• Title, Summary, Keyword: Boar

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cDNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Boar Testes during the Prepubertal Period

  • Lee, Dong-Mok;Lee, Ki-Ho;Choi, Jin Ho;Hyun, Jin Hee;Lee, Eun Ju;Bajracharya, Prati;Lee, Yong Seok;Chang, Jongsoo;Chung, Chung Soo;Choi, Inho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1091-1101
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    • 2009
  • In an attempt to understand the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of the anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone, produced by prepubertal boar testes and its physiological role, normalized complementary DNA (cDNA) from boar testes was generated. DNA sequencing of 2,016 randomly selected clones yielded 794,116 base pairs of high quality nucleotide sequence. Computer-assisted assembly of the nucleotide sequence of each clone resulted in 423 contigs and 403 singletons including several genes for steroidogenic enzymes and molecules related to steroid metabolism. Analysis of gene expression pattern by use of the presently-fabricated cDNA microarray identified a number of genes that were differentially expressed during the postnatal development period in boar testes. Two genes of unknown function were identified to be highly expressed in the testis of 2-weeks-old neonatal boar. In addition, the sequencing of open reading frames of these genes revealed their homology with human alpha hemoglobin and Homo sapiens hypothetical LOC643669, transcript variant 1. Moreover, the transcripts of these genes were also detected in porcine muscle and adipocytes, in addition to Leydig cells of pigs.

Effect of Dimethylformamide on Post-Thaw Motility, Acrosome Integrity, and DNA Structure of Frozen Boar Sperm

  • Hwang, You-Jin;Yang, Jae-Hun;Kim, Sang-Ok;Kim, Bo-Kyung;Choi, Seon-Kyu;Park, Choon-Keun;Kim, Dae-Young
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.275-279
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    • 2009
  • The beneficial effect of glycerol as a cryoprotectant, especially for sperm cryopreservation, has been shown in many studies. However, glycerol is toxic to living cells, and boar sperm in particular show greater sensitivity to glycerol than sperm from other domestic animals. Amides have been studied as alternative cryoprotectants for freezing stallion sperm. Sperm frozen in methylformamide or dimethylformamide as cryoprotectants show similar motility when thawed compared with sperm frozen in glycerol. We evaluated the cryoprotective effects of dimethylformamide on boar sperm freezing. To test the effect of amides, the concentration of boar semen was adjusted to $10^9sperm/mL$, and seminal plasma was removed using Hulsen solution. After centrifugation, the pellet was diluted in modified-Modena B extender. Lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender was used as the cooling extender. The freezing extender was madeed aaddition of the optimal amount of glycerol and amides to LEY-Glycerol-Orvus ES Paste extender, and this extender was used for the second dilution. Diluted sperm were frozen in liquid nitrogen using the 0.5 mL straw method. Sperm frozen in extender with glycerol as a cderol were compared with those frozen in extender including the different amides. Sperm were tested for motility, viability, the sperm chromatin structure assay, and normal apical ridge after thawing. The percent of motile sperm diluted in glycerol was as high as that in the stallion study (61%). Dimethylformamide showed positive effects on sperm quality and was better than glycerol. Methylformamide provided similar sperm quality as glycerol. Therefore, dimethylformamide is useful for reducing cryoinjury in boar sperm and is expected to be useful as an alternative cryoprotectant.

Effect of Tris, Sodium Bicarbonate and Caffeine in Fertilization Medium on In Vitro Fertilizability of Boar Spermatozoa Frozen in Straws

