Purpose: Although Bednar's aphthae are common and regress spontaneously, these lesions may lead to feeding intolerance and are often misdiagnosed, rendering examinations useless. This study sheds new light on the clinical features of Bednar's aphthae. Methods: Sixteen neonates and infants were newly diagnosed with Bednar's aphthae via routine health check-ups in an outpatient clinic. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and the following parameters were analyzed; sex, gestational age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and perinatal problems. A physical examination was carried out during the next outpatient visit to examine the healing process and check for the existence of scars or complications. Results: Initial presentation included changes in feeding habits (n=10), longer feeding time, reduced intake, and increased irritability. In 6 patients, Bednar's aphthae were discovered incidentally, without prior symptoms. Feeding posture and method of feeding are important causes of Bednar's aphthae. Eleven patients were fed in a horizontal position, whereas 5 patients were fed in a semiseated position. Fifteen patients were bottle-fed, whereas 1 patient was exclusively breastfed. After correcting the feeding position, the ulcerative lesions disappeared within 1 month of diagnosis. During the follow-up period, lesions did not recur in any of the patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that Bednar's aphthae are caused by mechanical pressure. A diagnosis of Bednar's aphthae should be considered when lesions are found on the palate of infants and when symptoms seem to be feeding related. Proper education of parents can both treat Bednar's aphthae and easily prevent its recurrence.
The otitis media has the highest rate of occurrence in 6-36 month after birth, and relatively high rate of occurrence to six years old. It is one of major cause for hearing loss problem because of its high rate of recurrence. The researcher observed at bed that feeding posture and feeding habit at night have some relationship with occurrence of otitis media. I found that medical research in this area was very weak, and it caused her to concentrate her research on the topic. This paper was undertook a retrospective case-control study to find out the relationship between the mode of feeding and the occurrence of otitis media among the otitis media patients and the healthy persons. As the controling groups, the researcher chose fifty eight mothers whose children received the treatment of otitis media(6-36 months after birth) from the pediatrics clinic of two general hospitals in Seoul, as the patient group, and forty five mothers who consulted with their child to well baby clinic at the general hospital and kindergarten in Seoul as the control group. The results of the survey can be summarized as followed : 1. "Otitis media patient group may have more lying posture mothers while feeding than the healthy control group". The first hypothesis is supported by the fact that the children who have lying posture feeding habit mothers are more easily exposed to otitis media than those who have sitting posture feeding habit mothers as the analysis show : $X^2=8.142$, p = .017 2. "Otitis media patient group may have higher rate of sleeping habit with milk bottle on the month at night than the healthy control group does". The second hypothesis was supported by the fact that the patients group has higher rate of expected sleeping habit than the healthy group dose as the analysis show : $X^2=4.35$, p = .037 3. "Otitis media can be found more in the artificial feeding group than in the healthy children group". The hypothesis is rejected by the analysis, $X^2=1.550$, p = .416. Though the hypothesis is not supported by this research, we need to encourage mothers to feed mother's breast milk on the ground that healthy group has mother's milk feeding tendency, and the best food for infants is their mother's milk, and psychological-sociological effects of breast feeding os quite good for children. It will improve the health of infants. It can be summarized as follows : Otitis media is more concerned with posture of feeding and night feeding habits than feeding modes. On the basis of this survey, feeding education problem for mothers of infants need to be developed. In the education, sitting-embracing posture of feeding, mother's breast feeding, and prohibition of children's lying posture feeding at night need to be emphasized.
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
To investigate the prevalence and etiologic factors of nursing caries, oral examination was performed on 1,100 kindergarten children from 6 Seoul areas and 3 Hongchun areas. Parents were asked to fill out questionnaires. The following results were obtained: 1. The prevalence of nursing caries among 1,100 in the sample group(age 30-75 months) was 14.8%. 2. Fathers' education level(p<0.05), mothers' education level(p<0.01) and monthly income was higher in caries-free group children. 3. When the dietary tendencies of nursing caries group and caries-free group were compared, no significant differences in the length and method of feeding were found. However, nursing caries group showed higher frequency of bedtime nursing habit(p<0.01), daytime use of bottle as a comforter(p<0.01) and other beverage feeding in addition to milk(p<0.01). 4. When the parents' awareness of caries prevention was compared, caries-free group per formed more frequent tooth cleansing(p<0.05) and periodic dental examination(p<0.01).5. Dental caries experience of mothers was significantly lower in the caries free group(p<0.05). From the above results, it can be concluded that deleterious nursing habit had great effect on developing nursing caries and the incidence of nursing caries was lower among children with parents of higher socioeconomic status.
