• Title, Summary, Keyword: Boar

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Effect of Rubus coreanus leaf and stem extract on boar spermatozoa

  • Yi, Young-Joo;Cho, Min;Heo, Jung Min;Lee, Sang-Myeong
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2017
  • Rubus coreanus is known to have diverse biological properties, such as free radical scavenging activity and anti-bacterial activity. In the present study, Rubus coreanus leaf and stem extract (RLSE) was used in boar semen preservation whether it has a beneficial effect on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in mammals. Boar spermatozoa were preserved in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) in the presence of varying concentrations of RLSE ($0-10{\mu}g/mL$). Sperm motility, sperm viability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were examined after 2 days of preservation. The percentage of total motile spermatozoa and progressive motile spermatozoa improved in the spermatozoa preserved with $0.5{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE. Higher proportions of viable spermatozoa were seen in the presence of 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE than in the control. Intracellular ROS levels decreased when the spermatozoa were preserved in BTS with $0.1-1{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE. In order to examine the bacterial growth, E. coli was added to liquid semen diluted with antibiotics-free BTS in the presence or absence of RLSE. No anti-bacterial activity of RLSE against E. coli was observed during liquid semen preservation. Although there was no inhibition of E. coli growth, the addition of RLSE might help improve sperm motility and viability during boar semen preservation, suggesting it as a potential reagent for ART in mammals.

Effect of Storage in Different Commercial Semen Extenders on the Motility, Viability and Fertility In Vitro of Boar Spermatozoa (수퇘지 정자의 운동성, 생존성 및 체외수정 능력에 대한 시판 액상 정액 보존액과 보존 기간의 영향)

  • Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, Myung-Jick;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Du-Wan;So, Kyoung-Min;Chung, Ki-Hwa;Son, Jung-Ho;Kim, In-Cheul
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.203-207
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of semen extenders on the motility, viability and fertility in vitro of spermatozoa during storage of fresh boar semen diluted in different commercial extenders used for pig artificial insemination (AI). In this experiment, semen were diluted in Androhep plus, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), Modena, Seminark and Vitasem LD. Five ejaculates were collected from three Duroc boars and sub-samples were diluted ($30{\times}10^6$ spermatozoa/ml) in different extenders. Semen was stored at $170^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Sperm motility and viability was assessed using Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) and flow-cytometry on 1, 3, 5 and 10 day post collection The motility of spermatozoa stored in different extenders was gradually decreased by increasing the duration of storage of semen. However, there was not significant1y different in the sperm motility and viability among other extenders. On the other hand, the in vitro-matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured in vitro to assess the fertility of boar spermatozoa stored for 3 and 10 days in different extenders. The percentage of morula and blastocyst were taken as indicators of fertility in vitro of spermatozoa. Therefore, there were no differences in the rate of embryos developed to the molular and blastocyst stage. There were no differences in the motility and fertility in vitro among 5 kinds of commercial boar semen extenders.

Bacterial contaminants in extended boar semen and selection of effective antimicrobials (돼지 희석정액의 세균오염도 및 유효 항생제 선발)

  • Kim, Ha-Young;Byun, Jae-Won;Shin, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hyoung-Soon;Yoon, Hachung;Park, Choi-Kyu;Lee, O-Soo;Jung, Byeong Yeal
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2010
  • Bacterial contamination is an unavoidable finding of the semen collection process in boar and can lead in deleterious effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The purpose of this study is to identify the bacteria in extended boar semen and to select the effective antimicrobials to control of the contaminants. Of 116 extended boar semen samples submitted from eight AI centers in Korea, 39 (33.6%) samples were positive for bacterial contamination. Among 39 contaminated semen, most of them (84.6%) were contaminated with one or two bacterial species and there was no significant difference between two age groups $(\leq\;24\;and\;>\;24\;month\;old).$ Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 18) was the most predominant bacterium followed by Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (n = 12), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (n = 12), Myroides spp. (n = 5), Ochrobactrum anthropi (n = 3), and so on. Enrofloxacin (72.9%), florfenicol (72.9%), bacitracin (49.2%) and tylosin (49.2%) showed higher sensitivity compared with penicillin (13.6%) or aminoglycosides (6.8%-18.6%). Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were not detected in semen by PCR.

Effect of BTS and Androhep during Storage Times on the Kinematics and Capacitation Status in Liquid Boar Semen (BTS와 Androhep이 보존 기간 동안 액상 정액의 운동역학 및 수정능 획득에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yun-Hee;Park, Yoo-Jin;Yoon, Sung-Jae;Kwon, Woo-Sung;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage time on fresh boar semen in Androhep and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Boar semen samples extended in each extender were stored at $17^{\circ}C$ up to 4 days. Sperm motility kinematics was evaluated by computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and capacitation status by chlortetracycline (CTC)/Hoechst 33258 staining. Sperm motility (%) was not decreased during storage in BTS and Androhep. No significant difference between extenders was observed. Only significant differences in kinematic parameters on linearity during storage were found. The percentage of dead sperm significantly decreased during storage (p<0.05). Also the percentage of noncapacitated, capacitated, and acrosome-reacted sperm significantly modified during storage (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between extenders except proportion of capacitated sperm. This finding supported that modification in these parameters was not significantly different between extenders during this short-term storage. Our finding strongly indicated that both Androhep and BIS maintained favorable conditions for motility, motility kinematics, and capacitation status during short-term storage. Despite modifications in some parameters were apparent during sperm storage in extenders, these may not affect the fertilizing capacity of boar semen.

