• Title, Summary, Keyword: Body Condition Loss

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The Effect of Body Energy Reserve Mobilization on the Fatty Acid Profile of Milk in High-yielding Cows

  • Nogalski, Zenon;Wronski, Marek;Sobczuk-Szul, Monika;Mochol, Magdalena;Pogorzelska, Paulina
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1712-1720
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the effect of the amount of body condition loss in the dry period and early lactation in 42 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows on milk yield and the share of fatty acids in milk fat. Energy reserves were estimated based on the body condition scoring (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT). Milk yield and milk composition were determined over 305-d lactation. From d 6 to 60 of lactation, the concentrations of 43 fatty acids in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography. Cows were categorized based on body condition loss from the beginning of the dry period to the lowest point of the BCS curve in early lactation into three groups: low condition loss group (L) ${\leq}0.5$ points (n = 14); moderate condition loss group (M) 0.75 to 1.0 points (n = 16) and high condition loss group (H) >1.0 points (n = 12). Cows whose body energy reserves were mobilized at 0.8 BCS and 11 mm BFT, produced 12,987 kg ECM over 305-d lactation, i.e. 1,429 kg ECM more than cows whose BCS and BFT decreased by 0.3 and 5 mm, respectively. In group H, milk yield reached 12,818 kg ECM at body fat reserve mobilization of 1.3 BCS and 17 mm BFT. High mobilization of body fat reserves led to a significant (approx. 5%) increase in the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids-MUFA (mostly $C_{18:1}$ cis-9, followed by $C_{18:1}$ trans-11), a significant decrease in the levels of fatty acids adversely affecting human health, and a drop in the content of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in milk fat. In successive weeks of lactation, an improved energy balance contributed to a decrease in the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and an increase in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat.

Effect of Exercise on the Physiological Changes of Korean Cyclists (한국 사람의 생리적 변화에 미치는 운동의 영향)

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Lee, Beom-Jin
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 1995
  • Serum electrolyte concentration and body weight were determined before and after exercise for 2h in Korean cyclists. The serum concentration of electrolytes (Na, Ca, Zn, K, P and Cl) was increased but that of Mg was decreased as a result of exercise. The increase of serum K and P concentration was statistically significant after exercise. As the exercise time increased, the loss of body weight also increased due to dehydration and sweat. The loss of body weight ranged 1.0 to 2.3 Kg as a function of exercise time but cyclists showed the exhaustion and muscle fatigue 2h after exercise. As the ambient temperature increased, the loss of body weight was slightly increased. However, frequent drinking water was required because of dehydration and thirst. Although frequent drinking water may reduce weight loss and thirst during exercise, sports drinking beverages simultaneously containing electrolytes and nutrients are more useful to replenish loss of water and electrolytes in an exhausted condition, resulting in the improvement of physical performance.

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Analysis on Electromyogram(EMG) Signals by Body Parts for G-induced Loss of Consciousness(G-LOC) Prediction (G-induced Loss of Consciousness(G-LOC) 예측을 위한 신체 부위별 Electromyogram(EMG) 신호 분석)

  • Kim, Sungho;Kim, Dongsoo;Cho, Taehwan;Lee, Yongkyun;Choi, Booyong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2017
  • G-induced Loss of Consciousness(G-LOC) can be predicted by measuring Electromyogram(EMG) signals. Existing studies have mainly focused on specific body parts and lacked of consideration with quantitative EMG indices. The purpose of this study is to analyze the indices of EMG signals by human body parts for monitoring G-LOC condition. The data of seven EMG features such as Root Mean Square(RMS), Integrated Absolute Value(IAV), and Mean Absolute Value(MAV) for reflecting muscle contraction and Slope Sign Changes(SSC), Waveform Length (WL), Zero Crossing(ZC), and Median Frequency(MF) for representing muscle contraction and fatigue was retrieved from high G-training on a human centrifuge simulator. A total of 19 trainees out of 47 trainees of the Korean Air Force fell into G-LOC condition during the training in attaching EMG sensor to three body parts(neck, abdomen, calf). IAV, MAV, WL, and ZC under condition after G-LOC were decreased by 17 %, 17 %, 18 %, and 4 % comparing to those under condition before G-LOC respectively. Also, RMS, IAV, MAV, and WL in neck part under condition after G-LOC were higher than those under condition before G-LOC; while, those in abdomen and calf part lower. This study suggest that measurement of IAV and WL by attaching EMG sensor to calf part may be optimal for predicting G-LOC.

Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows

  • Zhao, Wei;Chen, Xue;Xiao, Jun;Chen, Xiao Hui;Zhang, Xue Feng;Wang, Tao;Zhen, Yu Guo;Qin, Gui Xin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1889-1896
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on the milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidative status of Holstein cows. Methods: A total of 112 multiparous Holstein cows were divided into 4 groups according to the BCS at 21 days before calving: medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25, MBCS), high BCS (3.5 to 3.75, HBCS), higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25, HerBCS), and highest BCS (4.5 to 5.0, HestBCS). Blood samples were collected on 21, 14, and 7 days before calving (precalving), on the calving day (calving), and on 7, 14, and 21 days after calving (postcalving). The indices of lipid metabolism and oxidative status were analyzed using bovine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Colostrum were taken after calving and analyzed by a refractometer and milk analyzer. The individual milk yield was recorded every 3 days. Results: The density and levels of immune globulin and lactoprotein of colostrum from Holstein cows in the HestBCS group were the highest (p<0.05). These animals not only had the highest (p<0.05) levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, but also had the highest (p<0.05) levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In addition, greater (p<0.05) BCS loss was observed in the HestBCS cows. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidative status of Holstein cows are related to prepartum BCS and BCS loss during the transition period. HestBCS cows are more sensitive to oxidative stress and suffer greater loss of BCS after calving, whereas the MBCS animals had better milk yield performance.

The Effect of Incubation Behaviour on the Daily Body Mass Regulation of Streaked Shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) (슴새(Calonectris leucomelas)의 포란행동이 일별 몸무게 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Jae-Woong;Nam, Ki-Baek;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2014
  • During incubation, pelagic seabirds undergo large variations in their body mass as a result of concomitant fasting. In Procellariifomes undergoing important changes in body mass through the incubation, body mass regulation could be an important factor in behavioural decisions for changing activities during the incubation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals' quality and incubation behaviour on their body mass regulation in Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas breeding at Sasudo Island, in Jeju, South Korea during incubation period, June to August in 2013. In our results, we found that there was no relationship between the daily body mass loss and body size or condition of Streaked Shearwaters. However, the daily body mass loss increased significantly as the incubation bout increased. Moreover, the daily incubation bout was positively related to their body size. Consequently, although breeders' qualities were not related to their daily body mass loss during the incubation, the incubation behaviour affecting their daily body mass loss was regulated by their body size. Therefore, the body size of Streaked Shearwater breeders is one of important factors in their decisions for the incubation behaviour.

Relationship between BCS during Prepartum, Calving and Postpartum Periods and Fertility of Korean Brown Cattle (한우에서 분만 전, 분만 시 및 분만 후의 body condition score와 이후의 번식능력과의 상관관계)

  • Choi, In-Su;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.280-285
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    • 2008
  • This study evaluated the correlation between the body condition score (BCS) during prepartum, calving and postpartum periods and the reproductive performance of Korean brown cattle. The BCSs of 33 cows who underwent 73 calvings over a two and a half period [the parities of the cows ranged from 1 to 4 ($mean{\pm}SD,\;2.0{\pm}0.9$)] were scored at months 2 and 1 prepartum, calving, and every month postpartum until month 7. A marked prepartum loss of BCS in the month preceding calving was noted. The correlations between the interval from calving to conception and the month 1 prepartum, calving and months 1 and 2 postpartum BCSs were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. The correlation between the interval from calving to conception and the prepartum body condition loss was also evaluated. The interval from calving to conception correlated positively with the month 1 prepartum BCS (r = 0.389, P = 0.0007) and the prepartum body condition loss (r = 0.488, P < 0.0001) but did not correlate significantly with the BCS at calving (r=-0.070, P=0.56) or months 1 (r=0.107, P=0.37) or 2 (r=0.102, P=0.39) postpartum. The prepartum body condition loss correlated positively with the month 1 prepartum BCS (r=0.587, P<0.0001). In conclusion, the month 1 prepartum BCS may be a good criterion for predicting subsequent reproductive performance. Moreover, the prevention of obesity and/or excessive prepartum body condition loss may result in higher fertility in Korean brown cattle.

