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A Survey on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Women in Taegu toward Weaning Diet for Infants (이유식에 대한 대구지역 여성들의 인식조사)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ah;Lee, Eun-Sil;Lee, Young-Hwan;Shin, Son-Moon;Choi, Kwang-Hae
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.370-382
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    • 1997
  • Successful weaning is very important to provide adequate nutrients for normal growth and to induce a good diet habit. We conducted a survey on the knowledge and attitudes of women who live in Taegu toward weaning in infants, to figure out how much they know about weaning diet for the infants, which source they prefer to get the information about weaning diet, whether their knowledge affect their practice about weaning in infants, and the most effective way to educate them. A survey was conducted with the prepared questionnaire on women who responded at the residential area and market place, and those who visited Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University Hospital from July 25 to September 15, 1997. Statistical analysis was done with student t-test and ANOVA using SPSS program. Among total 303 responders, those who aged between 30 and 39 years were 37.2%. Scores for the six questions about weaning policy showed highest in the age group between 30 and 39 years. Higher score was recorded in the more educated group, in those who get informations about weaning diet from books, magazines and pediatricians. The majority of the responders had wrong concepts, such as feeding weaning diet using bottle(69.1%), feeding mixed with formula in the same bottle(64.5%), addition of salt(68.4%). Those who had higher educational level preferred books, magazines rather than neighbors or mother to get informations about weaning diet. Those who preferred books or magazines started weaning, stopped bottle feeding, and used spoon earlier, and their children had unbalanced diet habits less frequently. Home-made food was used most frequently, and commercial products were used less frequently. Those who were employed preferred home-made food rather than commercial products, it may be caused by the difference of the educational backgrounds from those of the unemployed. In conclusion, most responders ask neighbors and mother to get informations about weaning, and the incorrect knowledge from them could cause inadequate weaning practice and induce bad diet habit in their children. We have to find the reasons why they did not refer books or magazines frequently, and the way to resolve the problem.

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A Study of Mothers' Nutritional Knowledge on Weaning of Breast-fed Infants, the Age of 6 Months (평균 6개월 모유영양 영아 어머니의 이유지식에 관한 고찰)

  • Kang Soon Ah;Shin Ho Jeung;Lim Yoong-Ho;Kim Gye Ae;Woo Yean Hee;Jun Yong Hoon;Kim Soon Ki
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.453-461
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the mothers' nutritional knowledge on weaning of 101 infants (8 for 4 mo, 44 for 5 mo, 45 for 6 mo, 4 for 7 mo) at a public health center of Incheon. Informations on the mothers' nutritional knowledge were obtained by questionnaires. In this survey $41.6\%$ of infants were breast-feeding, $43.6\%$ of them were bottle-feeding, and $14.9\%$ of them were mixed feeding right after birth. The rate of breast-feeding right after birth was significantly higher in mothers of high school graduate than mothers of college/university graduate (p < 0.05). The infants of mothers graduated high school began to be weaned significantly earlier than the infants of mothers graduated college/university (p < 0.05). $95.1\%$ of infants (n = 101) began to be weaned 4 to 6 months. $83.1\%$ of infants were fed home-made weaning foods. $66.7\%$ of infants were fed rice gruel, $18.5\%$ of them were fruit juice, $6.2\%$ of them were mixed grain, and $4.9\%$ of them were commercially prepared weaning foods as their first supplementary foods. As main supplementary foods, $32.8\%$ of infants were fed vegetable, $30.5\%$ of them were rice gruel, and $27.7\%$ of them were fruit juice. Mothers' nutritional knowledge related to weaning was significantly higher among mothers of college/ university graduate than mothers of high school graduate (p < 0.05). $86.1\%$ of mothers disagreed with the questionnaire in which breast-fed infants aged over 4 months needed to be fed iron sufficient food. For the improvement of nutritional status especially iron nutritional status of infants, nutritional education for mothers with weaning aged infants has to be increased and related programs have to be operated effectively.

Weaning Practice for Infants in Daejeon City (영유아의 이유실태(離乳實態) -대전지역(大田地域)-)

  • Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1979
  • For the purpose of investigating the weaning practice for infants, this study of 251 infants aged from 3 months to 2 years old was conducted in Daejeon City during the the period of August 9 through 23, 1978. The results obtained were as follows: About 60% of the infants were breast-fed, 27.6%, mixed-fed, and 12.0%, bottled-fed. The reason for bottle-feeding was either the lack of breast-milk secretion or ill-health of mothers. There was no significant difference in the feeding methods according to a level of mother's education. Sixty precent of the infants began to be weaned 6. months. The most of the infants were completely weaned within 18 months. The knowledge on weaning was mainly obtained from the publications, such as newspapers, journals for women, child care booklets, etc. The difficulties in the weaning practice were the shortage of knowledge on weaning and the unacceptability by the infants. Liquid or semi-liquid foods were firstly given to the more than 60% of the infants as introducing weaning foods, while 23.3% of the babies were given solid foods. Interestingly, the earlier the birth order was, the more babies were given liquid or semi-liquid foods, The motives for weaning was either the boby's demand for other foods than milk(41.3%) or the lack of breast-milk secretion (31.3%). In the selection of supplementary foods, the nutritional value was given the highest consideration) (54.9%). many mothers (64.2%) prepared supplementary foods for infants at home, while 23.1% used commercial body foods and 12.7% gave infants adult's meals as supplementary foods. The major materials for home-made supplementary foods were fruits and vegetables (41.5%) and cereals (37.5%). The commercial supplementary foods (mainly powdered from) were not used much (never used; 53.6%) and even in the babies, who had consumed them once, nearly half of the babies (42.9) did not eat well. Accordingly, the many mothers (68.8%) welcomed the development of the domestic supplementary foods in good quality and one-third (31.2%) responded that they would consume them regardless of the price.