Development of Sperm MTT Assay for Its Application in Boar Semen

  • Jang, Hyun-Yong;Lee, Hee-Young;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Kim, Jong-Taek;Park, In-Chul;Park, Choon-Keun;Yang, Boo-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2010
  • The MTT assay is one of superior evaluation methods widely used to analyze the viability of metabolically active cell. It can be used to determine the percentage of viable sperm through measurement of the reduction of MTT granules at mitochondria in sperm tail. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal condition of a simple and easy MTT assay to validate boar sperm viability and compare the accuracy of this test with microscopic examination. The MTT reduction rate for sperm viability were analyzed in microtiter plates (96 well) from 1 hr to 5 hr incubation periods at $37^{\circ}C$ using spectrophotometer (microplate reader) at 550 nm wavelength. The remainder of semen sample was simultaneously examined to compare the correlation of accuracy between MTT assay and other sperm parameters. Those sperm parameters were included the motility, survival rates, membrane integrity, mitochondria activity and acrosome integrity. The OD values of MTT assay (MTT reduction rates) did not greatly change at 1 hr to 5 hr incubation periods in different proportion of live and freeze-killed sperms (dead sperm). The MTT reduction rates or survival rates were decreased according to the different concentration of live and dead sperm. The linear regression at 1 hr and 4 hr incubation periods in sperm MTT assay was y=291.55x-72.176 and y= 180.64x-44.569, respectively. There are high correlation between 1 hr and 4 hr incubation periods (p<0.001). The results of MTT assay and other sperm parameters has a positive correlation (p<0.01 or 0.05). The correlation coefficients for MTT assay was 0.88115 for motility, 0.89868 for survival rates, 0.91722 for membrane integrity and 0.77372 for acrosome integrity, respectively. In conclusion, the MTT assay can be used as a reliable and efficient evaluation method for boar sperm viability. It can be use practical means to evaluate the quality of boar sperm by a fast, inexpensive and easy method.

Effects of Thawing Conditions on the Viability and Acrosomal Morphology of Cryopreserved Boar Semen (동결보존한 돼지정액의 융해조건이 정자의 생존율과 첨체변화에 미치는 효과)

  • 정영호;서경덕;김광식;심금섭;이장희
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of osmolarity of thawing diluents, seminal plasma added in thawing diluents on the sperm viability and the effects of thawing temperature, the temparature of the thawing diluents on the sperm viability and acrosomal morphology of boar spermatozoa by the straw method. The result obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The sperm viablilty after thawing of the frozen semen was shown greater in the high osmolarity(392~492mOsm) than low osmolarity(300mOsm) in thawing diluent. The added levels of seminal plasma in thawing diluent did not affect the viability of frozen-thawed boar semen. 2. In terms of thawing temperature, the sperm viability was shown higher in the frozen semen thawed at 5$0^{\circ}C$ for one min. (p<0.01) than those thawed at 2$0^{\circ}C$ or 37$^{\circ}C$ for one min. The sperm viability was not significant at the diluent temparature of 2$0^{\circ}C$or 37$^{\circ}C$ after thawing: but the sperm viability was higher in thawing diluent at 2$0^{\circ}C$ than in that at 37$^{\circ}C$. However, the effects of thawing temperature and diluent solution on normal acrosomal rate were not significant. 3. Cleavage rates of oocytes fertilized with frozen semen were 46.4% and 43.3%, respectively, which were thawed at 5$0^{\circ}C$ for one min. and then diluted in mBTS medium at 2$0^{\circ}C$or 37$^{\circ}C$. To sum up, the sperm viability was shown greater at the high of thawing diluents of frozen boar semen. In terms of thawing conditions, the sperm viability was shown greater, when semen was thawed at a high temperature for a short time and then diluted at the same temperature as that in the straw.

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Studies on the Freezing of Boar Semen I. Effects of Cooling Rate and Extenders on Viability and Normal Acrosome after Frozen-Thawed of Boar Semen (돼지정액의 동결에 관한 연구 I. 냉각속도와 희석액이 동결융해후 정자의 생존성과 정상첨체율에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim K. S.;Kim K. S.;Seo K. D.;Song H. B.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the extender, cooling rate and concentration of glycerol for freezing of boar semen. The result obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Optimal cooling rate was $0.17\~022^{\circ}C/min$ from 25 to $5^{\circ}C$ in LEY extender on the viability and normal acrosome after thawed. 2. The LEY extender was effective in protecting frozen boar semen from cold shock among the extenders(p<0.001, respectively). 3. The sperm viability and normal acrosome rates after thawing was showed greater in the 3 or $4\%$ of glycerol concentration than $2\%$ in LEY extender. 4. Viability of sperm was higher when both 15mM of fructose and 3 or $4\%$ glycerol were added to the LEY extender compared with other concentrations of fructose and glycerol were added it(p<0.001).