Process Evaluation of a Mobile Weight Loss Intervention for Truck Drivers

  • Wipfli, Brad;Hanson, Ginger;Anger, Kent;Elliot, Diane L.;Bodner, Todd;Stevens, Victor;Olson, Ryan
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2019
  • Background: In a cluster-randomized trial, the Safety and Health Involvement For Truck drivers intervention produced statistically significant and medically meaningful weight loss at 6 months (-3.31 kg between-group difference). The current manuscript evaluates the relative impact of intervention components on study outcomes among participants in the intervention condition who reported for a post-intervention health assessment (n = 134) to encourage the adoption of effective tactics and inform future replications, tailoring, and enhancements. Methods: The Safety and Health Involvement For Truck drivers intervention was implemented in a Web-based computer and smartphone-accessible format and included a group weight loss competition and body weight and behavioral self-monitoring with feedback, computer-based training, and motivational interviewing. Indices were calculated to reflect engagement patterns for these components, and generalized linear models quantified predictive relationships between participation in intervention components and outcomes. Results: Participants who completed the full program-defined dose of the intervention had significantly greater weight loss than those who did not. Behavioral self-monitoring, computer-based training, and health coaching were significant predictors of dietary changes, whereas behavioral and body weight self-monitoring was the only significant predictor of changes in physical activity. Behavioral and body weight self-monitoring was the strongest predictor of weight loss. Conclusion: Web-based self-monitoring of body weight and health behaviors was a particularly impactful tactic in our mobile health intervention. Findings advance the science of behavior change in mobile health intervention delivery and inform the development of health programs for dispersed populations.

The Basic Studies of Thermal Physiology for Summer Wears (하복의 온열생리학적 기초연구)

  • Sung Su Kwang;Jeong Hyun Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 1985
  • In the experiment with a basic material for the design of summer wear that comfort can be obtained in temperature, to get individual differences, clothing styles (slacks, skirt), material differences(T/C, cotton), and the contrast between when naked and dressed, when two healthy females were dressed four kinds of summer wear as an object of experiment under the regular warm temperature environmental condition (24, 28, 32, $36^{\circ}C$, $60\pm10\%$ RH), the measurement of physiological, phychological change was taken and the result goes as follow; 1. Mean skin temperature rose by clothing, body weight loss decreased below $32^{\circ}C$, thermal sensation changed toward low temperature by $2\~3^{\circ}C$. 2. Mean skin temperature, body weight loss, the lowest blood pressure above $32^{\circ}C$, under-clothing temperature, and thermal sensation increased when in slacks to be compared with when in skirt. 3. Ambient temperature had a great effect on mean skin temperature, body weight loss, respiration, clothing surface temperature, under-clothing temperature and humidity, thermal sensation, etc. 4. It was admitted that pulse, thermal sensation, comfort show different individuality. 5. It was recognized that the lowest blood pressure, clothing surface temperature, under. clothing humidity differ according to the kinds of clothing. 6. A comfortable ambient temperature in clothing summer wear was about $27\~28^{\circ}C$.

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New Method for Measurement and Validation of In-situ Sound Transmission Loss (In-situ 소음투과손실 측정 및 검증을 위한 기법 개발)

  • Lee, Hwa-Soo;Park, Hong-Cheol;Yoon, Seong-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.795-800
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    • 2008
  • The sound transmission loss is a key index to evaluate the acoustic performance of a car-body structure at the high frequency range. From this paper, a new validation method for in-situ sound transmission loss is proposed. First, in-situ sound transmission loss is measured by using PU intensity probe on the condition of complete vehicle. Second, validation test, which is consisted of internal, external and total frequency response function test, is performed by using volume acceleration source and microphones. Then, these test results are compared to validate the accuracy of in-situ sound transmission loss. Finally, the test result of in-site method is compared with results of two reverberant room test method and SEA analytical method. The reliability of in-situ method is confirmed by these procedures.

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The Thermal Analysis of Pole Mount Mold Transformer with One-body Molding by Duct Condition (일체형 주상용 몰드변압기의 덕트에 따른 열해석 특성 연구)

  • Cho, Han-Goo;Lee, Un-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.1135-1138
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    • 2003
  • The transformer is major equipment in power receiving and substation facilities. Necessary conditions required for the transformer are compactness, lightness, high reliability, economic advantages, and easy maintenance. The pole-mount transformer installed in distribution system is acting direct role in supply of electric power and it is electric power device should drive for long term. Most of modem transformer are oil-filled transformer and accident is happening considerable. The mold transformers have been widely used in underground substations in large building and have some advantages in comparison to oil-transformer, that is low fire risk, excellent environmental compatibility, compact size and high reliability. In addition, the application of mold transformer for outdoor is possible due to development of epoxy resin. The mold transformer generally has cooling duct between low voltage coil and high voltage coil. A mold transformer made by one body molding method has been developed for small size and low loss. One body molding transformer needs some cooling method because heat radiation between each winding is difficult. In this paper, The thermal analysis of pole mount mold transformer with one body molding by duct condition is investigated and the test result of temperature rise is compared with simulation data.

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