• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bottle-feeding

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Factors Affecting Performance of Hand Hygiene by Parents of Hospitalized Infants (입원 영유아 부모의 손 위생 수행 영향요인)

  • Jin, Su Jin;Song, Young Mi;Han, Hye Young;Seo, Kyung Hwa;Kim, Soon Jeong
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the performance of hand hygiene by parents of hospitalized infants. Methods: The study was conducted with 209 parents of hospitalized infants from one hospital in Changwon. Data were collected from June through August, 2014 and analyzed using SPSS Win 18.0 program. Results: There were positive correlations between performance of hand hygiene and perceptions of sanitary formula bottle (r=.586, p<.001), attitude to hand hygiene (r=.438, p<.001), and knowledge of hand hygiene (r=.405, p<.001) and between parent efficacy and perceptions of sanitary formula bottle (r=.572, p<.001). Awareness of perceptions of sanitary formula bottle (${\beta}$=.308, p<.001), parent efficacy (${\beta}$=.281, p<.001) and hand hygiene attitude (${\beta}$=.207, p<.001) were significant predictors of hand hygiene performance and explained 46.1% of the variance. Conclusion: To increase infection control medical institutions should provide education on hand hygiene and training for parents of hospitalized infants. In order to enhance the performance of hand hygiene, it is necessary to develop and apply nursing programs for hospitalized infants that include hand hygiene attitude, maintenance of the sanitary formula bottle and parent efficacy.

Effects of different Discharge Packs given at the Nursery Room on Postpartum Breast-feeding (신생아실에서의 모유 퇴원팩이 산후 모유수유 실천에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi Jayun;Kim Miwon
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 1995
  • The effects of different discharge packs on the rate of breast-feeding practice were investigated in 2, 4 and 8 postpartal weeks. The subjects were those who have made delivery at Chonnam University Hospital from Jan to Feb 1994. They were divided into three groups by the discharge pack provided at the nursery room : the one group was given with formula discharge pack, another with breast-feeding discharge pack and the other nothing. The formula discharge pack contained formula samples, a feeding bottle and a pamphlet prepared by a formula company, and breast-feeding discharge pack contained a manual pump and a pamphlet made by Korean Nurses Association. Following results were obtained : 1. Different discharge packs significantly affected the rate of breast-feeding practice at 2 week postpartum, while not at 4 and 8 week postpartum. 2. At 2 week postpartum, the rate of breast-feeding practice was significantly higher in the group given with breast-feeding discharge pak than in that given with formula discharge pack. It was also significantly higher in the group given with breast-feeding discharge pack compared with the group given nothing. The breast feeding rate, however, did not significantly differ between the formula discharge pack group and the group given nothing. 3. The most common cause for the artificial feeding was 'lacking breast milk'. The most common cause to select a specific brand of formula milk was 'the same as in the nursery room'. In conclusion, it is suggested that encouraging mothers to perform breast feeding and providing them with a breast-feeding discharge pack instead of a formula pack at the nursery room are helpful in promoting the breast-feeding.

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A Survey on Understanding and Actual Condition of Breast-feeding of Woman at Oriental Medicine Hospital Postpartum Care Center (한방병원 산후조리센터 산모를 대상으로 한 모유수유 실태 및 인식조사)

  • Jung, Ji-Ho;Kim, Mi-Ki;Park, Jin-Soo;Shin, Kwon-Sung;Park, Eun-Jung
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2010
  • at Jeonju Wonkwang University Oriental Medicine hospital postpartum care center. Results The majority of women(79.2%) had planned breast-feeding. However, only 32.1% of women currently have fed breast-feeding. 58% of mothers who did partial breast-feeding and breast-feeding currently have planned to breast-feed more than 7 months. The main reason of bottle-fed is concern of insufficient amount of breast milk(72.2%). Also the main reason of breast-feeding is good for baby's health(90%). The average score on the test of the understanding about the methods and advantages of breast-feeding was $13.98{\pm}1.92$ out of total 18.49.1% of women thought that taking herbal medicine would affect baby during breast-feeding. Also 71.7% of women thought that herbal treatments (acupuncture, herbal medicine) would be helpful when the amount of breast milk is insufficient. Conclusions This survey has showed that in spite of full breast-feeding plan, the percentage of actual breast-feeding rate is low. Timely education is needed to increase breast-feeding rate. It is worth to consider herbal treatment to increase breast milk amount. In addition to that it is necessary to create a hospital environment in which mothers can easily begin breast-feeding as soon as possible after delivery. Moreover, beyond the medical field, political and social supports for breast-feeding are needed.

