Cultural heritage is the historic symbol implying the life of people and regionality. Accordingly, the study on cultural heritage along the border between Korea and China is a very critical and urgent task for educational purposes as well as to secure historic and cultural awareness and national identity. The border area between Korea and China is classified into the areas along Aprok River and areas along Tumen River where the cultural heritage of various ethnicities is scattered. Accordingly, this study tried to find the approaches to implement and use the exhibition contents for educational purposes as well as visual applications rather than a literary study on cultural heritage in the border area between Korea and China. The results of this study will be the opportunity to enhance the practical understanding of the modern states as well as to learn the cultural awareness of the territory of a modern state and people's awareness of the importance of world heritages. Furthermore, the results of this study will be used as the resources for historic and cultural tours on the web or applications and help to understand the cultural features of Korea and China in the northeastern region as well as historic awareness in educational programs using exhibition materials in a museum.
Mt. Paektu(2,749.6m)m the biggest mountain in Northeast Asia, located on the border line of Korea and China is characterized as an aspite with broad gentle mountain area and rich biota. however, it seems that the study of forest vegetational feature or vegetation zones in the whole area of this mountain is not yet sufficient in spite of contribution by many investigators. in this paper thermal climatic approach was carried out for the determination of vegetation zones of the mountain with the meteorological data of four stations including Cheonjj and various vegetational data. the application of Warmth Index and/or coldness Index(Kira 1977) for the determination of forest vegetation boundary was useful also here, and their boundaries largely coincided with those of thermal indicies obtained in the Korean Peninsula(Yim and Kira, 1975), including the lapse rate of air temperature along increasing elevation. However, in the mountain the boundary of vegetation zones in not clear like those of mountains in Korea. It may be due so the topographic differences between this area and the Korean Peninsula. Besides, the broad ecotones between different vegetations in this area support the vegetation continum concept rather than the unit concept, and the limit of timber line or tree line reflects various hypothesis(Steven and fox 1991). Therefore, for the explantion of vegetation zone of this area should be considered topography or soil condition, for example, as known the hierachy of ecological units (zonobiomes, orobiomes and pedobiomes, Walter, 1973).
To analyze the landslide susceptibility in Baekdu mountain area in china, we get two susceptibility maps using AcrView software through weighted overlay GIS (Geographic Information System) method in this paper. To assess the landslide susceptibility, five factors which affect the landslide occurrence were selected as: slope, aspect, soil type, geological type, and land use. The weight value and rating value of each factor were calculated by the two different methods of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Then, the weight and rating value was used to obtain the susceptibility maps. Finally, the susceptibility map shows that the very dangerous areas (0.9 or higher) were mainly distributed in the mountainous areas around JiAnShi, LinJiangShi, and HeLongShi near the china-north Korea border and in the mountainous area between the WangQingXian and AnTuXian. From the contrast two susceptibility map, we also Knew that The accuracy of landslide susceptibility map drew by ANN method was better than AHP method.
This paper investigates the migration process of Korean population in Northeastern China since the 19th century, focusing on the population distribution patterns in different time periods which reflect changes and diffusions of diaspora space. Korean migration into Northeastern China seemed to begin from the late 19th century, and can be classified into four different periods including cross-border refugee period (19th to 1910), political exile period(1911-1931), forced migration period(1932-1945), and economic-driven migration period(after 1946). The Korean migration into Northeastern China was closely related to paddy field rice farming by Korean migrants, which can be interpreted as a process of contagious diffusion starting from border area between Korea and China at the early stage. And then, process of hierarchical diffusion occurred along with urban centers on the railways from the 1930s. At the later stage, Korean migration has extended to coastal urban centers, other big cities in China and other countries including Korea since the 2000s. Recently, ethnic Korean communities in China have experienced changes from rural village based community to urban district based community as well as from single-nuclei ethnic structure around Northeastern China toward multi-nuclei ethnic structure extending to coastal urban areas in China.
This study aims to examine how institutions has been formed to deepen interdependence and to keep check in trade on the border regions of East Sea Rim between the macro structure and micro behaviors. The transitional nations such as China, Russia, and North Korea adjacent to the East Sea Rim exhibits unique characteristics in terms of transaction governance structure. While the regional economy in northeast China is still overwhelmed by the stated-owned enterprises(SOEs), it strongly encourages the private economic trade to form institutional economy through the border trade port and peddler trade market. Thus trade is shaped by the mixed governance. In far east Russia, whereas the SOEs are in charge of exporting oil, gas etc., private firms and small scale traders are importing household items, so that it can also be called as the mixed governance, while informal social networks simultaneously work. In North Korea, for the trade, since the firms are mainly required to have the permits from the different levels of government, it is regarded as the hierarchical governance. The institutional economics seems to well explain the changing agencies and their influence on the trade among the regions in the East Sea Rim.
Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
Regarding to Dandong as the gateway city of the Sino-North Korea trade, cultural anthropology characterizes it with a hybridity of four groups with a different combination of ethnic and national identity: Korean Chinese(Chosonjok), South Koreans, North Koreans and Chinese-North Koreans. And, microeconomics views the enterprises in Dandong area have different sizes and types in the Sino-North Korea cross-border trade depending on their owner's ethnic and national identity. However, these researches focuses mainly on the differences between the groups, falling short in showing how the group members utilize their double identities to maintain and prosper their businesses, coping with various and changing situations. This study introduces the concept of 'identity juggling' and applies it to Chosonjok cross-border traders. The results from the in-depth interview and survey indicate they juggles their Korean ethnic identity and Chinese national identity selectively in terms of their bilinguality of the Korean and Chinese, mobility crossing China, South Korea, and North Korea, and prospects on the trade revitalization thanks to potential mitigation of tensions in Korea peninsula.
To prepare for the complicated international relationship regarding Korean Peninsula after reunification, this thesis started off with the awareness that Unified Korea should build its international posture and national security at an early stage by determining its appropriate military strength for independent defense and military strategies that Unified Korea should aim. The main theme of this thesis is 'The research on appropriate military strength of the Unified Korean military'. To derive appropriate military strength of Unified Korea, this research focuses on conflict scenario and relative balance strategy based on potential threats posed by neighboring countries, and this is the part that differentiates this research from other researches. First of all, the main objective of the research is to decide appropriate military strength for Unified Korea to secure defense sufficiency. For this, this research will decide efficient military strategy that Unified Korea should aim. Than by presuming the most possible military conflict scenario, this research will judge the most appropriate military strength for Unified Korea to overcome the dispute. Second, after deciding appropriate military strength, this research will suggest how to operate presumed military strength in each armed force. The result of this thesis is as in the following. First, Unified Korea should aim 'relative balance strategy'. 'Relative balance strategy' is a military strategy which Unified Korea can independently secure defense sufficiency by maintaining relative balance when conflicts occur between neighboring countries. This strategy deters conflicts in advance by relative balance of power in certain time and place. Even if conflict occurs inevitably, this strategy secures initiative. Second, when analyzing neighboring countries interest and strategic environment after unification, the possibility of all-out war will be low in the Korean Peninsula because no other nation wants the Korean Peninsula to be subordinated to one single country. Therefore appropriate military strength of the Unified Korean military would be enough when Unified Korea can achieve relative balance in regional war or limited war. Third, Northeast Asia is a region where economic power and military strength is concentrated. Despite increasing mutual cooperation in the region, conflicts and competition to expand each countries influence is inherent. Japan is constantly enhancing their military strength as they aim for normal statehood. China is modernizing their military strength as they aspire to become global central nation. Russia is also enhancing their military strength in order to hold on to their past glory of Soviet Union as a world power. As a result, both in quality and quantity, the gap between military strength of Unified Korea and each neighboring countries is enlarged at an alarming rate. Especially in the field of air-sea power, arms race is occurring between each nation. Therefore Unified Korea should be equipped with appropriate military strength in order to achieve relative balance with each threats posed by neighboring countries. Fourth, the most possible conflicts between Unified Korea and neighboring countries could be summarized into four, which are Dokdo territorial dispute with Japan, Leodo jurisdictional dispute with China, territorial dispute concerning northern part of the Korea Peninsula with China and disputes regarding marine resources and sea routes with Russia. Based on those conflict scenarios, appropriate military strength for Unified Korea is as in the following. When conflict occurs with Japan regarding Dokdo, Japan is expected to put JMSDF Escort Flotilla 3, one out of four of its Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Escort Fleet, which is based in Maizuru and JMSDF Maizuru District. To counterbalance this military strength, Unified Korea needs one task fleet, comprised with three task flotilla. In case of jurisdictional conflict with China concerning Leodo, China is expected to dispatch its North Sea fleet, one out of three of its naval fleet, which is in charge of the Yellow Sea. To response to this military action, Unified Korea needs one task fleet, comprised with three task flotilla. In case of territorial dispute concerning northern part of the Korean Peninsula with China, it is estimated that out of seven Military Region troops, China will dispatch two Military Region troops, including three Army Groups from Shenyang Military Region, where it faces boarder with the Korean Peninsula. To handle with this military strength, Unified Korea needs six corps size ground force strength, including three corps of ground forces, two operational reserve corps(maneuver corps), and one strategic reserve corps(maneuver corps). When conflict occurs with Russia regarding marine resources and sea routes, Russia is expected to send a warfare group of a size that includes two destroyers, which is part of the Pacific Fleet. In order to balance this strength, Unified Korea naval power requires one warfare group including two destroyers. Fifth, management direction for the Unified Korean military is as in the following. Regarding the ground force management, it would be most efficient to deploy troops in the border area with china for regional and