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A Study on Object Attachment in Infant and Early Childhood(I) (유아의 대물애착현상에 관한 연구(I))

  • 서영숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 1979
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent and how the infant's Object Attachment occurs. For this purpose, 28 mothers with their infants showing or having shown this phenomenon were interviewed. They were selected by the whole scale smpling method from 310 household -wives living at a delux Apt. in Seoul. The results are summarized as follows : 1. About 27% of the infants aged between 6 months and 6 years turned out to show this phenomenon. 2. Qulits, bed clothes, pillows and blankets, which infants have been closely contacted since their babyhood, were the major source of attachment objects. In general, these objects were proved to have soft, wasm, smooth, and glassy tactile sensation. 3.This phenomenon, in average, appeared since 13 months after birth, About 50% of the whole began to show this phenomenon between 9 and 14 month after birth. 4. Half of the infants didn't show a change of attachment strength, but as for the other half, the attachment strength increased after one year of age, and decreased after three years of age, as the social period commenced. 5. Infants needed attachment objects especially when they were driven by sleep, sense of emptiness, and monotonous or boring feeling. 6. There were little difference between Object Attachment behavior and motherinfant attachment behavior except "babbling", "using her as a base for exploration". Those behaviors did not appear in Object Attachment. 7. mothers said that their children's attachment objects played the role of substitute mother, pacificater, warmer, friend , etc. And they attributed this phenomenon's appearance to lack their physical contact with, ocnstant and warm care toward, their children or bottle feeding.

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Nutritional Status for Weaning Children and Suggested Introducing Method for Weaning Food at Low Income and Village Level Home (우리나라 이유기 어린이의 영양상태 및 저소득층을 위한 이유 보충식 개발 가능성 검토)

  • Moon, Soo-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 1986
  • Timing of weaning is later in Korean rural and lower urban classes compared with middle and upper classes. Weaning after the international standard of six months of age has adverse effects on the growth rate of children. This occurs because supplementary foods are not provided for the child during the weaning period; rather, the infant goes directly from nursing(or bottle feeding) to the cereals and solid foods of the adult diet. Consequently, all nutrient and calorie intake, with the exception of thiamin, in Korean rural children had not yet attained the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). This situation bas created an urgent need for easy to prepare, low priced. highly nutritious supplementary foods. The research team of Yonsei University developed 3 formulas prepared from rice, soybeans, sesame, dry skim milk and fish which are all plentiful and inexpensive items in Korea. A proximate analysis and amino acid determination were performed on three formula. These formulas were prepared and used as exprimental diet for an animal assay. In the animal assay, growth rate, PER evaluated and biochemical analyses were also carried out. A safety storage assay and the cost evaluation were also conducted.

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A Comparative Study on the Level of Postpartum Women's Fatigue between Rooming-in and Non Rooming-in Groups (모자동실군과 모자별실군 질식분만 산모의 피로도 비교)

  • Song, Ju-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.241-255
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    • 2001
  • This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which compares the level of postpartum women's physical, phychological, neurosensory fatigue between rooming-in and non rooming-in groups. The data were collected by using self-report questionnaire from April 1 to May 31, 2001. Subjects were 68 mothers who opted the rooming-in choice and 98 mothers who did not choose the rooming-in at one hospital in Seoul, Korea. They all had NSVD. The research questionnaire consisted of 36 items on general chracteristics and 30 items on postpartum fatigue developed by Pugh (1993). The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 10.0 window program. The results of this study were as follow: 1. There was significant statistical difference in general characteristics between rooming-in and non rooming-in groups in prenatal class attendance ($x^2$=3.935, p=0.047), maternal fetal attachment score (t=2.130, p=0.035), husband attendance during the labor and delivery ($x^2$=9.147, p=0.002), breast feeding ($x^2$=12.503, p=0.000), and self feeding time including bottle feeding (t=4.588, p=0.000). 2. There was no significant statistical difference in the level of total fatigue score between two groups (t=0.282, p=0.780). 3. The physical and neurosensory fatigue scores were slightly higher in rooming-in group ($21.63{\pm}4.92$, $18.53{\pm}4.60$) than those ($20.71{\pm}5.78$, $18.23{\pm}5.39$) of non rooming-in group. And the phychological fatigue score was slightly higher in non rooming-in group ($17.67{\pm}4.95$) than that ($17.04{\pm}4.63$) of rooming-in group. However, there was no significant statistical difference in the level of three sub-dimension fatigue between two groups (t=1.068, p=0.287; t=-0.827, p=0.410; t=0.368, p=0.714). 4. Even after controlling characteristics showed significant differences between two groups, there was no significant statistical difference in the level of fatigue between two groups (F=0.135, p=0.714). According to this study, there was no significant statistical difference in the level of postpartum fatigue whether they were rooming-in or not. Based on this result, the common notion of rooming-in mothers will be more fatigue than non rooming-in mothers is proved to be false. However, it is necessary to develop appropriate nursing interventions to meet the need of mothers who decide to rooming-in.