FACTORS AFFECTING MAXILLARY ANTERIOR TEETH CARIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN (취학전 어린이의 상악 유전치 우식증과 관련 요인)

  • Jong, Seung-Yol;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Ra, Ji-Young;Lee, Dong-Jin;An, So-Youn;Kim, Ji-Yeong;Song, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of study was to investigate the etiologic factors of maxillary primary anterior caries. The subjects of study were 401 preschool children, 214 boys and 187 girls, from 36 to 71 months old of randomly selected seven nurseries in Iksan city. The prevalence of maxillary primary anterior teeth was cross-analyzed with gender, age, breast feeding or bottle feeding, length of feeding, sweet snack intake frequency, beginning of toothbrushing, and toothbrushing frequency per day. The prevalence was 43.0% in boys and 26.7% in girls, and there was significant association between the prevalence and gender in cross analysis(P<0.01). The prevalences of the shorter than 2 years of feeding group, the from 2 to 3 years group, and the longer than 3 years group were 31.0%, 43.2%, and 63.2%, respectively, and there was significant association between the prevalence and the length of feeding(P<0.01). Daily intake of sweet snacks had a significant association with the prevalence(P<0.05). There was no significant association between the prevalence and the variables of age, breast feeding or bottle feeding, beginning of toothbrushing, and toothbrushing frequency per day(P>0.05).

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KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS WHO HAVE INFANTS ABOUT BABY BOTTLE TOOTH DECAY AND DENTAL CARIES PREVENTION (유아 모친의 우유병우식증 및 치아우식증 예방에 대한 지식 및 태도 조사)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Dae-Eop;Jo, Jung-Han
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.220-234
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of a group of mothers who had infants about baby bottle tooth decay(BBTD) and dental caries prevention. The sample consisted of 261 mothers who had infants from 6 to 36 months from certain areas of Dae-jeon city. The mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire which included a series of questions regarding general information cencerning the infant and his mother, knowledge about BBTD and methods of prevention using fluoride, knowledge about behavioral risk factors contributing to caries of the infant, attitude toward oral health care of the infant, opinions regarding the effectiveness of methods to prevent dental caries and sources of oral health information. he results of this study were as follow. 1. 85.4% of the respondents thought that prolonged bottle feeding would harm the teeth of the infant, but 77% of the respondents had never heard of baby bottle tooth decay. 2. Levels of knowledge about methods of prevention using fluoride were relatively low and there were significant relationships between the levels of this knowledge and the educational level of the respondents(P<0.05). 3. Only 7.3% of the respondents thought that prolonged breast feeding would harm the teeth of the infant. 4. Overall oral health care of the infants was relatively insufficient. 5. Only 28.7% of the respondents selected either when the first tooth erupt or deciduous dentition complete as the time a infant should first be seen by a dentist. 6. 64.6% of the respondents thought that toothbrushing should be instituted once the first tooth appears. 7. Among the six methods of preventing caries in infants, respondents ranked the effective of fluoride lower than making regular dental visits and reducing intake of sugared foods. 8. Most frequently cited sources of information about dental health were newspapers, magazines and books(65%), followed by friends, neighborhoods and families (55%).

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Factors associated with infant feeding practices among Koreans living in Texas, USA and local populations (미국 텍사스주에 거주하는 한국인과 그 지역주민의 영유아 수유실태에 관계된 요인들의 분석비교)

  • Ro, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.475-483
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    • 1995
  • This study was undertaken to determine factors associated with infant feeding practices among highly educated Korean mothers living in Texas, USA and local populations. In both groups, infant's birth order, maternal age, prenatal education, husband's attitude, mother's attitude and infant's taking a bottle to bed were not associated with infant's feeding patterns significantly. However, there was a significant difference in initiating time for introduction of supplementary foods between Koreans and Americans. Thus Korean mothers introduced supplementary foods earlier than American counterparts. Furthermore the infant's feeding method among all participants affected the time for introducing supplementary foods significantly. Though attitude of Korean mothers toward breastfeeding was slightly more positive than that of American mothers, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Koreans was much lower than that in Americans. It might be suggested that effective nutrition education program for Korean subjects should be developed to practice breastfeeding from positive attitude and knowledge. It might be also suggested that participation of prenatal nutrition education involving fathers should be encouraged for promotion of rates of initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding of mothers.

