• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bottle-feeding

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Glutathione on Blood Biochemical Changes and Growth Performances of Holstein Calves

  • Kim, Jong-Hyeong;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Lee, Hyun-June;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Wang-Shik;Ha, Jong-K.;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1711-1717
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of glutathione (GSH) on health, solid feed consumption, nutrient intake, body weight gain (BWG), feed efficiency, blood metabolites and the occurrence of diarrhea in Holstein neonatal calves. The calves were fed plain milk as a control (CON) or milk with GSH supplementation. Sixteen calves were separated from their mothers immediately after birth, moved into individual cages and fed colostrum for the first three days. For GSH supplementation, three grams of GSH powder were mixed in 1.8 L of heat-treated milk and placed in a plastic bottle with a rubber nipple. The calves were fed GSH-supplemented milk only once out of four daily feedings. For the first 25 d, calves were fed 1.8 L of milk four times per day. Milk feeding frequency was reduced to three times per day from days 26 to 30, followed by twice a day from days 31 to 44, and once a day from days 45 to 49, after which they were weaned at day 50. Body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption, and growth performance were monitored until day 70. The dietary supplementation of GSH had no effect on daily feed intake and growth performance in growing calves. Hematological results revealed red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was lower, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly higher in calves fed GSH. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were lower in calves fed GSH. Rectal temperature at day 70 was higher in calves that did not receive GSH, while mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH. It is concluded from the present study that BW gain, total dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, and breathing rate did not differ between groups. However, there were some positive blood parameters and the mean frequency of diarrhea and enteritis was less in calves fed GSH compared to CON which did not receive GSH. With the results obtained, supplementation of GSH is highly recommended.

DENTAL TREATMENT IN A PATIENT WITH PIERRE ROBIN SYNDROME UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA : A CASE REPORT (피에르 로빈 증후군 환아의 전신마취 하 치아우식 치료 증례 보고)

  • Ryu, Jiyeon;Shin, Teo Jeon;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Kim, Chong-Chul;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • The Journal of Korea Assosiation for Disability and Oral Health
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2016
  • Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS) is characterized by the triad of congenital mandibular hypoplasia, glossoptosis and cleft palate. Infant PRS patients are frequently suffering from upper airway obstruction, gastroesophageal reflux and growth retardation caused by above mentioned problems. We report a dental caries treatment of 3-year old girl with Pierre Robin syndrome with multiple caries. The cause of multiple caries was mainly presumed as patient's eating habit caused by her general condition. She had some feeding problems and had history of gastric tube. She was still using milk bottle and took more than an hour to finish a meal. The treatment was performed under general anesthesia considering patient's condition; mild autism, poor cooperation and respiratory problem due to micrognathia. Severely affected upper incisors were treated with pulp treatment and restored with zirconia crown for esthetic purpose. Lower incisors were treated with pulp treatment and restored with composite resin. Upper right first primary molar was restored with stainless steel crown and other primary molars were treated with composite resin. There were no postoperative complications. According to her parents, the patient's compliance to oral hygiene management was greatly improved after the treatment since she was very pleased with the esthetic result and highly motivated by her looks. The treatment without sedation or general anesthesia would be possible once the airway is improved as the mandible grows.

Nutritional Assessment and the Effectiveness of Dietary Counseling in Infants and Young Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia (철결핍성 빈혈을 가진 영유아에서 영양학적 평가 및 영양상담 효과)

  • Kim, Ja Kyoung;Ko, Eun Young;Lee, Yu Jin;Jun, Yong Hun;Kim, Soon Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Iron deficiency is still the most common nutrient deficient disorder despite the improvement in general health and nutrition. This study is designed to evaluate the dietary history of infants and young children with iron deficiency anemia(IDA) and the effects of nutritional counseling. Methods : This study was conducted on 120 children from 6 to 36 months of age with IDA. Their parents completed a questionnaire and took counsel for nutrition. IDA was defined as Hb <11.0 g/dL, ferritin <10 ng.mL or transferrin saturation <15%, or Hb increase >1 g/dL after iron preparation. The questionnaire consisted of their feeding patterns, weaning time and kinds of food. Results : In the 120 infants and young children aged from 6 to 36 months, the parents of 82 cases was counseled about nutrition. Fifty six infants among 82 cases have started weaning and the main foods of weaning were rice and/or rice gruel. Nutritional problems in weaning were that some children over one year of age were using a bottle, and parents restricted weaning food at will because of allergic disease or chronic disease. Most parents were satisfied with the nutritional counseling given from a clinical dietitian and showed good compliance. Conclusion : Many infants and young children with IDA were provided with non iron-fortified foods and made an inadequate wean. Most parents were satisfied with the nutritional counseling and showed good compliance. The need of dietary counseling was required for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia because of inadequate weaning.

