagyuHolstein, 50:50) at commercial farms. The plasma leptin level increased with the age of cattle and its level was greater in the crossbred heifers than in the steers. Plasma vitamin A level was negatively correlated with plasma leptin level in crossbred heifers and steers. This relationship was stronger in heifers than in steers. Plasma leptin was gradually increased with advancing age in fattening Wagyu cattle. In conclusion, development of a bovine specific RIA to estimate plasma leptin will contribute to better understanding of the role of leptin in cattle.

Production of Leptin in E. coli and Its Effect on Glucose and Acetate Transport and Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2 Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Kim, K.S.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1062-1068
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    • 2004
  • Leptin has a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In addition, leptin participates in many physiological functions including regulation of lipid metabolism. Bovine recombinant leptin protein was produced in E. coli cells in order to understand function of leptin in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The leptin expression vector was constructed in pGEX-4T-3 vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 cells. Expression of the GST-leptin fusion protein was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was purified using glutathione sepharose 4B batch method, and the recombinant leptin was eluted after thrombin protease digestion. The effect of leptin on glucose transport was examined in the differentiated adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. Leptin had no effect on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 cells (p>0.05). Effect of recombinant leptin on glucose and acetate transport was examined in adipose tissues of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Insulin stimulated glucose transport in both intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect glucose transport in both adipose tissues (p>0.05). Insulin stimulated acetate transport in bovine adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect acetate transport (p>0.05). Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed that mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-2 were increased by leptin treatment in 3T3-L1 cells without statistical difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, bovine recombinant leptin did not affect glucose and acetate transport in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and bovine adipose tissues, while it stimulates UCP-2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

Dexamethasone and Acetate Modulate Cytoplasmic Leptin in Bovine Preadipocytes

  • Yonekur, Shinichi;Hirota, Shohei;Tokutake, Yukako;Rose, Michael T.;Katoh, Kazuo;Aso, Hisashi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.567-573
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    • 2014
  • Hormonal and nutrient signals regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. In rodents, leptin is stored in cytosolic pools of adipocytes. However, not much information is available regarding the regulation of intracellular leptin in ruminants. Recently, we demonstrated that leptin mRNA was expressed in bovine intramuscular preadipocyte cells (BIP cells) and that a cytoplasmic leptin pool may be present in preadipocytes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of cytoplasmic leptin protein in BIP cells during differentiation as well as the effects of various factors added to the differentiation medium on its expression in BIP cells. Leptin mRNA expression was observed only at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, whereas the cytoplasmic leptin concentration was the highest on day 0 and decreased gradually thereafter. Cytoplasmic leptin was detected at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, but not at 4 days after adipogenic induction. The cytoplasmic leptin concentration was reduced in BIP cells at 4 days after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas cytoplasmic leptin was not observed at 8 days after treatment. In contrast, acetate significantly enhanced the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in BIP cells at 8 days after treatment, although acetate alone did not induce adipocyte differentiation in BIP cells. These results suggest that dexamethasone and acetate modulate the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in bovine preadipocytes.

Highly Polymorphic Bovine Leptin Gene

  • Yoon, D.H.;Cho, B.H.;Park, B.L.;Choi, Y.H.;Cheong, H.S.;Lee, H.K.;Chung, E.R.;Cheong, I.C.;Shin, H.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1548-1551
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    • 2005
  • The leptin, an anti-obesity protein, is a hormone protein expressed and secreted mainly from adipocyte tissue, and involved in regulation of body weight, food intake and energy metabolism. In an effort to discover polymorphism(s) in genes whose variant(s) might be implicated in phenotypic traits of growth, we have sequenced exons and their boundaries of leptin gene including 1,000 bp upstream of promoter region with twenty-four unrelated Korean cattle. Fifty-seven sequence variants were identified: fourteen in 5' flanking region, twenty-seven in introns, eight in exons, and eight in 3' flanking region. By pair-wise linkage analysis among polymorphisms, ten sets of SNPs were in absolute linkage disequilibrium (LD) (|D'| = 1 and $r^2$ = 1). Among variants identified, thirty-six SNPs were newly identified, and twenty-one SNPs, which were reported in other breeds, were also confirmed in Korean cattle. The allele frequencies of variants were quite different among breeds. The information from SNPs of bovine leptin gene could be useful for further genetic studies of this gene.