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Feeding Black Bengal Goat under Intensive Management : Milk Feeding in Pre-weaned Kids

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Faruque, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2004
  • Despite higher fecundity, Black Bengal goat generally has lower milk production, which is often insufficient for their multiple kids. However, milk requirement of Black Bengal kids is poorly defined. Present trial was thus designed to determine the requirement and intake of milk of pre-weaned Black Bengal kids in relation to their growth rate age and sex. Thirty, one month old Black Bengal kids of either sex divided into two groups were allocated to two groups, suckling alone (T1) or suckling along with teat-bottle feeding of milk (T2). Ten kids were allocated for the T1 and 20 kids were allocated for the T2. Digestibility of milk was also determined in T2 animals. Average daily consumption of milk, milk energy and milk N were 773 and 722 g, 1,170 and 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ and 1,552 and 1,462 mg N/kg $W^{0.75}/d$, respectively. During 9 weeks trial period, male kids had significantly higher live weight (4.32 vs. 4.20 kg; p<0.01) and intake of milk (773 vs. 722 g/d; p<0.05), energy (117 vs. 1,093 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}$/d; p<0.01) and N (1,552 vs.1,462 mg/k $W^{0.75}/d$; p<0.01) than the female. Milk consumption and the corresponding milk energy and milk N intake increased linearly up to 5th week of the trial, which, then decreased quadratically up to 9th week i.e., up to the weaning. Overall milk DM intake during this period was 2.58% (range 1.5-3.0%) of live weight or about 36 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ (range 29-45 g/kg $W^{0.75}/d$). Pre-weaned Black Bengal kids of about 4.5 kg weight, growing at the rate of 60 g weight daily requires at least 750 g milk daily. Daily live weight gain, estimated as the regression between the live weights over time, was 60 g ($r^2$=0.99) and 55 g ($r^2$=0.99), respectively, for the male and female kids. Efficiency of milk energy utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 (mean 0.81) for the male kid and 0.75 to 0.91 (mean 0.82) for the female kids. Efficiency of milk protein utilization for weight gain ranged from 0.46 to 0.70 (mean 0.61) for the male kid and 0.51 to 0.81 (mean 0.64) for the female kids. Additional teat-bottle feeding of suckling kids had no significant effect on their growth rate (54vs. 57 g/d). Average digestibility of milk DM, OM and N was 98.85, 98.99 and 98.69%, respectively and they were slightly (p>0.05) higher in the male than the female kids. Results suggest that the requirement of energy and protein and their utilization efficiency in Black Bengal kids is not different from that of the other breeds of goat.

A Basic Treatise of Korean Mother′s Concern for the Artificial Feeding (인공영양에 대한 한국 어머니들의 반응에 관한 기초조사)