International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
Pierre Robin syndrome is characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate. Infants with Pierre Robin syndrome causes feeding difficulty, upper airway obstruction, and other symptoms. This study aims to examine the effects of applying dysphagia treatment to infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. The study participant was an infant who was born four weeks premature and referred for dysphagia treatment approximately 100 days after birth. At the initial assessment, the infant showed oral sensory sensitivity, a high level of facial and masticatory muscle tension, and a low stability of the chin and cheeks with almost no normal "sucking-swallowing-breathing" pattern. We set the baseline period and intervention period using the AB design. During the baseline period, non-nutritive sucking training using a rubber nipple was conducted without implementing an oral stimulation intervention. During the intervention period, non-nutritive sucking training and an oral stimulation intervention were performed. After the intervention period, the infant's daily oral intake and oral intake per time significantly increased compared to that during the baseline period. We observed that the oral intake time of the infant decreased during the intervention period compared to that in the baseline period, which indicated an improvement in control over the chin, tongue, and lip movements, a change in muscular tension, and stabilization of the "sucking-swallowing-breathing" pattern. We provided dysphagia treatment before breastfeeding, it was positive effects such as normal development of the infant, transition from tube feeding to bottle feeding, and enhancement of overall oral motor function.
This study examined the relationship between mothers' consciousness of diet and their infant feeding methods and weaning practices. Consciousness of diet analyzed from 17 questions concerning the attitudes and opinions of diet was classified into 6 categories using the factor analysis. These categories were the faithfulness of diet, the health-directed dietary practices, the application of health information, the application of information about food and nutrition, the sincerity to meal preparation, and dietary habits. The 400 mothers selected randomly from Wonju area were surveyed. The results obtained from the study were summarized as follows. Weaning was implemented earlier by the group with better education career and with the exact knowledge of weaning. Factors associated with infant feeding methods included some sociodemographic characteristics such as birth order, mothers' employment state and income level and mothers' effort toward faithfulness of diet. The use of health-foods and nutrient supplements were prefered by the groups used bottle-feeding method. The health condition of the infants was influenced by mother's will to carry out the health information rather than infant feeding methods and weaning foods used. Mothers who perceived the importance of diet for health and consumed more milk had healthier babies, and their dietary habits were more favorable. The subjects who self-recognized the meaning of weaning and who believed that earlier weaning was good for baby or delayed weaning was the cause of anemia and poor appetite, took advantage of the information about food and nutrition as well as prefered the health-directed dietary practices. Mothers who retried to feed the weaning food rejected by baby before, applied the dietary information to the real meal management more actively and had a more desirable dietary habits. In those cases the baby had improved health condition. Those who were interested in the meaning of weaning and the nutritious effect of weaning foods, revealed significantly higher tendency on the performance of cooking information and the more confidence to the health information from advertisement.