  • Lee, Eun-Song
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate in a fertilization medium on the fertilizability of boar spermatozoa that were frozen in straws. Boar spermatozoa were extended with Beltsville F5 extender and frozen in 0.25-ml straws. In vitro matured porcine oocytes were fertilized in vitro (IVF) with frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa for 6h in a modified tris-buffered medium (mTBM) or in its modified medium by substituting the tris with 25mM sodium bicarbonate (modified bicarbonate-buffered medium; mBBM). Some of inseminated oocytes were fixed and stained for examination of sperm penetration. IVF embryos were cultured in a North Carolina State University-23 medium for embryo development. The percentage of live sperm was $47{\pm}4%$ and morphological abnormality of acrosome was found in $14{\pm}3%$ of spermatozoa. Optimal sperm concentration for IVF was $0.75{\sim}1.0{\times}1.0{\times}10^6$ sperms/ml when mTBM containing 5mM caffeine was used as the fertilization medium. Sperm penetration was significantly (p<0.05) stimulated by increasing caffeine concentration in the IVF medium. In addition, mBBM significantly (p<0.05) increased sperm penetration (92%) compared to mTBM (65%). More (p<0.05) blastocysts (22% vs. 32%) developed from the oocytes that were fertilized in mBBM containing 1mM caffeine than from those fertilized in mTBM with 5mM caffeine. Our results indicate that boar spermatozoa can be frozen successfully in straws with holding their normal fertilizability and that caffeine and sodium bicarbonate stimulates sperm penetration in vitro.

Effects of α-Linolenic Acid and Bovine Serum Albumin on Frozen-thawed Boar Sperm Quality during Cryopreservation

  • Lee, Won-Hee;Hwangbo, Yong;Lee, Sang-Hee;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effect of ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on viability, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial intact in frozen-thawed boar sperm. The boar semen was collected by gloved-hand method and cryopreserved using freezing extender containing 3 ng/mL ALA and/or $20\;{\mu}g/mL$ BSA. Cryo-preserved boar sperms were thawed in $37^{\circ}C$ water-bath for 45 sec to analysis. Viability, acrosome reaction, and mitochondrial intact were analyzed using flow cytometry. In results, viability of frozen-thawed boar sperm was significantly higher in only ALA+BSA supplement group than control group (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference either in ALA or BSA supplement. However, acrosome reacted sperm in both of live and all sperm population were significantly decreased in all treatment groups than control (p<0.05). Interestingly, mitochondrial intact of boar sperm was enhanced in ALA and ALA+BSA groups compared with control (p<0.05). In this study, we showed that supplementation of ALA and BSA in freezing extender enhanced the sperm viability, mitochondrial intact and decrease acrosomal membrane damage. In conclusion, our findings suggest that quality of frozen-thawed sperm in mammalians could improve by using of ALA and BSA.

The Cryoprotective Effect on Frozen-thawed Boar Semen of Egg Yolk Low Density Lipoproteins

  • Hu, Jian-hong;Li, Qing-Wang;Li, Gang;Chen, Xiao-Yu;Hai-Yang, Hai-Yang;Zhang, Shu-Shan;Wang, Li-Qiang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.486-494
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    • 2006
  • In order to protect the spermatozoa against cold shock, hen egg yolk is widely used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders for domestic animals. The protective action of yolk is largely presumed to be due to low density lipoproteins (LDL). The effects of LDL on sperm quality of bull and northern pike (Esox lucius) after freezing-thawing have been reported, but no study has been made to evaluate the effect of LDL on boar sperm motility and other characteristics. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of LDL on the freezing of boar sperm in 0.25 ml straws. The aim was to evaluate the quality of boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence of LDL. Motility of semen cryopreserved in LDL was analyzed and compared to semen cryopreserved with Tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG) and Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF), two basic freezing extenders containing egg yolk. Similarly, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were also evaluated and compared to semen cryopreserved with TCG and TCF. Analysis of sperm quality after freeze-thaw showed that the motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were improved with LDL in the extender, as compared to the TCG and TCF. The highest post-thaw integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane and motility were obtained with 9% LDL (w/v). Consequently, the optimum LDL concentration in the extender was 9%. It is also suggested that the concentration of LDL addition is important for the effect on boar sperm protection during freezing and thawing. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher after freezing in 9% LDL than in TCG and TCF 54.4% versus 30.4% and 30.1% (p<0.05), respectively. The integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane were also significantly higher at 70.3% and 50.5% respectively with semen frozen in 9% LDL extender compared to TCG at 37.8% and 30.3% and TCF at 36.4% and 29.9%, respectively (p<0.05),. In conclusion, we propose that extender containing LDL extracted from hen egg yolk could be used as a cryoprotective media with a better efficiency than TCG and TCF. LDL improved boar semen quality, allowing better spermatozoa motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity after the freeze-thaw process. Furthermore, we found out that the extender with 9% LDL concentration significantly enhanced motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity of boar sperm after freezing and thawing.