Mechanism of leptin-induced catecholamine secretion in the perfused rat adrenal medulla

  • Lim, Dong-Yoon;Kim, Ok-Min;Shin, Hye-Gyeong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.83.2-83
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    • 2003
  • It has been demonstrated the presence of leptin receptors (Ob-Ra) on epinephrine-secreting chromaffin cells in rat adrenal medulla, suggesting that leptin may directly affect the adrenal medulla (Cao et al., 1997). Leptin is found to stimulate catecholamine (CA) synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells (Utsumomiya et al., 2001; Shibuya et al., 2002)and cultured porcine adrenal medullary cells (Takekoshi et al., 2001). Thus, the present study was designed to examine the effect of leptin on CA release from the isolated perfused rat adrenal gland, and to establish its mechanism of action. (omitted)

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Association of SNP Marker in the Leptin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Cattle

  • Shin, S.C.;Chung, E.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene and is synthesized and secreted predominantly by white adipocytes and relates to the feedback system that regulates long-term body fat weight and composition. Therefore, the leptin gene could be an excellent candidate gene controlling fat deposition, carcass traits and meat quality in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of 3 SNPs (A1127T and C1180T in exon 2 and C3100T in exon 3) in the bovine leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. The C1180T SNP was associated with backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) (p<0.05). Animals with the genotype CC had higher BF than animals with TT genotype and higher MS compared with CT and TT genotypes. No significant associations were observed between the C3100T SNP and any carcass and meat quality traits analyzed. The effect of the A1127T SNP was not analyzed because the TT genotype was not detected and the AT genotype showed only 1.0% frequency. These results suggest that the C1180T SNP of the leptin gene may be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle.

Alteration in Concentrations of Leptin and Insulin in Korean Cattle with Reproductive Disorders (번식장애 한우의 렙틴 및 인슐린 농도 변화)

  • Choe, Chang-Yong;Kang, Da-Won
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the changes in concentrations of leptin and insulin in serum of Korean cattle (Hanwoo) with reproductive disorders and to examine the relationship among leptin, insulin, and body condition score (BCS). The concentration of leptin in serum of pregnant Hanwoo showed insignificant difference from that in serum of Hanwoo with reproductive disorder, such as repeat breeding, follicular cyst, corpus luteum cyst, ovarian atrophy, and feeble estrus (p>0.05). However, the concentrations of leptin and insulin in serum were changed with different BCS value. In emaciated Hanwoo (BCS $2.0\sim2.9$), they were significantly decreased compared to BCS $3.0\sim3.4$ (p<0.05). The leptin showed different genotypes with different BCS value. In BCS $2.0\sim2.9$, C/T genotype was expressed (83.3%) more than C/C (16.7%) or T/T (0%) genotype, whereas C/C genotype was expressed (62.5%) more than C/T (25.0%) or T/T (12.5%) genotype in BCS $3.5\sim4.0$. The insulin concentration in follicular fluid obtained from ovary with follicular cyst which has follicles having diameter of $25\sim40 mm$ was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in normal follicle fluid which has follicles having diameter of $3\sim10 mm$. These results showed that concentration of leptin and insulin in serum were related to BCS value and follicular size and suggest that the changes in concentration of leptin and/or insulin in serum could be a potent biomarker for diagnosis of bovine reproductive disorder.

Age-related Changes in Plasma Leptin from Early Growing to Late Finishing Stages of Castrated Holstein Steers: Utilizing Multi-species Leptin RIA

  • Vega, R.A.;Lee, H.G.;Kuwayama, H.;Matsunaga, N.;Hidari, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.725-731
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was performed to understand the changes in plasma leptin in association with plasma IGF-1, body weight and ADG from early growing to late finishing stages of Holstein steers. Blood collection was performed by arterial vein puncture at selected monthly ages of 1 (54 kg), 2.6 (103 kg), 7.2 (205 kg), 13.5 (314 kg), 16.9 (414 kg), 22.2 (550 kg), 24.9 (626 kg) and 27.4 months (695 kg). The blood was analyzed for leptin using the multi-species leptin RIA with recombinant bovine leptin (rbleptin) as standard, plasma IGF-1 was also measured using RIA. Against the standard rbleptin, the multi-species Leptin RIA system's sensitivity, cross reactivity, slope and recovery of 41.0 ng/ml rbleptin in plasma were 4.9 ng/ml, 11.22%, -1.396 and 97.8%, respectively. Plasma leptin measured were more than 5.0 ng/ml, which enable multi-species RIA system to investigate plasma leptin in normal growing steers. Body weight resulted to a highly significant second-degree polynomial relationship with plasma leptin (q=0.54, p<0.0001) and plasma IGF-1 (q=0.44, p<0.0001) from 1 to 27.4 monthly ages. However, the second-degree polynomial curve of plasma leptin and IGF-1 differs showing a concave and convex curvilinear relationship, respectively. ADG was not significantly associated to plasma leptin (r=0.06, p>0.05) and plasma IGF=1 (r=0.06, p>0.05) from 1 to 27.4 monthly ages. Low coefficient, but significant associated increase of plasma leptin and IGF-1 (r=0.12, p<0.008) from 1 to 27.4 months was observed. The uncoordinated increases of plasma IGF-1 at growing and plasma leptin at fattening period, may indicate (1) indirect involvement of endogenous IGF-1 on leptin secretion, and (2) IGF-1 level may signify lean and bone accretion while plasma leptin may mirror body fatness across the monthly ages of Holstein steers.