Kang, Ji Ung;Jin, So Hee;Choi, Kyung Dan;Jang, Young Taek
Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
Purpose : This study investigated the breast-feeding period, the milk bottle-using period, the age of cow's milk, introduced and the amount of cow's milk consumed in relation to anemia. Methods : Over the course of three years, 930 children(12 months to 36 months) who went to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju, Korea were tested for anemia and their parents were surveyed for a history of their children's milk consumption. Results : Anemia appeared more likely between 30 months and 36 months, however, iron-deficiency anemia appeared more likely between 18 months and 23 months. Anemia, low serum ferritin levels and iron-deficiency anemia appeared more likely in children breast fed less than 6 months and greater than 12 months. Although there were survey reports of side effects with cow's milk, including constipation, diarrhea and skin rash, the milk bottle-using period, age of cow's milk introduced and amount of cow's milk consumed had no connection with anemia, serum ferritin levels and irondeficiency anemia. Conclusion : The data showed no correlation between the cow's milk, milk bottle-using period and iron deficiency. But the data revealed that iron deficiency anemia is more likely in children who are breast fed for less than 6 months and over 12 months, so we suggest careful attention during this period to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Kim, Bub-Whoe;Lee, Teck-Won;Min, Du-Sik;Kim, Nae-Soo
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
In order to determine the feeding value of t:1e waste wood of Lentinus eddodes, the waste wood was milled and treated with $Ca(OH)_2$ and cellulase, then raw waste wood and the treated waste wood were fed to broiler chicken and Korean native goates. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The chemical composition of the waste wood was c. protein 2.26%. c. fat 2.57%. c. fiber 44.60 and c. ash 5.58%. No differences were detected between the raw waste wood and $Ca(OH)_2$ or cellulase treated waste wood in chemical composition. 2. In amino acid composition. no cystine and methionine was showed, but trace amount of Vitamin A, $B_1$, and $B_2$, and cholin chloride were detected. 3. Trichoderma viride SANK. No. 16374 was used to decompose the cellulose. 4. In broiler performance, when waste wood meal was subsituted for 5% wheat bran, no adverse effect was showed on weight gain, feed in take and feed efficiency. But $Ca(OH)_2$ and cellulase treated waste wood meal could be subsituted for 8% wheat bran. 5. In Korean native goat performance, feeding waste wood meal subsituted by 50% various bran (25% defatted rice bran and 25% barley bran) had no adverse effect on growth and feed efficiency. 6. Considering the above results, though the waste wood meal could be replaced to part of various bran, there was a bottle-neck to process the waste wood. The waste wood of Lentinus edodes was little feeding value on bed of ruminant.
Kim, Jeong-Han;Lee, Yun-Hae;Choi, Jong-In;Moon, Yeo-Hwang;Ju, Young-Cheoul
Journal of Mushroom
In this study we carried out to find suitable nutrient supplement of corncob as a main carbon source for bottle culture of oyster mushroom. Data from chemical analysis of Kapok seed cake(KP) treatment showed 20.2 of C/N ratio, $0.28g/cm^3$ of bulk density and 74.2% of porosity. Mushroom yield of KP treatment is 158g/bottle that is similar to control(150g/bottle). However, the price of KP is 400 won/kg that is cheaper than 550 won/kg of cotton seed cake(CS). The highest REV(relative feed value) also was observed KP treatment. A further study is required determine practical animal performance by feeding the corncob-based KP.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
An ecological survey of early childhood nutrition was conducted from January 23 to February 18, to study the feeding method and weaning practice in Whaseong-gun, Kyonggi-do. This study covered a total of 283 children. Seventy three percent of the subjects had been breast-fed; 10% had been bottle-fed; others had been combination-fed before the introduction of supplementary foods. Only 26.9% of the subjects began to be fed supplementary food before the age of 6 months. The supplementary food used most frequently by the majority of children at the beginning of weaning was plain cooked rice; rarely special preparation, or different from the food eaten by the family. As for age of termination of breast feeding, 42.7% of the subjects were before 12 months; 32.8% were between 13 and 18 months of age; 24.5% were more than 19 months old. As for methods of stopping breast feeding, 44.5% of the subjects were naturally terminated while 38.5% were forced to terminate by the application of sticking plaster or medicines to the mother's nipples. The results indicate a need for nutrition and hygiene intervention to improve the weaning practice of rural area through the community nutrition education.
Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Park, Kye-Wol;Chi, Kyung-A
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
This study was executed for 300 mothers bringing up a child below 3 years in the area of Kangnung to assess the current weaning practice of infants. 24.6% of mother surveyed were breast-fed, 57.8% were formula-fed and 17.5% were mixed-fed. The rate of breast feeding was lower and the rate of bottle feeding was higher in infants whose mothers had more income or higher educational period or full-time job. Most of the respondents knew the significance of supplementary food. 41.4% of the subjects started weaning of their infants at 3-4 months, and 84.1% of them set on weaning in less than 7 months after babies were born. And 39.4% of the subjects finished weaning of their infants in less than one year. The infants of this study preferred the fruits and fishes to meats, vegetables and beans that served to them as supplementary food. Mothers showed deep interest in recipe of weaning food(48.5%), adequate quantity of weaning food(36.3%), information on commercial food for infants(32.2%), and sequence in which semi-solid food are introduced(31.9%). From these results, it is suggested that education program in primary health center for improvement of weaning practice of infants should be implemented reflecting needs of mothers.
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