A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES OF 5 YEARS CHILDREN IN KANGNUNG CITY (강릉시 5세 아동의 "조기 유아기 우식증" 관련 추정요인의 기술 역학적 연구)

  • Park, Jin-A;Ma, Deuk-Sang;Park, Deok-Young;Park, Ho-Won;Lee, Gwang-Su
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.226-236
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to get descriptive statistics of the contributing factors for early childhood caries and to predict the relationship of dietary, behavior factors and health status factors of the mother and child at pregnancy and after birth. 411 first caregivers of 5-year-old children in 12 kindergartens in Kangnung city were selected by stratified random cluster sampling. They were asked to fill out questionnaires and 364 of them responded. The obtained results were as follow: 1. Over the three-Fourth of children used nursing bottle or had breast feeding habit beyond the age of 1 year. 2. 8.7% of respondents didn't recognize the necessity of the preventive measures immediate after eruption of primary tooth, and only 35.1% replied that they had begun tooth cleaning. 3. Over 90% of children brush the teeth more than once per day. But over half (614%) of them brush their teeth without parents instruction. Sixty percent of children eat between the meals as often as 1-3 time(s) a day and the remainder at any times. 4. The first time of dental visit was for most children (87%) at over 3 years, recommending the earlier dental visit. Notwithstanding the rate of routine dental visit experience was relatively high(40.2%), implicating positive parents' attitude about oral health at Kangnung area. 5. The relationships between oral health state of the parents and the variables such as the timing of the first tooth cleaning, the frequency of brushing, the time of first dental visit, and the reason of first dental visit were not statistically significant. Together, there was no statistically significant difference between rural and urban area, private and public kindergarten, and boy and girl($x^2-test$, p>.05 or Fisher's exact test, p>.05).

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Potentials of Synbiotics for Pediatric Nutrition and Baby Food Applications: A Review (소아 영양 및 유아식 응용을 위한 신바이오틱스의 잠재력: 총설)

  • Jung, Hoo Kil;Kim, Sun Jin;Seok, Min Jeong;Cha, Hyun Ah;Yoon, Seul Ki;Lee, Nah Hyun;Kang, Kyung Jin
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2015
  • Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic substances as well as microorganisms were added to infant formula in an attempt to influence the intestinal microflora with an aim to stimulate the growth of lactic acid bacteria, especially bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Over the last 10 years, new synbiotic infant formulas containing probiotics and prebiotics have been proposed in order to simulate the effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microflora. Owing to their synergistic effect, the new synbiotics are expected to be more helpful than using probiotics and prebiotics individually. Maintenance of the viability of the probiotics during food processing and the passage through the gastrointestinal tract should be the most important consideration, since a sufficient number of bacteria ($10^8cfu/g$) should reach the intended location to have a positive effect on the host. Storage conditions and the processing technology used for the manufacture of products such as infant formula adversely affect the viability of the probiotics. When an appropriate and cost-effective microencapsulation methodology using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and substances with high biological value are developed, the quality of infant formulas would improve. The effect of probiotics may be called a double-effect, where one is an immunomodulatory effect, induced by live probiotics that advantageously alter the gastrointestinal microflora, and the other comprises anti-inflammatory responses elicited by dead cells. At present, a new terminology is required to define the dead microorganisms or crude microbial fractions that positively affect health. The term "paraprobiotics" (or ghost probiotics) has been proposed to define dead microbial cells (not damaged or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., cell extracts with complex chemical composition) that are beneficial to humans and animals when a sufficient amount is orally or topically administered. The fecal microflora of bottle-fed infants is altered when the milk-based infant formula is supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics. Thus, by increasing the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, prebiotics modify the fecal microbial composition and accordingly regulate the activity of the immune system. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused on the improvement of infant formula quality such that its beneficial effects are comparable to those of human milk, using prebiotics such as inulin and oligosaccharides and potential specific probiotics such as bifidobacteria, which selectively stimulate the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the microflora and the indigenous intestinal metabolic activity of the microflora.

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