Effect of Different Inoculation Concentration of Escherichia coli on Boar Sperm Quality and Reproductive Performance in Sow

  • Sa, Soo Jin;Choi, Sun Ho;Kim, Hyun Jong;Cho, Kyu Ho;Hong, Joon Ki;Kim, Du Wan;Kim, Young Hwa;Park, Jun Cheol;Chung, Ki Hwa
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.159-163
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of E. coli on boar sperm quality and reproductive performance in sows after artificial insemination. Three different levels of E. coli were artificially inoculated to semen with following concentrations; Control, 500, 5,000 and 50,000 colony forming unit (cfu)/ml. Semen samples were preserved at $17^{\circ}C$ for 5 days. Sperm motility was significantly decreased (p<0.05) on day 3 in the group inoculated with 5,000 cfu/ml compared to control groups. In all treatment groups, sperm motility was gradually decreased as storage time increased, but the decline pattern was more drastic in the groups inoculated with 5,000 and 50,000 cfu/ml groups from day 3 (p<0.05) compared to control group. After 3 day of storage at $17^{\circ}C$, sperm viability in sample inoculated with the highest concentration (50,000 cfu/ml) of bacteria was less (p<0.05) than that of control group. The pH of semen sample pH was maintained 7.2~7.5 in all groups during the experimental period. No differences (p>0.05) were found for both storage time and bacterial concentration. The pregnancy rate and live born piglets tend to decrease by increasing the concentration of E. coli in semen. In particular, the rate of pregnancy was lower in the group inoculated with 50,000 cfu/ml (58.3%) compare to the other groups (81.8, 75.0, 76.5%). These results suggest that the contamination of E. coli in boar semen negatively affects fertilizing ability of boar sperm and the reproductive performance obtained from sows after artificial insemination.

Association with Post-Thawed Semen Motility and Kinematic Characteristics of g.35756 T>C on Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) Gene in Duroc Pigs (두록의 동결정액의 운동학적 특성과 ESR1 유전자의 SNP(g.35756T>C)와 연관성 분석)

  • Cho, Eun-Seok;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Woo, Jae-Seok;Lee, Mi-Jin;Ko, Jun-Ho;Kim, Young-Ju;Sa, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2015
  • Cryopreservation of boar semen is continually researched in reproductive technologies and genetic resource banking in breed conservation. For evaluating the boar semen quality, sperm motility (MOT) is an important parameter because the movement of spermatozoa indicates active metabolism, membrane integrity and fertilizing capacity. Various researches have been trying to improve the quality of semen Post-thawed in boar. Recently, polymorphism (g. 35756 T>C) of Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) gene reported to be significant association with MOT. This study was conducted to evaluate the ESR1 gene as a positional controlling for motility and kinematic characteristics of post-thawed boar semen. To results, The g.35756 T>C SNP of ESR1 was significantly associated with frozen semen motility and kinematic characteristics. The g.35756 T>C SNP was high significantly associated with MOT, VCL, VSL and VAP (p<0.001). The SNP was also significantly associated with ALH (P<0.05). Therefore, we suggest that the g. 35756 T>C polymorphism in the intron 1 region of the porcine ESR1 gene could potentially be applied in frozen semen programs to improve MOT trait, but only after validation in other populations.

Effects of Green Tea Extract on Sperm Quality, Reactive Oxygen Species and Lipid Peroxidation in Long-term Liquid Preservation of Boar Spermatozoa

  • Park, Sang-Hyoun;Yu, Il-Jeoung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.356-361
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    • 2016
  • During storage, boar spermatozoa undergo several changes including diminished motility and viability and accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation in the Sui Dil extender on the sperm motility, viability, ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of long-term preserved boar semen at $17^{\circ}C$. A total number of eight boars were used for this experiment. Pooled ejaculates were diluted to $20{\times}10^6sperm/ml$ in the Sui Dil extender containing 0 (control), 1, 10, 100 or 500 mg/l GTE and were preserved at $17^{\circ}C$ for 24, 72, 120 and 168 h, respectively. At each storage time, sperm motility and viability were estimated by microscopic examination and the fluorescent double stain $Fertilight^{(R)}$, respectively. Sperm ROS level and LPO were assessed using the 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate ($H_2DCFDA$)/propidium iodide (PI) and C11-BODIPY581/591/PI with flow cytometry, respectively. Compared to that of the 500 mg group, there were higher sperm motility and viability in the 1, 10 and 100 mg GTE groups during the preservation from 24 to 168 h (p < 0.05). The ROS levels of the 10 and 100 mg groups during the 168 h preservation were lower than those of the 0, 1 and 500 mg groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in LPO regardless of the preservation period or the GTE concentration. In conclusion, the optimal concentrations (10 and 100 mg/l) of GTE that led to lower ROS levels may be useful for liquid boar sperm preservation at $17^{\circ}C$ for a period of 168 h.