counter-amphibious defense. For the defense except the border line with china, the most efficient form of force management would be maintaining strategic reserve corps. The naval force should achieve relative balance with neighboring countries when there is maritime dispute and build 'task fleet' which can independently handle long-range maritime mission. Of the three 'task fleet', one task fleet should be deployed at Jeju base to prepare for Dokdo territorial dispute and Leodo jurisdictional dispute. Also in case of regional conflict with china, one task fleet should be positioned at Yellow Sea and for regional conflict with Japan and Russia, one task fleet should be deployed at East Sea. Realistically, Unified Korea cannot possess an air force equal to neither Japan nor China in quantity. Therefore, although Unified Korea's air force might be inferior in quantity, they should possess the systematic level which Japan or China has. For this Unified Korea should build air base in island areas like Jeju Island or Ullenong Island to increase combat radius. Also to block off infiltration of enemy attack plane, air force needs to build and manage air bases near coastal areas. For landing operation forces, Marine Corps should be managed in the size of two divisions. For island defense force, which is in charge of Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo Island and five northwestern boarder island defenses, it should be in the size of one brigade. Also for standing international peace keeping operation, it requires one brigade. Therefore Marine Corps should be organized into three divisions. The result of the research yields a few policy implications when building appropriate military strength for Unified Korea. First, Unified Korea requires lower number of ground troops compared to that of current ROK(Republic of Korea) force. Second, air-sea forces should be drastically reinforced. Third, appropriate military strength of the Unified Korean military should be based on current ROK military system. Forth, building appropriate military strength for Unified Korea should start from today, not after reunification. Because of this, South Korea should build a military power that can simultaneously prepare for current North Korea's provocations and future threats from neighboring countries after reunification. The core of this research is to decide appropriate military strength for Unified Korea to realize relative balance that will ensure defense sufficiency from neighboring countries threats. In other words, this research should precisely be aware of threats posed by neighboring countries and decide minimum level of military strength that could realize relative balance in conflict situation. Moreover this research will show the path for building appropriate military strength in each armed force.
A rapid growth of interregional trade between China and Korea requires new development and expansion of ports. Currently, there is no rail-ferry system between China and Korea, however, a rapid growth of car-ferry industry shows possibilities. Several candidate cities and regions in East part of China and West part of Korea are selected. We identified times in clearance and station-to-station services as major benefits. We compared three transport modes including candidate cities and regions: container ships, car-ferry and rail-ferry. We used AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) as an evaluation method to select most competitive rail-ferry routes between two countries. We also used 7-point Likert scales to find out bottlenecks and factors to introduce rail-ferry services as other questionnaires. As a result, Rail Ferry System(RFS) is a little expensive due to wagon loading efficiency in cargo hold of the ship compared to Car Ferry System or Liner Shipping System. But RFS is recommendable in case of Block Train transport between Korea and EU area by may of TCR and TSR comparing Car Ferry System, because it can reduce total transport cost and connecting procedure at border lines of passing countries.
Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
DMSP-OLS nighttime satellite imagery could be used to derive the sum of lights (SOL) and built-up area, and the two indices have been widely employed to make the estimation of socio-economic variables and the dynamics of urban developments. Considering it, this research investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of economic growth and urbanized area in Jilin Province, China, using DMSP-OLS data for a time span between 1992 and 2012. This study found the SOLs of both the province and most cities to tend to grow during the period. While SOL-weighted centroids' means moved towards northwestern direction, urban-area centroids' means followed the trend of south-eastern migration. These directional patterns could be associated with the Northeast Revitalization Plan of Chinese governments. Nonetheless, a future study will need to consider SNPP VIIRS DNB imagery in order to overcome temporal limitation of DMSP-OLS data. In addition, it is also necessary to estimate socio-economic indices, e.g., growth regional domestic product, using a regression model developed with correlation relationship between economic statistics ad SOL.
It is recent trend that every countries are opening their border in the name of liberalization of contemporary era. Shipping is not exceptional and it used to be said as international business. Therefore, co-operation and openness of maritime sectors between regional countries is required to utilize resources that each countries can manage. It can be done by employing their vessels in other countries' short sea area. However, there are some problems to implement this practices, here cabotage is centre of issue. Each countries do not open their sea in order to protect their national interests in sovereignty. But, it should be opened if co-operation between each countries work well and properly. To achieve true maritime co-operation, countries as Korea, China and Japan in Northeast Asia region should have understanding for the opening of cabotage. In order to make things work well, it can be done by the lessons from EU and American cases. Therefore, it should be clarified such as market scale to provide cabotage trade, employment as well as interested parties, and technical safety matters as well as environmental standards. Then cabotage matters can be smoothly resolved between three countries in Northeast Asia region.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.