  • 변수자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1972
  • In this article, the writer attempted to study the followings: (1) mother's knowledge of milk feeding (including method of sterilization, formula and feeding) (2) reasons of artificial feeding (3) how much mothers are concerned about their artificial feeding infants (4) condition of growth and development of artificial feeding infants. As the object of study, 96 mothers with artificial feeding infants, who had consulted dep't of pediatrics of two Hospitals in Seoul (Korea Hospital and Med. College Woo Suk Hospital, Korea Uni.) and well baby clinic of the two Health Centers (Sung Dong and Dongdaemoon), were randomly sampled. The data were treated by the statistic method of chi-square and percentage, and come to the following conclusion. 1. Knowledge of milk feeding Sterilization: 70 percentages of mothers know about the milk sterilization (including bottle, nipple and instrument), but 55 percentages of them do not know the nipple sterilization correctly. Formula: 69 percentages of mothers follow the indicator or in accordance with doctor's directions, but 31 percentages do at their option by reasons that the baby often coughs up the milk, the baby is too small, the baby often has digestive troubles, or the baby grow fleshy heavily etc, except family economic problems. Feeding: only half of mothers know the correct feeding method, especially they do not know how to determine the heat degree of milk and how to bubble up the baby correctly. They just do feeding according to the accepted usages. 2. Reasons of artificial feeding Of the reasons of artificial feeding, 18 percentages were caused by infants and 82 percentages by mothers. Most of the reasons are mainly due to the lack of breast milk and sufficient supply of nourishments rather than mother's deficiency or mother's abnormality. 3. Mother's concern for artificial feeding infants Mothers who are sharply concerned for their artificial feeding baby's growth and development: 63%, mothers who made the baby (artificial feeding infant) routine vaccinated: 81%, mothers who ear anxious about the baby's future personality forming : 68%, mothers who care about the baby's condition of nourishment; 60%, mothers who are anxious about tile selection of baby's food; 54%. 4. The growth and development of artificial feeding infants compared with Korean average infants. The artificial feeding infants are above the Korean average infants in stature by 1.21 centimeters and in weight by 0.3 kilograms. Conclusion: It has been said that there is no better food for infant than the breast milk. However, the artificial feeding has been used for the supplement of nourishments and as substitute food for the breast milk. And this artificial feeding could give the married women the chance to act in society and more opportunity to develop themselves and to work for others at home and other fields. Considering these advantages, artificial feeding should not be exclusive, but preferably should be more improved and inquired positively. And even in artificial feeding, what is most important is that mothers should recognize the requirement and need of artificial feeding clearly and correctly, and they should be accustomed to the correct knowledge and skills of artificial feeding in order to practice it appropriately. In some degree, they should be properly trained in school education process.

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TOOTH SURFACE CARIES PATTERNS IN THE PRIMARY DENTITION ACCORDING TO BREAST OR BOTTLE FEEDING (수유 요인에 따른 유치열의 치면별 우식패턴)

  • Im, Kyeong-Wook;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Ra, Ji-Young;An, So-Youn;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the tooth surface caries patterns in the primary dentition according to breast or bottle feeding. The subjects of study were 815 children, 36 to 71 months old, in Iksan, Cheongju and Ulsan cities. The caregivers of the children were asked which they fed between the breast milk and the infant formula during the 1st year after birth and the duration of feeding. There was no significant difference in dmfs between the breast milk group and the infant formula group(significance level 0.05, same below). Tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which had significantly higher dmfs in the breast milk group than in the infant formula group were upper anterior teeth(tooth groups), upper incisors' buccal and proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper incisors and upper second molars(teeth), upper central incisors' buccal and distal surfaces, upper lateral incisors' buccolingual and proximal surfaces, upper 2nd molars'lingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars' buccal and distal surfaces. In the breast milk group, tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which dmfs significantly increased as the duration of the feeding increased were upper anterior teeth and upper molars(tooth groups), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper molars' buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, lower molars' proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper anterior teeth, upper molars, lower 2nd molars(teeth), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper 1st molars'buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, upper 2nd molars' buccal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars'mesial surfaces(tooth surfaces). In the infant formula group, dmfs increased after 3 years of feeding, but the difference was not significant. Caries prevention is necessary in case of breastfeeding more than two years.

Comparison of Health-related Behaviors in Pregnant Women and Breast-feeding Mothers vs Non-pregnant Women (임부 및 모유수유부와 가임기 여성의 건강행태 비교)

  • Joo, Hyun Sil;Kim, Chun-Bae;Nam, Eun Woo;Lee, Min Young;Park, Myung Bae
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess health-related behavior of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers by investigating relevant risk factors. Methods: Data of 10,396 women (age 19 to 49 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey report from 2007 to 2012 was used to analyze factors associated with health-related behavior. The subjects were divided into pregnant women; breastfeeding mothers; and non-pregnant women. Bottle feeding mothers were excluded. Results: Current smoking rate including self-reported smoker and/or positive cotinine urine test were lower for pregnant or breast-feeding group than non-pregnant group. Heavy-drinking was not different among groups while monthly drinking rate was higher in non-pregnant group. Rate of stress recognition was lower in pregnant and breast-feeding group than non-pregnant group. Rate of experience for depressive symptoms and rate of suicidal ideation were not different among groups. Conclusion: Pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers maintain a good pattern of health- related behavior compared to non-pregnant women. However, substantial proportion of pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers continue to drink and smoke. This shows the need for a plan that will modify health-related behavior.