The Regulation of Chemerin and CMKLR1 Genes Expression by TNF-α, Adiponectin, and Chemerin Analog in Bovine Differentiated Adipocytes

  • Suzuki, Y.;Hong, Y.H.;Song, S.H.;Ardiyanti, A.;Kato, D.;So, K.H.;Katoh, K.;Roh, Sang-Gun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1316-1321
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    • 2012
  • Adipokines, adipocyte-derived protein, have important roles in various kinds of physiology including energy homeostasis. Chemerin, one of adipocyte-derived adipokines, is highly expressed in differentiated adipocytes and is known to induce macrophage chemotaxis and glucose intolerance. The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes of chemerin and the chemokine-like-receptor 1 (CMKLR1) gene expression levels during differentiation of the bovine adipocyte and in differentiated adipocytes treated with tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin (peptide analog). The expression levels of the chemerin gene increased at d 6 and 12 of the differentiation period accompanied by increased cytoplasm lipid droplets. From d 6 onward, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-${\gamma}2$ (PPAR-${\gamma}2$) gene expression levels were significantly higher than that of d 0 and 3. In contrast, CMKLR1 expression levels decreased at the end of the differentiation period. In fully differentiated adipocytes (i.e. at d 12), the treatment of TNF-${\alpha}$ and adiponectin upregulated both chemerin and CMKLR1 gene expression levels, although leptin did not show such effects. Moreover, chemerin analog treatment was shown to upregulate chemerin gene expression levels regardless of doses. These results suggest that the expression of chemerin in bovine adipocyte might be regulated by chemerin itself and other adipokines, which indicates its possible role in modulating the adipokine secretions in adipose tissues.

The Separate and Combined Effects of Insulin, Dexamethasone and Growth Hormone on the OB Gene Expression and Leptin Secretion from Cultured Human Visceral Adipose Tissue (인체의 복강 내 지방조직 배양을 통한 OB 유전자 발현과 Leptin 분비에 미치는 인슐린, Dexamethasone과 성장호르몬의 단독 또는 복합적 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Il Tae;Kim, Kyung Hee;Hwang, Jin Soon;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.795-802
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : We investigated the hormonal control of OB gene expression and leptin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue. Methods : Visceral adipose tissues were cultured for up to 48 hrs in modified Eagle's medium with varying concentration of hormones : Control(no hormone), bovine insulin(100 nM), Dexamethasone(DEX, 100 nM), growth hormone(GH, 40 ng/mL), insulin+DEX(100 nM each), insulin+DEX+GH(100 nM insulin and DEX, 40 ng/mL GH). Quantitative analysis of leptin mRNA was performed by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and leptin secretion in culture medium was measured by IRMA using a commercial kit. Results : The addition of dexamethasone to the medium significantly increased OB gene expression and leptin secretion(P<0.05). Unlike dexamethasone, insulin did not affect OB gene expression and leptin secretion. Both insulin and dexamethasone, at high concentration, significantly stimulated leptin secretion compared with basal values(P<0.05). Leptin gene expression was not significantly increased by GH treatment alone, however GH, in combination with high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone, attenuated the stimulatory effects of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone. Conclusion : Insulin cannot increase leptin secretion without the presence of dexamethasone. The mechanism suggested is that insulin may increase leptin secretion in cytoplasm only after dexamethasone increases the expression of OB gene. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the action of insulin on leptin secretion after increasing OB gene expression by dexamethasone.