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Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SEVERE EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN IKSAN CITY (익산시 취학전 어린이의 중증 유아기 우식증 유병률과 위험요인)

  • Lee, Kwang-Hee
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.678-683
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    • 2003
  • Preschool children in Iksan city, 3-5 years old, were examined for their prevalence of severe early childhood caries. The case definition was 1 or more cavitated, filled, or missing (due to caries) smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth. Feeding behavior and oral hygiene behavior were investigated by a questionnaire. The prevalence was 20.8% for 36-47 months, 23.6% for 48-59 months, and 30.8% for 60-71 months. Going to sleep with bottle beyond 1 year (P<0.05), immediate removal of bottle after child fell on sleep (P<0.01), beginning time of toothbrushing (P<0.01) had significant relationship with the prevalence of severe early childhood caries. Toothbrushing frequency of primary care provider and use of oral cleaning aids by primary care provider had a tendency to be related with the prevalence(P<0.10).

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Risk factors for persistent otitis media with effusion in children: a case-control study

  • Lee, Ju Yeon;Kim, Se-Hyung;Song, Chan Il;Kim, Young Ree;Kim, Yoon-Joo;Choi, Jae Hong
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 2018
  • Background: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is defined as middle ear effusion without acute signs of infection. OME usually resolves spontaneously; however, persistent OME may require the insertion of a ventilation tube. This study investigated risk factors for persistent OME in children who undergo ventilation tube insertion. Methods: Children who were admitted to undergo ventilation tube insertion at Jeju National University Hospital between August 2015 and July 2016 were enrolled as the case group. Healthy children without persistent OME from August 2016 to July 2017 were enrolled as the control group. Baseline characteristics and predisposing factor data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Middle ear fluids were collected from the case group. Results: A total of 31 patients underwent ventilation tube insertion. The mean age of the case group was 4.53 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 21:10. Twenty-nine (93.5%) children attended a daycare center, and 21 (67.7%) had experience with bottle feeding. Fifteen (48.4%) children in the case group and 3 (9.7%) in the control group first attended a daycare center at <1 year of age (odds ratio=9.96; 95% confidence interval=2.44-39.70; p=0.001). No bacteria were found in middle ear fluid collected from the 31 operated children. Nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization was found in 13 (41.9%) and 17 (54.8%) children in the case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: Earlier attendance at a daycare center was the only predisposing factor for ventilation tube insertion in our study. The aseptic nature of middle ear fluids found in children with OME highlights the efficacy of antimicrobial use.

The Effect of Superovulation of Javanese Thin-Tail Ewes Prior to Mating on Lamb Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth

  • Manalu, W.;Sumaryadil, M.Y.;Sudjatmogo, Sudjatmogo;Satyaningtijas, A.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 2000
  • Forty-four Javanese thin-tail ewes were used to study the effect of superovulation prior to mating and of ration quality on lamb birth weight at parturition. Twenty-two ewes weaning at least one lamb were used to measure lamb preweaning growth. Prior to mating, the experimental ewes were injected twice with prostaglandin, with an 11 d interval between injections to synchronize the estrous cycle. At the last prostaglandin injection, 24 ewes were also injected with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to stimulate superovulation and the remainder were injected with saline as control. During pregnancy and lactation, the experimental ewes were fed either on a low (12% CP and 65% TDN) or a high (15% CP and 75% TDN) quality ration. During lactation, the milk was collected twice a day and was refed to the lambs by bottle feeding immediately after collection. Superovulation or ration quality as a main factor did not significantly affect lamb birth weight. Litter size significantly affected lamb birth weight (p<0.05), and there was an interaction of superovulation and litter size. Nonsuperovulated ewes giving birth to multiple lambs had significantly lower average lamb birth weight (1.34 kg) as compared to those giving birth to a single lamb (1.97 kg) (p<0.05). However, superovulated ewes giving birth to multiple lambs had no significant difference in average lamb birth weight (1.68 kg) as compared to those giving birth to a single lamb (1.91 kg) (p>0.05). Superovulation of ewes prior to mating resulted in a significant improvement in lamb birth weight in the multiple litter size, without significant effect on average preweaning daily gain (p=0.07). Superovulation had a promising use in improving animal production through improvement of prenatal growth during pregnancy and milk production during lactation.