The Effect of Wet Pad and Forced Ventilation House on the Reproductive Performance of Boar

  • Chiang, S.H.;Hsia, L.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2005
  • There were two trials involved in the experiment. Trial 1: the trial was conducted on two Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) pig farms. One was located in the north of Taiwan and the other was located in the south. Both farms had wet pad and forced ventilation (WPFV) and conventional open design (COD) boar and sow houses. There were 12 Duroc boars, age ranging from 12-24 months. Half of them (6 boars) were raised in a WPFV pig house, and the other half were kept in a COD house. Semen was collected at 5-day intervals from May $1^{st}$ to the end of October. Sixteen sows (2-8 parity) were served by artificial insemination each week from the beginning of May to the end of Oct. These sows were checked for heat from 18 days to 25 days after insemination. Trial 2: there were four MPFV boar houses involved in the test. Two houses were located in the north of Taiwan, and the other two houses were located in the south. The test was conducted from January 2000 to December 2001. The total number of serviced sows by MPFV-housed boars was 35,105 head and for COD-housed boars 103,065 head. The results showed that the total semen volume, density of sperm, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm motility and morphological abnormality were significantly better (p<0.01) for boar raised in WPFV house than for COD houses. Average sperm motility in June and July was lower than for the other months. Morphological abnormality was higher during May, June and July. Although the results did not reach a significant level, the average value showed that the total volume of boar semen was higher in the north than for the south. The total semen volume production of boar raised in WPFV was higher than for boars raised in COD house, reaching a significant level only in summer. Boars kept in WPFV house had higher total sperm number than boars kept in COD house, reaching a significant level in spring (p<0.05), summer (p<0.01), and fall (p<0.05) but not in winter (p>0.05). Boars raised in WPFV house had significantly higher sperm motility than boars in COD house during spring (p<0.001), summer (p<0.001), fall (p<0.01) and winter (p<0.05). The average farrowing rate and piglets born alive were higher for boars in WPFV house than for boars in COD house, but neither reached a significant level (p>0.05). The present experiment shows that WPFV house can improve the reproduction performance of boars.

Studies on Increase of Litter Size by Infusion with Sterile Boar and Their Semen before Gestation in Gilts (임신전 불임 수퇘지 종부 및 무정자정액 주입에 의한 미경산돈의 산자수 증가에 관한 연구)

  • 연정웅;김동덕;정흥우;성환후
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of infusion of sterile boar and their semen as pregnancy antigen factor for improvement of production in gilts. We observed 160 gilts between 7 to 8 months of age that were divided into 4 treatment groups vie. A group-epidimetomized boar, B group-no sperm semen infusion, C group-vasectomized boar, and D group-control in a completely randomized design. The number of total pigs born(NT) of A, B, C, and D groups were 10.05, 10.44, 11.63, and 9.97 pigs, respectively(P<0.05). And the NT of C g.cup was the highest among treatment. The number of live pigs born(NB) was similar to NT The NB of C group (10.70) was higher than that of A(9.12) and control(9.11)(P<0.05). However, there was not significant between B and C groups. The progesterone concentration of C group was the highest compare to other group at the 6th day after breeding. However, the progesterone concentration of C was lower than other groups after 8th day. There were not significant among cortisol of A, B, C and D groups. According of the results of this study, the infusion with vasectomized boar and semen at estrus before gestation can be improved reproductive efficiency because of more litter size in gilts.